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best pictures, in one of which he has represented a
fair, with an immense assemblage of figures, of
quack-doctors, and groups of peasants, sporting or
quarrelling. Though chiefly employed in painting
what are called Bambocdate, he was not incapable
of historical painting, as appears in his picture of
' The Miracle of the Sacrament,' in the sacristy of
Corpus Domini, at Turin. He died in 1755. Boni
says that he had a pupil who painted in the same
style, and of whom he speaks as N. Graneri of
London.

OLIVIERI, DOMENICO, called SALVATORIELLO, a
Neapolitan, born in the last half of the 17th
century. He was the best of Solimena's pupils,
and painted, in fresco, ' The Virgin and Child,' in
S. Maria delle Grazie ; ' Rinaldo and Armida,' and
other pictures on a large scale. He died in 1718.

OLIVIERS, JACOB FRANS and ADRIAEN, two
obscure painters of Haarlem, who flourished in the
17th and 18th centuries. Jacob was inscribed on
the Guild in 1632. In 1650 he received, from the
military authorities, a sum of 150 florins for re-
storing pictures, and in 1667 a requisition was made
for a tomb for him in the church of St. Bavon.
Adriaen -vyas inscribed on the Guild in 1707.

OLLMUTZ, WENZEL or WENCESLAUS VON, (Oi.-
MDTZ, or OLOMUCZ,) was a painter and engraver of
the 15th century, who produced several extremely
good copies, as well as original plates. By Bartsch
he was supposed to be identical with the " Master
signing W," while some have endeavoured to iden-
tify him witli Michael Wolgemut. The more recent
opinion is that the plates with W upon them
are the work of Wolgemut, and that instead of
being copies from Dvirer. Diirer copied them. For
a fuller discussion of the question see Wolgemut.
The name of Weticeslaus von Olomucz appears on a
copy from Scliongauer's ' Death of the Virgin,'
dated 1481. He was still working as late as the
beginning of the 16th century. The best of his
plates are in the above-mentioned copy from Schon-
gauer's famous engraving.

OLMDORF, HANS VON, (or OLMENDORF,) a Ba-
varian artist, who painted between 1460 and 1518.
He was court painter to the Duke Sigmund. He
painted at Munich and at Blutenburg, where it is
thought he made the designs for the windows
painted by Hans Hebenstreit. To him is ascribed
also the picture of ' God the Father with the dead
Christ on His knees,' the engraving from which is
attributed to The Master of 1466. Some of his
pictures, on panels with gold backgrounds, are
at Schleissheim. One of his best works is the
' Crowning of the Virgin,' in which the Duke Sig-
mund is introduced on his knee.

OLMO, GIOVANNI PAOLO. Siret speaks of a Ber-
gamese painter of this name, and of a ' Vierge
Glorieuse,' at Berlin, signed Jo. Paidits Vlnius.

OLMO, MARCO. Born in 1683, of a noble family
in the territory of Bergamo, Marco Olmo showed
early such a strong inclination for painting that he
was sent to Bologna, and studied for some years
under Gio. Giosetfe dal Sole. On his return he
painted a great number of pictures for the churches
in his native country, and many portraits. He
died in 1753.

OMER, ROWLAND, a draughtsman, born in Ire-
land, who worked about 1750. He drew many



public buildings in Dublin and other parts of Ire-
land, which were engraved.

OMINO, L'. See LOMBARD!.

OMME, H. VAN, a mediocre painter, who wag
active at Oudewater in 1651. In the orphanage
of that town there is a large picture of ' Orphans
at Dinner,' by him.

