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versity of Coimbra, 1654,' there is an engraving
signed ' Josepha Ayala (her mother's name) Obidos,
1653.' In the church of Saint Peter at Obidos,
where she died, and in which she was buried in
1684, there are many of her pictures; also in the
Academy at Lisbon, at Evora, &c. A ' St. John,'
described as being in the manner of Velvet Breu-
ghel, is dated 1680.

OBREGON, PEDRO DE, the younger, was born
at Madrid about 1597. He was a disciple of Vin-
cencio Carducho, and proved a reputable painter of
history and genre subjects, particularly in pictures
of an easel size, of which there are several in the
private collections of Madrid. Of his larger works,
Palomino particularly notices his picture of 'The
Trinity,' in the convent of La Merced, and ' The
Immaculate Conception,' in the church of Santa
Cruz. He died at Madrid in 1659. He was an
excellent engraver ; as were also his two sons
DIEGO and MARCOS OBREGON, the former of whom,
in 1683-4, prepared thirty-six plates of Birds and
Beasts to illustrate a work by Andres de Valdecebro ;
also other engravings in 1687 and 1699. PEDRO
DE OBKEGON, 'the elder,' was a miniaturist and
illuminator of books of devotion, who worked for
the cathedral of Toledo, in 1564 ; but there are no
further particulars of him. He may have been the
father of the younger Pedro. Marcos de Obregon
became priest, and lived until 1720.

OBRY, ADRIEN, a French designer and painter
of windows, who was at work in the year 1532 at
the Chateau d'Auxy.

OBRY, JEAN, was a French miniaturist of some
talent, who embellished many manuscripts about
the year 1484. He was a native of Amiens.



OCH, GEORGES, an obscure French landscape
painter, who flourished at the beginning of the
19th century. He was a pupil of Ciceri. His chief
work was a view of Paris from the towers of Notre

OCHILICH, JOHANN CONRAD, a painter of land-
scapes, animals, and portraits, who flourished at
Nuremberg at the end of the 18th century. His



education was partly gained at Munich. His works
were mostly copies from the old masters.

OCHOA, FRANCISCO, a painter of Seville and
pupil of Murillo. He is believed to be identical
with Francisco Antolinez y Sarbia (a. v.}.

OCHS, FBIEDRICB, was born in Basle, and studied
in Paris under Augustin. He migrated to St.
Petersburg, where, about 1812, he had a consider-
able reputation. His miniatures were good and
expressive likenesses, and agreeable in colour. The
date of his birth and death are unknown.

OCHTERVELT, JACOB, (sometimes wrongly
called JAN, and UCHTERVELT or ACHTERVELT,) was
born perhaps at Rotterdam. In 1667 he was a
candidate for the presidency of the Brotherhood of
St. Luke in that city. In 1672 he was still working
there. In 1674 he painted the portraits of the
Regents of the lepers' hospital at Amsterdam. He
died before 1710. He formed himself on the ex-
amples of Metsu and Terburg, more especially of
the latter. In some respects his best work does
not fall far below the level of the last-named artist.
Good pictures by Ochtervelt, in good condition,
are, however, very scarce. The following; list
includes most of them :

Amsterdam. Museum. The Governors of the Leprozen-
hms. (Signed J. ochtervelt
fecit, 1674.)

Berlin. Museum. The Last Testament.

Brussels. Arenburg Coll. Interior of a Kitchen.
Cologne. Walraff Mus. Two Musicians.
Copenhagen. Museum. Lady playing the violin.
Dresden. Gallery. AVoman with a Girl and Dog

(purchased as Ity Jerhard auf
der Feld !).
England. Coll ofCapt,i. ) j ful Tidi

W. A. Hankty. ) J
Hague. Museum. Lady buying Fish (a very yood


Kotterdam. Jtfuseum. i La Collation ;' young man and
woman eating oysters. (Per-
haps his masterpiece.)
Petersburg. Hermitage. Buying Fish.
i> Buying Grapes.

