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He died at Brompton, 1787.

O'KEEFE, (OR KEEFE,) JOHN, painted in
miniature, and was the brother of Daniel. He
was born at Dublin in 1748. After studying in
the Academy of Dublin, and in London under
Hudson, he made a number of humorous designs.
Relinquishing painting, he became an actor of
low comedy in London and Dublin, and was also
the author of some successful dramatic pieces.
He died at Southampton in 1833. There is a
portrait of him by Lawrenson in the National
Portrait Gallery.

OKEY, SAMUEL, an English mezzotint engraver,

D ?.

in the second half of the 18th century. He gained
Society of Arts' premiums in 1765-7. About 1771
he emigrated to America, and settled in Rhode
Island, where he continued to practise. Amongst
his engravings are :

Nelly O'Brien ; after Reynolds.
Old Man with Scroll ; ajter the same.
Lady Anne Daw son ; after the same.
Girl with Lamb ; after Kettle.
William Powle ; after Pine.

OLAGNON, PIERRE VicTOK, a French painter
of genre and portrait, flourished about 1786. He
was a pupil of Regnault. His best works are a
' Vintage at Macon,' and ' Toilet in the Mansarde.'


tuguese artists of the 16th century who are famous
for their illuminations. Francisco, who was An-
tonio's son, made a voyage to Italy, and on his
return in 1549 presented a petition to John XL,
which by protesting against the influence of
Flemish art in Portugal, prepared the way for that
of Italy.



painter, born in 1772 at the Castle of Marienborn
in the Wetterau. He was almost self-taught, and
studied the works of Berghem, but distinguished
himself most by his firelight pictures, which were
exhibited a-t Weimar in 1802, such as the burning
of Magdeburg, Gorlitz, Moscow, &c. Some of his
other landscapes, views in Saxony, were engraved ;
and in 1826 two appeared in lithography.

German engraver, was born in the village of
Werther, near Bielefeld, in 1802, and was the son
of a merchant, who intended him for his own
business. His love of drawing induced him to
devote to it all his leisure time, and he was encou-
raged by a drawing-master whose acquaintance he
made. Convinced that he could never settle to
business, he left his home and travelled to Dussel-
dorf and Berlin, where he endeavoured to improve
himself, but was obliged from want of money to
enlist for a time as a soldier. After this he entered
the service of a lithographer, and commenced as an
engraver in mezzotint. He died at Berlin in 1874.
Among his best mezzotints we may name:

Jubal ; after Klobers.

The Compromise of the Dutch Nobles ; after Biefve.

Parade before Frederick the Great ; after Camphausen.

Richard III. ; after Stilke.

Children at Play ; after Met/erheim.

After the Wedding ; after Kindler.

Durer in Antwerp ; after Oer.

Philippa Welser ; after Schrader.

OLDONI, BONIFORTE DE, belonged to a family of
artists which appears to have moved to Vercelli
from Milan in the middle of the 15th century.
Boniforte worked from 1463 to 1510. He had
three sons, EficoLE, Giosofe, and ELEAZAR, all
painters. In the parish church of Verrone, near
Biella, is a fresco signed by Giosue ; and in the
possession of the Countess Castelnuova, at Turin,
is a small ' Adoration of the Infant Christ,' signed
by Eleazar, ' Eleazar de Oldoriibus."



OLESZCZYNSKI, ANTHONY, a Polish engraver
and painter, born in 1796 at Krasnystow (Lublin).
He at first studied law at Warsaw, and then spent



six years in the School of Fine Arts at St. Peters-
burg. With government aid he further prosecuted
his studies at Paris, under Regnault and Richomme.
He then passed some time at Florence, in the
Academy of which city he was appointed a Pro-
fessor. His patriotic tendencies at length lost
him the support of the Russian Government, and
he then produced the series of plates known as
'Polish Varieties.' Among the best are:

The Hungarian Ambassadors offering the Crown to the
Son of Ladislaus Jagello.

The German Emperor begs the assistance of John

The Entry of Boleslaw into Kief.

Bogdan Schmielnicki.

The Shoemaker Kilinski.

The Enchantment of Twardowski.

Portrait of Kosciusko.