OMMEGANCK, BALTHAZAR PAUL, a distin-
guished painter of landscapes and animals, was
horn at Antwerp in 1755, and studied under Hen-
dricus Josephus Antonissen from 1767. In 1789
he became dean of the Guild of St. Luke in his
native city, and in 1796 professor in the Academy
there. In 1799 lie won the first prize for landscapes
in Paris, and in 1809 became a corresponding
member of the Institute. He was also a member
of the Academies of Amsterdam, Brussels, Ghent,
Munich, and Vienna. He died at Antwerp in 1826.
He was one of the commissioners of 1815, appointed
by Belgium to reclaim from France the objects of
art which she hud acquired by force of arms during
the great war. During his life his works were
in such request that only the rich could obtain
them, and they are therefore seldom to be found
but in the finest modern collections of England,
France, and Holland. And yet in handling they
were soft, weak, and oversmooth, in conception
confused, and in colour poor. It is in fact greatly
to the example of Ommeganck that the poor work
done by Belgian landscape and animal painters in
the early part of the present century is to be
traced, especially their shortcomings in the matter
of colour. Carpentero, J. F. Lenzen, and some of
the more recent Belgian painters, have imitated his
manner ; a female painter, long resident in Holland
and Belgium, has copied several of his pictures
very successfully ; and others in England and else-
where, under the auspices of the dealers, have made
it a very profitable speculation. He executed some
admired drawings, and also clay models of sheep
and cows. Among his oil-paintings there are (be-
sides some at Antwerp, Brussels, and Cassel) :

Frankfort. Stadel Inst. Landscape with sheep and

goats.

Loudon. Stafford House. Cows in the water.
Paris. Louvre. Land*cape with sheep.

OMMEGANCK, MARIA JACOBA. See BAESTEN.

O.MPHALION, a painter of the 4th century B.C.,
who, as Pausanias tells us, was a pupil arid friend
of Nicias.

ONA, (or ONNA,) PEDRO DK, a Spanish painter,
born in Spain about 1550, son-in-law to Esteban
Jordan, sculptor to Philip II. He painted in 1590
the principal altar-piece in the parish church of
Santa Maria de Rioseco.

ONATAS, an early Greek sculptor of ^Egina,
practised painting also to some small extent, and
was employed in conjunction with i'olygnotus in
the temple of Athene at Platsea.

ONATE, MIGUEL, a Spanish portrait painter,
was born at Seville in 1535, and studied under
Antony Mor, who was in Spain in 1551. He ac-
companied Ins instructor to Portugal, where he was
sent to paint the portrait of the first consort
of Philip II. He then returned with him to
Madrid, where he died in 1606, leaving to his
heirs a considerable fortune acquired by his pro-
fession.

O'NEAL, JEFFREY HAMET, was born in Ireland,
practised in London for many years, and died early
in the 19th century. He painted landscapes, birds,
flowers, small conversations, and miniatures ; and

39



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



contributed several years to the Spring Gardens'
Exhibition.

O'NEIL, HENRY NELSON, was born at St. Peters-
burg in 1817 ; came to England and entered the
Royal Academy schools in 1833. Some years after-
wards he started on a journey to Italy with Mr.
Elmore, with whom he contracted a friendship while
in the schools. On hie return to England he rapidly
rose to fame as a contributor to the Exhibitions of
the Royal Academy. He was elected an Associate
in 1860. He died on the 13th of March, 1880. The
fallowing are a few of his best works ; they were
very popular at the time they were painted: 'By
the rivers of Babylon,' ' Ahasuerus and the Scribes,'
' Eastward Ho ! ' and ' Home Again, 'The Wreck
of the Royal Charter,' and ' The Death of R;iffaelle.'
The last is considered his best picture. Besides
these, he executed a number of landscapes and
portraits. He was also the author of various
treatises on art.

O'NEILL, HOGH, an English draughtsman, born
in London in 1784. He was helped by Dr. Munro,
and afterwards taught drawing in Oxford, Edin-
burgh, Bath, and Bristol. His subjects were archi-
tectural antiquities, and his sketches of Christ Church,
Oxford, and of Bristol were published. He died at
Bristol in 1824. There are three water-colour
drawings by him in the South Kensington Museum.
Fifty of his sketches of antiquities in Bristol were
etched by J. Skelton, and published in 1826.

ONGARO, MICHELE, an artist of the middle of
the 15th century, a native of Ferrara. A picture
of the ' Virgin and Child ' discovered there in 1842,
is supposed to be by him.

ONGHERS, JACOB, a Dutch painter established
at Prague in 1691. In 1714 he became chief of
the corporation of painters in that city, and died
there about 1730.