,, Young Man singing to a young

The Breakfast Party.

OCLE, ROBERT, (or OKTLL,) member of a family
of painters settled at Norwich, painted a ' Life of
St. Katherine' on panel in 1415-16, for which he
was paid 34s. 4cJ.

O'CONNOR, JAMES A., an Irish landscape painter,
born at Dublin in 1793. He was brought up as an
engraver by his father, who followed that profes-
sion. In 1813 he came to London with his friend,
Francis Danby, but his means were soon exhausted,
and he made his way on foot to Bristol, whence
he contrived to get a passage back to Dublin. In
1822 he returned to England, and from that time
he chiefly resided in London, with the exception
of visits to Brussels, Paris, and Rhenish Prussia.
But his abilities were not recognized, and he had
a hard struggle for existence. He occasionally
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1822 ; also
at Suffolk Street. He died, in embarrassed circum-
stances, at Brompton in 1841. There are eight of
his pictures in the Kensington Museum. In style
they may be classed with the work of Richard

O'CONNOR, JOHN, a very talented scene painter,
born in Ireland in 1830. He was early left an
orphan, and had to work hard for a livelihood. He
was first of all errand boy and call boy in a
Belfast theatre, but began scene painting when
quite a youth. In 1848 he was in England, and


employed at Drury Lane Theatre and the Hay-
market. Later on he painted a diorama and then
took up water-colour subject painting, and in that
field of art acquired more than a passing renown.
He was also drawing-master to a London literary
institution, but held his position for a very few
years. For many years he was chief scene
painter at the Haymarket, and as a master of
architectural design and an admirable colourist
had few equals in that branch of art. He was a
very popular and most genial man, and made
hosts of friends, who were always introducing to
him fresh commissions for decorative work. He
decorated two rooms at Eaton Hall for the Duke of
Westminster, designed costume and scenery for
Shakesperian tableaux, made drawings of many
important Court ceremonials, and painted wonder-
ful scenery for various performances of Greek
plays both in London and at Cambridge. His
architectural drawings were numerous and of
great beauty. One of his chief friends was Lord
Ronald Sutherland Gower, the eminent sculptor,
with whom we worked for some years, and most of
the facts in the foregoing narrative are derived from
his old friend. O'Connor on leaving London
moved into Hampshire, and there he died of
paralysis in 1889.

OCTAVIEN, FRANC.OIS, a French painter, was
born at Rome about 1695. He was received into
the Paris Academy in 1725, as a genre painter. His
reception picture, ' The Fair at Vesoul,' is now in
the Louvre. He died in Paris in 1736. No further
particulars of his life are known.

ODAM, GIROLAMO, was an artist who resided at
Rome, and distinguished himself at the beginning
of the 18th century as a painter, sculptor, and
architect. He was born in 1681, and was a pupil
of Carlo Maratti. He drew portraits in crayons,
engraved on copper, and copied small cameos on a
larger scale. He was made a Knight of St. George
by the Duke of Parma, and was a member of the
Academia degl' Arcadi.

ODASI, GIOVANNI, (or ODAZZI,) was born at
Rome in 1663, and studied for some time under
Bloemart and Giro Ferri, but afterwards was a
scholar of Giovanni Battista Gaulli. Of his works
at Rome, the most creditable are his picture of the
' Prophet Hosea,' in San Giovanni in Laterano ;
'St. Bruno,' in Santa Maria degli Angeli ; and an
altar-piece, representing ' The Fall of Lucifer,' in
the church of the Santi Apostoli. He also executed
some paintings in the cupola of the cathedral of
Velletri. He died at Milan in 1731.

ODDI, GIUSEPPE, a native of Pesaro and pupil of
Carlo Maratti. No details of his life are known.