OLGIATI, GIROLAMO, an Italian engraver, who
flourished in the latter part of the 16th century
He formed his style of engraving by studying- the
works of Cornells Cort. Among other plates by
him is an etched print representing the ' Trinity,'
with a number of saints and angels, after Federigo
Zuccaro, inscribed Hieronymus Olgiatus f. 1572 ;
the ' Entombment,' after Guido Clovis, and others.

as a designer of stained glass. Oliphant had also
a considerable talent for oil painting, and was a
frequent exhibitor at the Royal Academy. He
was born in 1818 at Newcastle-on-Tyne, but passed
most of his life in London, working at decoration
and stained glass, and in the latter department of
art he attained great renown. Windows in Ely
Cathedral, Aylesbury Church, and the ante-chapel
to King's College, Cambridge, are from his hand.
He was a great friend of William Dyce, R.A., and
worked with him in some of his frescoes and
cartoons. He was always a very weakly man,
and frequently compelled to leave England in the
winter, and he died at Rome in 1859.

OLIS, JAN, a Dutch painter, born in 1610, at
Dordrecht (?). He painted ' Corps-de-gardes,'
corporation groups, and a few single portraits. He
died in 1665, most likely in Amsterdam, where
most of his life was passed. In the Kijks Museum
there is a ' Kitchen Interior ' by him. Though signed
J. Olis fecit. 1645., it used to be ascribed to Sorgh.
A landscape with figures in the Darmstadt Gallery,
given in the Catalogue to Jan Lis, is most likely
the work of Olis.

OLIVA, IGNAZIO, a Neapolitan painter and
scholar of Domenico Gargiulo, called Micco Spa-
daro. The latter was the fellow-pupil of Salvator
Rosa under Aniello Falcone, and they all painted
landscapes and marine views much in the Baine
style in the latter half of the 17th century.

OLIVA, PHILIP, a native of Middleburg, was
admitted a bourgeois of Antwerp in 1642, and a
free member of the Society of St. Luke in 1655 or
1656. He died at Antwerp about 1659. In 1648-9
an ANDREAS OLIVA was also inscribed on the guild
books, and in 1 667-8 a MICHAEL and a second
PHILIP, all described as sons of a master.

OLIVA, PIERO, painter, a native of Messina, and
pupil of Antonello, flourished about 1490.

a family of artists in Portugal who bore this name.
The first mentioned is Manoel Rodriguez, a painter
who seems to have been known also as Oliveira
Bernares. He had a son Antonio, and three grand-
sons, Ignacio, Fra Jose de Santa-Maria, a monk,
and Polycarp, all painters. Ignacio, who was born


at Lisbon in 1695, was one of the young artists
whom John the Fifth of Portugal sent to Rome,
where he wished to establish a Portuguese Academy
of Painting. At Rome Ignacio studied painting
and architecture under Benedetto Luti and Paolo
de Matteis. On his return to Lisbon he was ad-
mitted into the Brotherhood of St. Luke, and
afterwards made a professor of th.3 Academy. He
died in 1781. At Lisbon many of his works, both
in architecture and in painting, are to be seen. His
son Joas Pedro de Oliveira, born at Lisbon in 1752
was also an artist, and there are pictures by him in
the Lisbon churches.

OLIVER, AKCHER JAMES, an English portrait
painter, was born in 1774. He studied in the schools
of the Royal Academy, of which he was elected an
Associate in 1803. For some years he had a wide
and fashionable circle of sitters at his studio in New
Bond Street, and he exhibited largely from 1800
to 1820. In 1835 he was appointed curator of the
painting school in the Academy. Through ill
health in his latter years his means were reduced,
and he became a pensioner of the Academy. He
died in 1842.

OLIVER, D., supposed by Fiissli to have been
a French painter, resided in London in the 17th
century. The portrait of the painter P. Sevin,
by D. Oliverus was engraved by De La Croix
in 1692.

OLIVER, ISAAC, an English mezzotint engraver
in the latter part of the 17th century. He was the
son of John Oliver, glass painter. Amongst his
engravings are :

The Seven Bishops.

Charles II.

George, Prince of Denmark.

B. van Heemslserk.

OLIVER, ISAAC. This eminent miniature painter
was probably a man of French origin, but may
possibly have been born in England. Some
references have quite recently been found by
Mr. Lionel Cust in the registers of the French
church, Threadneedle Street, and the Dutch
church, Austin Friars, and in a return of aliens in
London for 1571, which seem to make it clear that
Oliver's parents were one Peter Oliver, a gold-
smith, who was born at Rouen, and Typhan his
wife, and that they were in London, lodging in
Fleet Lane, in 1571, and later in that year in the
parish of St. Sepulchre's, and that they had with
them one child named Isaac, who appears at that
time to have been under six years old. The con-
temporaries of Oliver appear to have all regarded
him as an Englishman. Sandrart, in his ' Teutsch
Academic,' speaks of him as " Membranarum pic-
tor Londinensis," and in the inscription below the
portrait of him which was engraved by Hendrik
Hondius he is styled " Isaacus Oliverus Anglus.''
In all probability he is identical with one Isaac
Olivier of Rouen, who on February 9, 1602, was
married at the Dutch church, Austin Friars, to
Sara Gheeraerts of London, the record of whose
marriage Mr. Oust found in the registers of the
church. If this was so, it may enable us to iden-
tify the author of the treatise on limning which
is now in the British Museum, and which
was considered by Vertue to be the work of
Hilliard. The anonymous author in this treatise
refers more than once to " your late countryman
and my dear cousin, Isaac Oliver," and therefore,
in all probability, Vertue's attribution was not
correct. Mr. Cust, in the ' Dictionary of National