ONGHERS, OSWALD, painter, was born at Mechlin
in 1628, and died at Wiirzburg in 1706. He studied
mainly after Van Dyck, and in 1660 settled at
Wurzburg as painter to the Prince Bishop. He
produced an 'Assumption of the Virgin' for the
Haug Church, and a 'Mocking of Christ' and
'Martyrdom of St. Kilian ' for the cathedral.

ONOFRI, FRANCESCO, a Roman knight and en-
graver of the 18th century, who published a set
of twelve etchings, with a title, after the works
of G. L. Bernini.

ONOFRIO PA FABRIANO, a. painter of the
Umbrian school, who is said to have been contem-
porary with Gentile da Fabriano, and to have
painted in 1460 the ' Life of St. Benedict,' in one of
the cloisters of St. Michele iu Bosco at Bologna.

ONOFRIO, CRESCENTIO, (HONOPHRIJS, or HON-
UFBIIS,) landscape painter and etcher, was born at
Rome most likely some years later than 1613, the
date usually given. He was a scholar of Gnspar
Poussin, and painted landscapes in the style of that
master. He resided chiefly at Florence, where he
was much employed by the court and for private
collections. He died at Florence. Lanzi and Zani
say he was living in 1712, which is more probable
than that he died in 1688, as he etched a fine series
of twelve plates of landscapes, after lite own designs,
which are dated 16961

OORT, VAN. See NOORT, ADAM VAN.

OORTMAN, JOACHIM JAN, an engraver, of Dutch
parentage, but, from his long residence in Paris,
reckoned among French artists, was born at Weesp
in 1777, and studied successively under W. Koch,
C. H. Hodges, and Claessens. He engraved after

40



Rembrandt, Gerard Don, A. Ostade, Jan Steen, and
other eminent Dutch masters ; also after Titian,
Giulio Romano, Caravaggio, and Valentino : and
some French painters of more modern date. He
died in Paris in 1M18. In addition to two plates
in illustration of the ' Lusiad,' he supplied the
following to FilhoPs ' Musee Fran9ais : '

Portrait of Rembrandt ; after that artist.
The Death of the Virgin ; after Caravagyio.
Martyrdom of St. Laurence; after Titian.
Human Life ; after J. Steen.

OOST, JAMES VAN, the elder, son of John and
Geraldine Weyts, born at Bruges before 1600 ;
inscribed in the register of the Guild of St. Luke
as apprenticed to his brother Francis, and as free-
master October 18, 1621. Shortly after he went
to Italy, where he studied under Hannibal Carracci.
He returned to Bruges in 1629, and was soon after
elected vinder of the Guild. In 1633-34 he held
the office of Dean. He was twice married, and
died in 1671. He painted a great many pictures,
the figures in which are generally life-size, and
the backgrounds architectural. The churches of
Bruges contain many of his religious paintings.
His portraits are often excellent. He was also a
good musician.
Bruges. St. Saviour's. The Flight into Egypt.

,, Martyrdom of St. Gudeleva.

Descent of the Holy Ghost at

Pentecost. 1658.
St. Jlfari/'s. Saints adoring the Infant Jesus.

1652.
St. James'. Presentation of the Blessed

Virgin. 1655.
,, Museum. Episodes in the Life of St.

Anthony of Padua.
,, Portrait of a religious dictating

to a clerk. 1668.

St. John's Hospital. A Christian meditating. 1647.
Guildhouy of St. ) p ; { T Pauwels 1667

Sebastian. )
Lisle. Museum. St. John of the Cross dressing

a friar's leg.

,, St. Teresa and St. Peter of

Alcantara in prayer before
the Holy Family.

,, Portrait of a man.

Paris. Louvre. St. Charles Borromeo adminis-

tering the plague-stricken in
1576.
Vienna. Museum. The Nativity.

Bibliography: Weale, 'Catalogue du Musee de
Bru!ies,''pp. 75-80. Bruges, 1861. \V. H. J. W.