ODDI, MAURO, a painter, designer, etcher, and
architect, who was born in 1639 at Parma, where
he was instructed in the first principles of art. He
went afterwards to Rome, where he studied six
years, under Pietro da Cortona. On his return to
his native city his talents recommended him to the
patronage of the Dnke of Parma, who employed
him in ornamenting the ducal palace, and the Villa
di Colorno; giving him also the appointments of
court puinter and builder. He drew two thousand
medals in the ducal cabinet of coins, and painted
some altar-pieces for the churches of Parma, Pia-
cenza, and Modena. Kiisel, N. Dorigny, and others
have engraved after his works. Two etchings by
him are also known, ' The Adoration of the Shep-
herds,' after Parmigiano and Caraglio, and 'The
Rape of Europa," after Agostino Carracci. His


death occurred in 1702 or 1703. He signed his
works with a monogram composed of a Maltese
cross between M. and 0.

scape painter, was born in Greifswald in 1833.
He was principally formed in the studio of Prof.
Ang. Weber at Diisseldorf, where he died in I860,
from the effects of a poisonous sting. In tlie Berlin
National Gallery there is a 'Moonlight View on
the Konigs-See, with a ferryman,' bv him.

ODEKERKEN, WILLEM, a painter of Delft, who
lived about the middle of the 17th century. His
wife was one Maria Sasbouts van der Dussen. His
works are very scarce. He is said to have very
accurately copied a picture by Metsu which repre-
sents a ' Cook in her Kitchen, surrounded by culin-
ary utensils.' A work of that class by him has
lately (1885) been added to the collection in the
Rijks Museum, Amsterdam. He also painted
still-life. His activity extended from 1642 to

ODERICO DA SIENA, flourished about 1213.
He was a canon of Siena, and painted miniatures
in the Byzantine manner.

ODERICO, GIOVANNI PAOLO, was born in 1613,
of a noble family of Genoa. According to Soprani
he was a scholar of Domenico Fiasella, and painted
history with some success, but was more distin-
guished for his portraits. Of his historical works,
the most esteemed is his picture of the ' Guardian
Angel,' in the church of the Padri Scolopi at
Genoa. He died in 1657.

wasbornatGubbio, in 1240. His only known works
are two mass-books of the Virgin and St. George ;
but some miniatures in the Archivio de' Canonici
di San Pietro, at Rome are supposed to be by him.
He is said to have painted at Gubbio in 1264, at
Bologna in 1268, and in 1295 at Rome, where Vasari
says he made the acquaintance of Giotto. Oderigi
died in Rome in 1299. He is mentioned by Dante,
who represents him as expiating in Purgatory the
pride with which his skill inspired him.

ODERISIO, ROBERTOS Dl, was a Neapolitan, and
the author of a ' Crucifixion ' in the church of San
Francesco d'Assisi, at Eboli. He lived in the
14th century, and is said to have been a pupil
of Giotto.

painter and critic, was born at Bruges in 1778.
After receiving a good scholastic education at the
college of the Augustins, and obtaining several
prizes at the Academy of Design, he was sent in
1728 to Paris to study painting under Suve'e and
David. In 1804 he obtained the prix de Rome
for his picture of the ' Death of Phocion.' On
his return to Bruges he was received in triumph,
and treated with every mark of distinction by the
Academy, the municipality, and the public. Shortly
afterwards he returned to Paris ; and the following
year, 1805, went to Italy, where he remained for
about eight years, and executed several pictures
of large dimensions. In 1814 he was again in
Bruges, and painted for William I, King of the
Netherlands, the picture of ' The Peace of
Utrecht;' and, after the battle of Waterloo, an-
other representing that action at the time the
Prince of Orange received his wounds. For this
and others relating to the history of the country he
received special marks of the Royal favour. His
pictures are numerous, and are to be found at
Paris, Brussels, Ghent, and Bruges. They are

generally large, one painted for the King of the
Netherlands measuring twenty-four feet long and
sixteen feet high. Odevaere while in Italy col-
lected materials for a history of the state of the
arts in that country from the revival of painting to
the time of Raphael ; his MS. still lies in the Royal
Library at Brussels. He died at Brussels in

ODIEUVRE, MICHEL, was a French engraver
and printseller, who resided at Paris about the year
1735. He began life as a tailor. He etched and
published in 1738 a set of portraits entitled, ' Por-
traits^es Personages illustres de 1'un et de 1'autre
Sexe.' These are usually found in the large paper
quarto editions of the ' Memoires de Sully ' and
' Memoires de Commines.' Odieuvre died at
Rouen in 1756.