[From the miniature at Windsor Castle


[Collection of the Queen of Holland



Biography,' points cut that Sara Gheeraerts,
Oliver's wife, appears to have been the daughter
of Marcus Gheeraerts the elder by his second
wife Susannah de Critz, who was certainly related
to John de Critz, Sergeant Painter to James I.
Francis Meres, in his ' Palladis Tamia ' of 1598,
Belects three artists, Hilliard, Isaac Oliver, and
John de Critz, as specially excellent in the art of
painting, " and assuming," says Mr. Gust, " that
John de Critz was the cousin by marriage of
Isaac Oliver, he may well have been the author
of this treatise on limning." It should be noticed,
however, that there is nothing in this theory to
prevent the treatise having been taken down from
the teaching of Hilliard, or having formed part of
the manuscripts of that eminent artist, edited as it
is now by De Critz.

Oliver frequently spelt his own name Olivier or
Ollivier, but from the constant references to him
as an Englishman by his contemporaries, it would
seem likely either that he was born in England, or
else that he came to England at such a tender
age that he was considered as an Englishman.
Burton's Manuscript Collections for Leicester-
shire, collected by Nicholls in his history of the
county, connected Oliver with a family seated
at East Norton in that county, while at Ashby-de-
la-Zouch there is an entry of the birth of an Isaac
Olliveer in 1551. It is probable, however, that these
entries refer to another family, and that Mr. Gust's
discoveries bring us as near to definite information
about this painter as can be attained. More than one
writer has drawn attention to the fact that in the
portrait of Oliver by Hondius there is to be seen
through a window a river-scene which resembles
nothing in England, but is very like the scenery
of the Seine near Rouen, and that this is further
evidence of the connection of the family with
France. Haydocke's Introduction to Lomazzo's
'Art of Painting' tells us that Oliver was the
pupil of Nicholas Hilliard, and from examination
of his work it is clear that he followed Hilliard's
manner of painting very closely. He, however,
excelled his master in the painting of the face
arid hands, and he in his turn was surpassed by
his son Peter. Vertue states on the authority of
Nathaniel Russel, a painter, that Oliver also
painted larger pictures in oil, and he mentions two
pictures, representing ' St. John the Baptist ' and the
' Holy Family,' as at that time in Russel's posses-
sion. Russel appears to have been a kinsman to
Oliver, and was therefore well acquainted with his
work, but there are no oil paintings which can
now be definitely attributed to this artist. There
are a large number of his miniatures in existence,
some of the finest being at Windsor Castle, Mon-
tagu House, Chatsworth, Sherborne Castle, Belvoir
Castle, and Minley Manor, in the latter house
being some famous works of this artist, which
were at one time at Penshurst Place. Perhaps
one of the finest works which Oliver ever did is
the group of the three sons of the second Viscount
Montagu, with their servant, which he painted in
1598, and which now belongs to the Marquis of
Exeter, and is to be seen at Burghley.

Oliver resided in the district of Blackfriars, and
he died in 1617. He was buried on October 2 of
that year in the church of St. Anne, Blackfriars,
where a monument was erected to his memory,
with a bust and an epitaph. This was destroyed
in the Great Fire of London, but Vertne declares
that he saw a clay model of the bust in the pos-

session of Russel, together with several leaves
from Oliver's sketch-book. His will was dated
June 4, 1617, and was proved on October 30 in
the same year, and by it he appointed his wife
Elizabeth his executrix, and referred to his eldest
son Peter, who would carry on his work, and to
other sons who were under age. In all probabil-
ity Oliver was married twice, possibly even three
times. His will is signed " Isaac Oliver," and not
"Olivier." His portrait is to be seen both at
Montagu House and at Windor Castle amongst
the miniatures in these two important Collections.

