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in 1700, in the Milanese, and received his first
instruction in art from his father, Antonio Bal-
dassare. He also worked under Baptista Sassi for
eight years, but Tiepolo having been called to Milan
by Count Archinti, Orelli had the good fortune to
be employed by him, and afterwards accompanied
him to Venice. There he remained six years. He
then went to Bergamo, where he executed several
works for the convents and churches, also at Milan
for Count Brentatu. He also painted a few portraits.
He died in 1774.


ORIENT, JOSEPH, was bom at Burbach, near
Eisenstadt, in Hungary, in 1677, and was a pupil
of Anton Feistenberger. He became sub-director
of the Academy at Vienna, and died there in 1737
It is said that he made use of a concave mirror in the
painting of his landscapes, in which Ferg, Canton,
and Janneck used to supply the figures. Among
them are :

Landscape with a Hunt. (Liechtenstein Coi.)
A Flat Landscape. (Th-e same."]
Two Tyrolese Landscapes, ((ialltrij.)
Forest, with Came (engraved by Kirsel).
Mountain Landscape, with river. (Town Gallery, Stutt-






ORIENTS, JOSE, a Spanish punter, born in or
Bear Villareal in Valencia, who painted in the
capital of that province about 1680-9. Among
ether works by him, are ' Virgin of the Rosary,' in
the church of S. Felipe Neri, and a portrait of Do-
mingo Sarrio, which was engraved by Crisistomo

ORIOLI, BARTOLOMMEO, was of Treviao, and
painted there about 1610. His principal work is
a large picture painted for the church of Santa
Croce, in which there is a procession of the inhabit-
ants of Treviso, all portraits.

ORIOLI, GIUSEPPE, painted at Mantua. His best
picture is ' The Last Supper,' in the Refectory of
the Carmine in that place. He died in 1750.

ORIOLO, GIOVANNI, of Ferrara, is known only
by a portrait of Leonello d'Este, in the National
Gallery ; it is signed Opus Johanis Orioli, and
was formerly in the Costabili Gallery at Ferrara.
Oriolo painted in the middle of the 15th century.
He is supposed to have been a pupil of Vittor
Pisano of Verona, called Pisanello, because this
Leonello d'Este is a free copy from one of that
master's medals.

ORLANDI, DEODATO, lived at the close of the
13th century, and is the author of a ' Crucifix' now
in the Palace of Parma, and bearing the date 1288.
In the Pisa Gallery there is a ' Virgin enthroned
between SS. James, Daminn, Peter, and Paul,'
painted by him in 1301. No certain dates can be
given for his birth or death.

ORLANDI, FRANCESCO, the son of Stefano
Orlandi, was born in 1725, and educated by his
father. He painted in the same style for theatres
at Leghorn and a chapel at Cente, and was Pro-
fessor of Architecture in the Clementine Academy
at Bologna. He was also a good musician. He
died at Bologna in 1769.

ORLANDI, GIOVANNI, an engraver and pub-
lisher of prints in Rome between 1590 and 1640.
He followed the style of Cornelius Cort. The
number of engravings executed or published by him
is considerable. Among them are ' The Last Judg-
ment,' after Michelangelo, and 'The Transfigura-
tion,' after Raphael ; also from forty to fifty portraits,
and a plan and view of Genoa, dated 1637.

ORLANDI, ODOARDO, an obscure Bolognese
painter, and pupil of Pasinelli. He was born in
1660, and died in 1736.

ORLANDI, STEFAKO, was the son of Odoardo
Orlandi. Stefano was born in 1681, and studied
under Pornpeo Aldrovandini, with whom he went
to Rome. In 1684, in conjunction with Giuseppe
Orsoni, he painted in many theatres in Italy, in the
Saloon of the Palazzo Ranuzzi, and, with Francesco
Monti, for the Martinengo family at Brescia. He
died in 1760.

ORLANDINI, GIULIO, painted in Parma in the
middle of the 17th century.

ORLANDO, BERNARDO, was appointed court
painter at Turin in 1617.

ORLANDO OF PEKUGIA, was one of the fol-
lowers of Perugino. In 1509 he was painting in
conjunction with Siuibaldo Ibi, at Gubbio, of which
place he was made a citizen between 1502 and

ORLEANS, FRANCOIS D', a French artist, who
was born at the end of the 15th century, and
worked at Fontainebleau under II Rosso.

ORLEY, VAN (or ORLAT). The important artistic
family of the Van Orleys flourished in Brussels for

three centuries. The following pedigree is gi^et
by Alphonse Wauters :

Valentine van Orley. 1466. d before 1532.





oftj 165C.

1493 1?) 1542 (T

. working






W<T kin;,-



Jfar. Ant. Leyniera
(tapestry worker).


Jerome, Fitter, Franz

working 1680 J. after 1708.
1652. |


Richard (IL).

1C62 (?)-1732 (?).

1MO 1735.