OOST, JAMES VAN, the younger, son and scholar
of James van Oost the elder, born at Bruges,
February 10, 1639. He studied under his father
until he was twenty,and then went to Paris and, two
years later, Rome for improvement. He returned,
after some years, to Bruges. After painting there
some pictures fur the churches, he went to Lille,
where he married and settled. Having lost his
wife after forty-one years, he returned to Bruges,
where he died on September 29, 1713. He
painted history and portraits, and was so eminent
in the latter, that his partisans ventured to compare
his work with that of Van Dyck. His historical
pictures partake more of the Roman than of the
Flemish school. Works :

Bruges. Museum. Portrait of a man. 1697.

Brussels. Museum. Portrait of a man. Signed J.

v. Oost de ioncfhe.

Lille. St. Stephen. Martyrdom of St. Barbara.

Capuchin Cli. Christ contemplating the In-

struments of His Passion.

Museum. Tw portraits of men. 1688

and 1693. W.H. J.W.



JAKOB VAN COST




Woodtury Co. plioto\ \_National Gallery

PORTRAIT OF A BOY, 1650



JOHN OPIE




II 'oodbnry Co. photo



I The Loire re



THE WOMAN IN WHITE



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



OOST, WILLIAM VAN, son of James, the elder,
born March 8, 1651, entered the Order of St.
Dominic in 1671, and died August 31, 1686.

Bruges. Museum. St. Dominic seated reading, in

a. landscape painted by Luke
Achtschellinck.

W: H, J. W.

OOSTEN, J. VAN, was an artist who painted
small landscapes, with figures and animals, in the
manner of Jan Breughel, to whom they are usually
ascribed when they appear in sales. There are
no particulars of him recorded. There is a good
example of his work, a ' Paradise,' in the 'Liechten-
stein Collection, at Vienna. It is signed J. van
Oosten, fecit.

OOSTERHOUDT, THIERRY VAN, was born at
Tiel, in Guelderland, in 1756. lie was a scholar
of R. van Eynder, and frequented the Electoral
Academy at Dusseldorf. After several years' study
of the pictures of Raphael, Carlo Dolci, Rubens,
Van Dyck, and other masters there, he returned to
his native city, and painted portraits, and finished
numerous compositions. Some of his subjects are
scenes in private life, and are to be met with at
Tiel and Utrecht. He painted also in water-
colours. He died in 1830.

OOSTERWI.JCK, MARIA VAN, a celebrated
painter of flowers and fruit, was born at Nootdorp,
a small town near Delft, in 1627 or 1630. She
was the daughter of a clergyman, who encouraged
the disposition she evinced for art by placing
her under the tuition of the flower painter, Jan
Davidsz de Heem, whose works she in a few years
almost equalled. Her pictures of fruit, flowers,
and still-life found their way into the choicest
collections, and she received commissions from
many of the princes and sovereigns of Europe.
The Emperor Leopold I. engaged her to paint a
picture for his collection, and on its completion
sent her the portrait of the Empress and his own,
set with diamonds, as .1 mark of his approbation.
William III. and Louis XIV. were among her
most munificent patrons. Maria van Oosterwijck
died at Entdam in 1693. Her works are extremely
scarce, from the care she bestowed upon them.
Among them we may note :

Dresden. Gallery. Glass filled with Flowers in

great variety.
Fruit-piece, with Clusters of

Grapes.

Vienna. Schdnbnin Gall. The same subject.
Still-life subject.

OPIE, (or OPFEY,) a portrait painter, was born
in Cornwall, but is said to have been in no way
connected with John Opie. He is believed to have
been self-taught. In the catalogue of the Exhibition
held in London in 1780, by the Incorporated Society
of Artists, he and his works are thus described,
' Master Oppey, Penryn. ' A Boy's Head.' An
instance of genius, not having seen a picture."
This head is said to have been expressive, well
coloured, and to have attracted notice on its
merits. Oppey died young, in London, 25th Nov.
1785.