0. C. W.

OLIVER, JOHN, was born in 1616 in London, and
died in 1701. Some authorities, Walpole among
others, suppose him to have been the son of James
Oliver, one of the youngest sons of Isaac Oliver
(q.v.)', others speak of him as a descendant of John
Oliver, master mason to James I. He is probably
the John Oliver who was one of the Commissioners
appointed to direct the rebuilding in London after
the Great Fire of 1666, and who became possessed
of the MS. designs of Inigo Jones. His most
important achievements were in glass-painting,
but he also executed some engravings.

Northill Church, Bedfordshire : a window put up by
the Grocers' Company, no longer in its original place.
The Royal Arms and other heraldic devices ; dated
1664. There was also in North!!! Rectory a sundial
painted with insects, &c., signed and dated John
Oliver fecit 1664.

Lambeth : a sundial put up by Archbishop Sheldon
(died 1677), with arms and a view of the Sheldonian
Theatre, Oxford ; this was finished in 1669.

Petworth : the arms of the Percys in the great window
of the chapel.

Oxford, Christ Church: 'St. Peter delivered from
Prison ' ; dated and inscribed J. Oliver fftat. siug
84, anno nOO,pinxit deditque. This window has been

The engravings ascribed to him are a portrait of
James II., in mezzotint ; Judge Jeffries as ' Earl of
Flint'; and some others. Also a ' View of the Hot
Wells, Bath,' dated 1676; a 'View of Tangiers,'
after Hollar ; besides a ' Boy asleep, a Skull by his
side,' after Artemisia Gentileschi. C. B.

OLIVER, PETER. This notable miniature painter
was the eldest son of Isaac Oliver, probably by
his first wife. It is not known for certain when he
was born, but that event probably occurred in
1594. He died at Isleworth in Middlesex in 1648,
and was buried beside his father in St. Anne's,
Blackfriars. His will was dated December 12,
1647, and was proved on December 15, 1648, and
by it he left his whole estate to his wife Anne.
He was a pupil of his father, Isaac Oliver, but his
work is richer in colouring than that of his father,
and the painting of the hands and faces is of extra-
ordinary merit. He was employed by Charles I.
to make water-colour copies of many of the more
important paintings in the Royal Collection, of
works by Raphael, Titian, Correggio, and Holbein
especially, and these copies were put in frames
provided with locks, and known in the old in-
ventories as shutting glasses. These miniature
copies were taken by the King on his travels, in
order that he might enjoy and appreciate the
beauty of the pictures when unable to be near the
gallery. They were dispersed at the sale of the
Collection, but several of them still remain in the
Royal Collection at Windsor. One exceedingly fine
signed example, still in its original frame, is at
Burghley, and in the same Collection there are



three more copies in water-colour of old masters'
paintings, which were probably the work of Oliver
or of his pupils. Another is to be found in the
Jones Collection at South Kensington, and yet
another is at Monfcigu House. Oliver also made
copies in miniature of works of Van Dyck, and
two of these copies are at Sherborne Castle,
while one, which is of unusual size and great
beauty, represents Rachel de Ruvigny, Countess
of Southampton. One of his most beautiful works
is the portrait of Henry, Prince of Wales, which
is now at Belvoir Castle. The Prince is re-
presented in gilded armour, wearing the blue
ribbon of the Garter and a fine lace ruff. A
miniature in the same Collection of Charles, Prince
of Wales, is very probably the work of the same
artist. Peter Oliver's portrait as a boy, painted by
his father, is to be seen at Welbeck, and another
one of himself as a young man, which is his own
work, is at Montagu House. There are several
miniatures in the possession of the Queen of
Holland, who also owns some of the finest works
of his father Isaac, and other examples of the work
of Oliver appear in the Rijks Museum at Amster-
dam. A great many of his miniatures remained
in the possession of his widow at Isleworth, and it
is said that Charles II. heard of their existence
and was desirous of obtaining them. Vertue tells
ns that the King went privately and unknown to
see Mrs. Oliver, taking with him a man whom
Vertue calls Rogers, but who was probably a man
named Progers, who was well known for being
employed in the King's private pleasures. Mrs.
Oliver showed the King a large number of minia-
tures both finished and unfinished, and when he
revealed himself to her, promised to look over her
husband's books and let him know what prices
his father the late King had paid. The King took
away, says Vertue, what he liked, and sent a
messenger to Mrs. Oliver with the option of a
thousand pounds for them or an annuity of 300
for her life. She chose the latter sum, hut it was
subsequently reported to the King that Mrs. Oliver
had denounced in disrespectful terms the Royal
mistresses to whom many of the pictures had been
given, and stated that if she had thought the King
would have given them to such persons, he would
never have had them. From the moment that the
story reached the Court the poor woman's salary
was stopped, and she never received it after-
wards. The rest of the miniatures in Mrs. Oliver's
possession passed, so Vertue tells us, into the
hands of Theodore Russel, the father of Vertue's