OECHS, JOSEPH DOHINICDS, a painter of excel-
lent portraits in oil and in miniature, and a designer,
was born at Erbach, near Ehingen in Wiirtemberg,
in 1776. He studied under his brother, ANTON
OECHS, at Ratisbon, under Frost in Nuremburg,
and under A. Graff and Klengel in Dresden. In
1804 he went to Courland, and was in 1824 made
drawing-master in the Gymnasium at Mitau. His
principal works were portraits, and the Provincial
Museum of Courland possesses a complete set in oil
by him of the Dukes and Duchesses of that province
He died at Mitau in 1836.

_ CEDING, PHILIPP WILHELM, painter and de-
signer, was born at Benzigerode, near Bhuikenburg,
in 1697. Having studied under Huber at Halber-
stadt, and Busch at Brunswick, he was in 1722
sent by Duke Ludwig Rudolph to Nuremberg,
where he worked under Preisler, Desmarees, and
Kupetzki, and chiefly adopted the style of the last-
named master. In 1729 he married Preisler's
daughter, BARBARA HELENA, who, in addition to
painting, practised engraving, embroidery, and
working in wax and alabaster. About 1741 he
painted among other pictures a large ' View of
Altona,' the 'Adoration of the Magi,' and the 'In-
stitution of the Last Supper,' for the Lutheran
Church at that place ; where also he painted por-
traits and taught drawing. Subsequently he was
appointed a professor in the ' Karolinurn ' at Bruns-
wick. Preisler engraved after him the portrait of
his wife, and Tyrof and others some drawings of
antique vases. Oediugdied in 1781.

born at Posen in 1721, and studied under various
masters at Landsberg, Augsburg, and Munich,
until he went to Venice, where he placed himself
under Giuseppe Nogari, and remained with him six
years. Subsequently he went to Rome, and studied
under Giovanni Barca for two years. Returning to
Munich, he was made painter to the Elector Maxi-
milian III., as well as professor in the School of
Design. Of his works the principal are, 'Joseph
and Potiphar's Wife,' the portrait of the Electress
Adelhaid in the Court Chapel of Munich, and his
own portrait in the Schliessheim Gallery. Of his
etchings the best are, ' The Woman of Samaria,'
and ' The Daughter of Dibutades,' both after his
own designs. He died in 1797.

OEHME, ERNST FRIEDRICH, was born at Dresden
n 1797, and alter studying under Professor
rriedrich, and travelling from 1819-25 in Italy,
)ecame court-painter at Dresden and died there
n 1854. He painted chiefly landscapes, and
igned his works with an E in a circle. Among
hem are :



The Mountain Chapel.

View of the " Jagdschloss " of Moritzburg.

Autumn Landscape (H. Pietsck, Dresden).

HAINZ, &c.,) was born at Endingen, near Balingen.
in 1749, and after commencing the study of
theology at Tubingen, prepared himself as an
artist in the same place, under Meyer, and then
under Baier at Stuttgart. In 1766 he went for
further improvement to Vienna, where he painted
the portraits of the Royal Family, of several
courtiers, and of the poet Blumauer. In 1789 he
was made a member of the Academy, and he died
at Falzburg in 1804. His portraits were flatter-
ing, and thereby ensured him patronage. Durmer,
about 1796, engraved two plates after him for the
Frauenholz Collection : 'The Maiden of the Black
Forest,' and ' The Bernese Girl ; ' and Pheifer, the
portrait of Lavater.