OPIE, JOHN, painter, was born in the village of
St. Agnes, about seven miles from Trurc, in 1761.
He was the son of a master carpenter, who was
very desirous of bringing him up to his own
business, but the love of drawing appears to have
given an early bent to his inclinations, and as his
propensity was encouraged by an uncle, who had
instructed him in arithmetic and the elements of



mathematics, his desire of becoming a painter gained
an entire dominion over his mind, and nothing could
divert him from it. He had already acquired soms
practice in portrait-painting, when his talent was
accidentally discovered by Dr. Wolcott, ' Peter
Pindar,' who at that time resided at Truro. He
interested himself in his advancement, and lent
him some of his pictures to study and copy. By
Wolcott' s assistance and recommendation, the
talents of young Opie soon became known through-
out the county, and he met with considerable em-
ployment as a portrait painter. His earliest efforts,
though not distinguished by taste, or a graceful dis-
position of the figure, were extraordinary produc-
tions for an artist reared in so remote and secluded
a situation. About the year 1777 he was introduced
to Lord Bateman, who employed him in painting
old men, beggars, &c., which he designed with
uncommon vigour and great truth of expression. In
1780 he visited London under the auspices of Dr.
Wolcott, where his merit and the extraordinary
circumstances of his early artistic life, made him
the object of widespread interest. Commissions
crowded upon him, his partisans were zealous in
his praise, and for some time ' the Cornish wonder '
was the rage.

The powers of Opie were not calculated to flatter
the frivolity of fashion ; he was not very suscept-
ible to female grace, and his portraits of men were
rather distinguished by identity and truth, than by
dignity. Thus it was not long before the curiosity
excited on his arrival in London in a great degree
subsided, but as his talents were not confined to
portraiture, he continued tu meet with employment
in painting domestic or rustic subjects. The great
undertakings which were in hand at this time, such
as Boydell's ' Shakespeare,' Bowyer's ' English
History,' Macklin's ' Poets and Bible,' opened a
new field to Opie, and perhaps his most popular
performances were Uis pictures of the 'Murder of
James I. of Scotland," the ' Death of Rizzio,'
' Jephtha's Vow,' the ' Presentation in the Temple,'
and 'Arthur supplicating Hubert.' In the best of
these he shows not only vigour, but also a curious
sense of style which is hardly to be found in any
other English historical pictures of the time.

On Fuseli's appointment to the office of Keeper
of the Royal Academy, in 1806, Opie became a
candidate for the vacant professorship of painting,
and was elected. In that capacity he read four
lectures at Somerset House, which bear testimony
to the extent of his powers, and to his acquaintance
with the theory of his art. He died in 1807, and
his remains were interred in St. Paul's Cathedral,
near those of Sir Joshua. Reynolds. A catalogue
of his paintings was published in 1878. There are
in public collections :
Loudon. National ) Portrait of Himself.

Portrait Gallery, f Bartolozzi.

i. Th. Holcroft.
National Gallery. William Siddons.

Mary Wollstone-

craft-Godwin.
City Art Gallery. ,. Daniel Finder.

Murder of James I., of Scotland
Murder of Rizzio.

Dul'wich. Gallery. Portrait of Himself.

Manchester. Gallery. Troilus, Cressida, and Pan-
darus. (Lent by the National
Gallery.)

OPITZ, GEORG EMANUEL, was born at Prague in
1775, and studied imderCasanova in Dresden. Dp
to 1807 he painted portraits in oil and miniature,

41



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



but then commenced painting popular scenes,
character sketches, costume figures, and so forth.
In 1813 he followed the Duchess of Courland to
Paris, where he found a rich source of such sub-
jects. Afterwards he lived at Heidelburg and
Altenburg, and finally settled at Leipsic, where he
died in 1841. He was also successful in aquarelle
and gouache painting, and as an engraver.

OPPENORD, GILLES MARIE, (or OPPENORT,) a
draughtsman and architect, was born in Paris in
1672, and was sent with a pension from the King
to Rome, where he spent eight years. He died
in Paris in 1742. He prepared the designs for
the high altars of St. Germain des Pres and St.
Sulpice. Huquieres engraved some ornaments after
him,

OPPERDOES, JAN PIETERSZ, a Dutch painter,
was born at Amsterdam in 1631 or 1632. In 1648
he was bound apprentice to Govaert Camphuysen.
Little is known of him. In the Rijks-Museum
there is a landscape by him, signed Opperdoes.

OPPERMANN, C. There is a miniature of the
Czar, Alexander I., in the Dresden Gallery, signed
with this name, and dated 1809.