Oliver's portrait is said to have been engraved
by T. Chambars ; there is an anonymous etching
known which represents him. In the Earl of
Derby's Collection there is a leaf of a pocket-
book with drawings by Oliver in black lead of
himself on one side and of his wife on the other.
His pictures are painted on cardboard, or on an
exceedingly thin vellum mounted on card. Several
of his works belong to Mr. L. Currie, and are at
Minley Manor, there is a beautiful one at Ham
House, and an important one at the Wallace
Gallery, several at Welbeck, and very many at
Montagu House. G. C. W.

OLIVER, WILLIAM, an English landscape
painter, born in 1805. He chiefly practised in
water-colours, exhibiting at the New Water-Colour
Society, of which he was a member. His subjects
were mainly taken from foreign scenery. He died


in 1853. There is an oil-painting ot Foligno, in the
Papal States, by him, in the Kensington Museum.

OLIVERUS, a skilful French miniaturist of the
12th century. He worked in Paris. The library
of Douai possesses a fine MS. illustrated by him.

OLIVES, FRANCISCO, a Spanish painter, who
nourished at Tarragona about 1557. He filled for
a time the post of valuer of works of art for the

OLIVIER, AUBIN, a die-sinker and engraver on
wood, was born at Roye, in Picardy, in the first
half of the Kith century; and was Director of the
Mint, under Henri II., in 1553. As a wood-en-
graver, in conjunction with Jean le Royer, his
brother-in-law, he engraved the sixty figures which
illustrate the ' Lievre de Perspective de Jehan
Cousin,' the celebrated French artist, which was
published in Paris in 15fiO by Jehan le Royer, in a
large folio. The date of Aubin Olivier's death is
not known.

OLIVIER, HEINRICH, elder brother of Johann
H. Ferdinand Olivier, was born at Dessau in 1783.
He underwent the same course of study as his
brother, and ultimately became a teacher of draw-
ing and of languages in Berlin, where he died in
1848. In Vienna he executed a copy of Pordenone'a
'St. Justina,' and also produced original paintings
for the churches of his native town.

and lithographer, was born at Dessau iu 1785.
His first instructions were received from K. W.
Kolbe and Haldemvang, but in 1804 he went to
Dresden, and studied under Jakob Mechau. In
1807 he accompanied his brother Heinrich to Paris,
and together they painted a portrait of Napoleon I.
on horseback, as well as ' The Baptism of Christ *
and a 'Last Supper 'for the church of Worlitz.
In 1811 he proceeded to Vienna, and in 1828 pub-
lished a series of lithographs at Salzburg. His oil
pictures are for the most part either purely his-
torical, or historical landscapes. In 1833 he became
professor of art history and general secretary to
the Academy at Munich, where he died in 1841.
His lust and best painting is a landscape in the
possession of Fraulein Linder of that city. He
usually signed his work with a monogram of F. 0.

Marseilles in 1712, and died in Paris in 1784. He
was received into the Academy as painter of land-
scape and genre, and became painter to the Prince
du Conti. His style is that of his time, the execu-
tion neat, and colour undecided.

brother of Heinrich and Ferdinand Olivier, was
born at Dessau in 1791. From 1811 he studied
under his brother Ferdinand : but in 1813-14 he
served as an officer in the Lutzow volunteer corps,
and as such obtained the iron cross and the Order
of St. Anne and St. George. In 1815 he travelled
in England and the Netherlands, and proceeded in
1818 to Rome, where he studied under Overbeck
and Cornelius. He here painted his picture of
' Christ with the Tribute Money,' together with
landscapes with historical figures. In 1824 he
returned to Vienna and practised ns a portrait
painter, but removed in 1829 to Munich, where he
worked upon tlie frescoes in the Konigsbau, in the
Nihelungenand Homer Saloons, and also designed
a ' Pictorial Bible' with fifty illustrations from the
New Testament. He died at Dessau in 1H59.

OL1VIERI, DOMENICO, was bom at Turin in
1679. He particularly excelled in painting droll


[From the miniature at one time at Castle Hmvard












scenes, fairs, and merry-makings, in imitation of
the style of Peter van Lacr, in which he displayed
infinite humour, and a talent for caricature. In
the gallery of the court of Turin were two of his

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