OERI, HANS JAKOB, was an historical and por-
trait painter, also a draughtsman and lithographer,
who was born at Kyburg in Switzerland, in 1782,
and studied under Kusterand David. He travelled
a great deal, principally in Russia. As an artist
he distinguished himself by the truth of his por-
traits, and above all as a lithographer. He died in
1843 ('?). ' Dsedalus and Icarus ' and ' Chloe," are
two of his best paintings. Noticeable among hie
lithographs are :

The Marriage of the Virgin ; after Raphael.

Joseph sold by his Brethren ; after Ovcrbeck.

Madonna with Sleeping Child ; after Catarini.

Christ in the House of Martha ; after Overleck, dated

OERI, PETER, a Swiss artist, and a native of
Zurich. He appears to be the man of whom
Nagler says that he was born in 1737, and died in
1792. After studying six years in Italy, he re-
turned to Switzerland, where, probably for want
of employment, he abandoned painting, to follow
the occupation of a chaser and working goldsmith.

OESER, ADAM FRIEDRICH. a German painter,
modeller, and engraver, was born at Presburg in
1717. He was sent at thirteen years of age to
Vienna, but was compelled to return home for
want of means, and then found employment at
the country-seats of Hungarian noblemen. In
1735, however, when eighteen years of age, he
returned to Vienna, and gained the gold medal at
the Academy. His talent was noticed and en-
couraged by Raphael Donner, a sculptor, who
taught him to model. Dresden was at that time
the residence of several artists of eminence, and in
1739 he visited that city, where his abilities
procured him the esteem and friendship of its
most distinguished residents. Here also he prac-
tised enamel and miniature painting. In 1749 he
decorated the ceilings and walls of the Hubertsburg
Schloss. He formed an intimate acquaintance with
Winkelmann, whom he assisted in his first studies of
the antique, and who makes mention of him in his
first literary work as "the successor of the Theban
Aristides." In 1756 he proceeded to Dahlen,
where he painted in the Bunau'sche Schloss ; and
thence removed to Leipsic, where, in 1763, he
became Director of the Academy. He settled in
that city, and during a residence of many years
he painted some important works for public build-
ings and private collections, both in oil and fresco.
He was also Professor of the Academy at Dresden
and court painter. He died at Leipsic in 1799.
Among his chief productions are the frescoes in


the church of St. Nicholas, at Leipsic. There is
a portrait group of his own children in the Dresden
Gallery. Oeser etched a variety of plates from his
own compositions and after other masters ; among
many others are the following :

A variety of vignettes and frontispieces for books.

designed and etched by F . Oeser.
The Circumcision : after G. van den Eeckhovt.
Saul and the Witch of Eudor ; after Rembrandt.
The Presentation in the Temple ; after the same.
Christ brought forth by Pilate ; after the same.
Cupid and Psyche ; probably after (ruercino.

Adam Friedrich Oeser, was born at Dresden in
1751, and was a landscape painter and engraver.
He was for seven years a teacher in the Academy
of Leipsic, and in 1774 became professor of
historical and landscape painting at Dresden, and
in 1780 a member of the Academy there. He
executed numerous drawings in Indian ink and
colours, together with oil paintings, representing
views in the neighbourhood of Dresden, and
chiefly in Ruisdael's style. His principal etchings
are after Rembrandt, Rubens, and Salvator Rosa.
He died in 1791 or 1792.

OESTERLEY, K. W., German painter, was
also a well-known art critic. He was born in
1805, and was Professor of the History and
Theory of Fine Art at Gottingen. He died in
1891 at Hanover.