OPPI, BERNARDINO, a designer and engraver, who
worked at Rome in 1590. He helped to engrave
a collection of sixteen plates representing the
1 Virtues,' after designs by Lanfranco, which are
dedicated to Cardinal Piccolomini.

OPSTAL, ANTONY VAN, a Flemish painter, who
was in the service of the Archduke Charles of
Austria, in 1624. Nagler says that Van Opstal
lived at Brussels, and that Van Dyck painted his
portrait. Jan Meyssens was his pupil and engraved
after him.

OPSTAL, GASPAR JACOB VAN, the younger, was
born at Antwerp in 1654. He was probably &
pupil of his father. In 1676 he entered the guild,
of which in 1698-9 he was dean. He painted his-
tory and portraits, and there are several of his
works in the churches in Flanders and Brabant ;
but the defective pigments which he used have
caused them to darken. In 1714 he was employed
by Marshal Villeroy to copy the celebrated altar-
piece by Rubens, in the cathedral at Antwerp,
representing the ' Descent from the Cross,' together
with the shutters of the organ. The commissions
which he received were so numerous that he fre-
quently had to entrust them to his pupils. He
died at Antwerp in 1717. Of his other works we
may name :
Antwerp. Museum. A Portrait. ]699.

Jesuits' Ch. The Child Jesus addressed by

Angels. 1693.
Darmstadt. Gallery. The Holy Family resting near

a classic r lin.
St. Omer. Cathedral. The Fathers of the Church.

OPSTAL, CASPAR VAN, the elder, a painter oi
Antwerp, who studied under Simon de Vos in 1632.
He was admitted a master in 1644. His son,
Gaspar Jacob, was a better painter than he.

ORAM, EDWARD, an English landscape painter
in the latter half of the 18th century. He was the
son of William Oram, and acted as assistant to
Loutherbourg. He exhibited at the Incorporated
Society in 1766, and at the Academy from 1775
to 1799. A work of his, apparently posthumous,
* Precepts and Observations on the Art of Colour-
ing in Landscape Painting,' was published in
1810.

ORAM, WILLIAM, called 'Old Oram, 1 was
brought up an an architect, but taking to land-

42



scape painting, arrived at success in that brar.;-h
of art, and was, in 1748, made superintendent of
the Board of Works by the interest of Sir Edward
Walpole, who had several of his pictures and draw-
ings. There is a picture by him in the Hermitage
at St. Petersburg ; it probably went there with tbe
Houghton Collection. Oram was much employed
in decorating halls, staircases, and the panels over
chimney-pieces. Walker has engraved the tri-
umphal arch erected by him for the coronation of
George III., at Westminster Hall, and has intro-
duced the entrance of the Champion and the Lord
Chancellor.

ORATII, (or ORAZI,) ALESSANDRO. painted about
the middle of the 15th century, at Bologna. Mal-
vasia speaks of a picture of the Virgin by him,
which he found over the Macchiavelli altar in the
church of San Francesco.

ORAZI, ANDREA ANTONIO, painted in fresco and
in oil. He was born about 1630, and was a pupil
of L. Garzi and C. Ferri in Rome. In the Crozat
collection was a drawing by him, ' The Angel and
Gideon's Fleece,' which was etched by Caylus, and
engraved by N le Sueur. He died about 1690.
GIUSEPPE ORAZI, who painted the vault of St. Maria
del Orto, is believed to have been a relation of
Andrea Antonio.

ORAZZI, NICCOL&, was an Italian engraver, who
flourished about the year 1760. He was employed
to execute part of the plates for the ' Antiquities of
Herculaneum,' published by the authority of the
King of Naples.

ORBETTO, L'. See TURCHI.

ORCAGNA. See CIOKE.

ORDE-POWLETT, THOMAS, an English ama-
teur etcher, born in 1746. His plates are chiefly
caricatures and portraits. There is a burlesque
portrait of Voltaire by him, signed ' T. O. fecit,
1772.' He was raised to the peerage as Lord Bolton
in 1797, and died in 1807.

OHDONNANCE. See MOUCHEROX, Is.

ORELLI, ANTONIO BALDASSARE, an obscure
painter of the Milanese. There is a large altar-
piece by him in the ' Calvary ' Church at Domo-
Dossola.



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