OESTERREICH, MATHIAS, a German designer
and etcher, was born at Hamburg in 1716. He
learnt the art of design under J. B. Groni at
Dresden, and twice travelled in Italy, where he
gained a knowledge of art which enabled him to
take the position of superintendent of the Electoral
Gallery at Dresden. In 1757 he became Director
of the Gallery of Sans Souci at Potsdam. He
died at Berlin in 1778. His principal productions
are a set of twenty-four caricatures, etched from
the designs of P. L. Ghezzi, and published at
Dresden in 1750, entitled ' Raccolta di XXIV.
Caricature, disegnate colla penna dal celebre
Cavaliere P. L. Ghezzi; ' these plates were repub-
lished at Potsdam in 1776, with the addition of
eighteen from the designs of Giovanni Battista
Internari, and others. Oesterreich also engraved a
set of forty plates from drawings in the collection
of Count von Bruhl, published at Dresden in 1752,
under the title of ' Recueil de quelques dessins de :
plusienrshabiles maitres,' &c. Several of the plates '
in ' The Dresden Gallery " were engraved by ;
Oesterreich. He marked his plates J/. 0- Am- i
buryese fecit, with a monogram composed of two
interlacing triangles, or with his initials. He has
left descriptive accounts of several collections of

an amateur of some ability. She was a native of
Holland, and flourished early in the 19th century.

OEVER, HENDKIK TEN, a Dutch painter, who
flourished about 1690. No details of his life are
known. A portrait group of regents by him still
hangs in the church of St. Michael, at Zwolle. It
is signed and dated HENDRIK TEN OEVER, pinxit,

painter, was a pupil of D. van Donge, and was
painting at Rotterdam about 1800.

OFFERMANS, JAN, born at Dordrecht in 1646,
painted landscapes for some time ; but failing to
succeed, became a house painter.


Sfoone r photo] Hampton Court Gallery



OFHUYS, JAN, a Flemish glass painter, who
flourished in the first half of the 16th century.

OGBORNE, DAVID. Very little is known as to
this artist, whose chief works are views of the towns
of Chelmsford (his native place) and Dunmow.
He also painted a few portraits and did some
illustrations for local guide-books. He called
himself a " limner," and dabbled also in literature
and the drama, writing poetry, plays, and accounts
of local sights. He was born about 1700, and died
in 1768 at a village near Dunmow.

OGBORNE, JOHN, an English designer and en-
graver, was born in London about the year 1725.
He was a schular of Bartolozzi, and engraved in
the dot manner. Several of the large plates for
Boydell's Shakspeare Gallery are among his best
works. He was chiefly employed on the pictures
of the painters of that time ; Smirke, Stothard,
W. Hamilton, A. Kauffmann, Westall, and Rom-
ney ; and he also engraved some subjects from his
own designs. In his later plates line is combined
with stipple. He died about 1795. MARY OGBORNE
assisted him on some of Ids plates.

OGGIONNO, MARCO D', was born at Oggionno,
near Milan, probably about 1470. He was one of
the chief pupils of Leonardo da Vinci, whose
famous wall picture, ' The Last Supper,' he copied
more than once. The best of these copies is now
in the possession of the English Royal Academy
of Arts. Among his most important works were a
series of frescoes in the church of S. Maria della
Pace, at Milan. The two best, a ' Marriage at
Cana,' and an ' Assumption,' are now in the Brera.
Marco died in 1549. Works:
Berlin. Museum. A ' Holy Conversation.'

London. Nat, Gallery. A Madonna and Child.

Royal Academy. Copy of Leonardo's ' Cenacolo.'

Hampton Court. The Infants Christand St. John.
Milan. Brera. Michael suppressing Lucifer.

(A masterpiece; signed ' JUar-

The Assumption.

A ' Holy Conversation."

,. Marriage at Cana.

Santa Maria } St. John the Baptist and a

delle Grazie. j Donator.

Santa Eufemia. Madonna, St. Eufemia, and


Santa ATaria della ) ,-, ~ .,, .

Pace \ Crucifixion.

Bonomi-Cereda Coll. A Madonna. (A masterpiece;

signed ' Marcus.')

Paris. Louvre. A Holy Family.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Copy of Leonardo's ' Cenacolo.'
Turin. Gallery. Christ bearing His Cross.

OHME, ERNST FRIEDRICH, an obscure German
painter of landscape, who was active in Dresden
in the first years of the 19th century.

O'KEEFE, (OR KEEFE,) DANIEL, was a painter
in miniature, who practised in London, and ex-
hibited at the Royal Academy from 1771 to 1783.

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