ORLEY, BERNARD VAN, son of Valentine, born
in or before 1491. In 1509 he left Brussels and
went to Rome, where he studied under Raphael,
becoming a great favourite with his master. He
returned to Brussels while still young. In 1515
he was settled there, and had already acquired a
reputation, for in that year the confraternity of the
Holy Cross at Fumes sent a delegate to ask him
to furnish a design for an altar-piece for their
chapel representing 'The Carriage of the Cross,'
' Christ on the Cross,' and ' The Deposition.' The
sketch was approved of, and Bernard received the
commission to paint the altar-piece for the sum of
50 1. gr. In 1518 Margaret of Austria, Regent of
the Netherlands, appointed him her official painter.
In 1520 he entertained Diirer, who painted his
portrait, now in the Museum at Dresden. In 1527
Bernard and his family, together with many of
their connections and a number of painters, tapestry-
weavers, and goldsmiths, were arrested for having
assisted at clandestine Lutheran meetings held in
the houses of Valentine and Everard van Orley,
and were sentenced to pay fines and to assist at a
certain number of sermons in the church of St.
Gudula. In 1530 Bernard was appointed official
painter to Mary of Hungary, Margaret's successor.
He is said to have superintended the weaving of the
tapestries from Raphael's cartoons. He himself
made designs for tapestry, among the most famous
of which are : ' The Life of Abraham,' at Hampton
Court, 'The Hunts of Maximilian,' at the Louvre,
and 'The Battle of Pavia,' at Naples. He also
made designs for windows. Those in the church
of St. Gudula at Brussels, in which the portraits of
Charles V., Louis of Hungary, and Francis I.
appear, are from his cartoons now in the Museum
of Art Industries, Brussels. Bernard was twice
married, first to Agnes Seghers, who bore him
seven children, and secondly 10 Ratherine Hellincx,
who bore him two. He died January 6, 1542.
His earlier pictures often show earnest feeling ; in
the later he combined a superficial resemblance to
Raphael, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci
with his own native manner. In spite of the cor-
ruptions of his style and his errors of taste he was
really a great painter. His portraits are truthful
and often of great merit. He painted eight of
Margaret of Austria, but none have as yet been
identified. The brilliancy of several of his pictures
is due to their being painted on a gold ground.
His motto, Elx sijne tijt, "Every man his day,"
appears on some of his pictures.

Antwerp. St. James'. The Last Judgment.

Hospital. The Corporal Works of Mercy

and Last Judgment. 1519-



Bruges. St. Mary's. Triptych. The Passion (left

unfinished ; completed by Mark

Brussels. Museum. Portrait of George van Zclle,

doctor. 1519.
tf Triptych. The trials and patience

of Job, and the story of Dives

and Lazarus. 15-1.
,, Episodes in the lives of SS.

Thomas and Matthew (shutters

of a triptych).

Dresden. Galfm/. The Holy Family.
Lubeck. Cathedral. Polyptych. The Adoration of

the Holy Trinity.
Turin. Gallery. Panel said to have formed part

of the altar-piece of Furnes.
Vienna. Museum. The election of St. Matthew and

Martyrdom of St. Thomas

(centre of the altar-piece of the

Guildof Carpenters of Brussels.

The Holy Family resting on the

road to Egypt. w. H. J. W.

ORLEY, VAN, SCHOOL OF. A great number of
pictures referable to the school of Van Orley are
extant, among them the so-called Leonardo da
Vinci at Gatton Park, the ' Vierge, au bas-relief,'
which seems to be a copy from a picture by Cesare
da Sesto, now in the Brera, which is itself a
compilation from various sources. Wi A.

ORLEY, PHILIP VAN, son of Valentine, drew in
1513, for the church of St. Peter at Louvain, the
cartoon of a tapestry representing the story of
Herkenbald, now in the Museum of Art Industries
at Brussels. Another tapestry in the same Museum,
representing the ' Descent from the Cross,' the
' Harrowing of Hell,' and the ' Entombment," was
probably woven from his design, though some
critics tliink that Bernard designed the cartoon.

W. H. J. W.

eldest son of Peter van Orley, of the same family
as Bernard. Peter was a landscape painter, and
had two sons Richard, who died in 1732, and
Jean, who died in 1735. They were each then
from twenty to twenty-two years of age. Their
first master was their father, but he soon placed
them under the guidance of his brother, who was
a monk and artist. Richard painted in the Italian
style, and engraved a number of plates after
different masters. The uncle, Richard, painted
some fine pictures for the church of his order, ' The
Recollets,' but Jean was the most able of them all,
as he painted a number of pictures for churches,
and made many line designs for tapestry. They
are mostly done on blue paper with the pen, and
shaded with Indian-ink. Those by Richard are
miniatures or designs for book-illustrations in Indian-
ink, and were much admired by Picart le Romain.
ORLEY, VALENTINE VAN, son of John, born at
Brussels in 1466, removed to Antwerp in 1512 and
was admitted as free master into the Guild of St.
Luke ; during the next five years he received
several apprentices. He returned to Brussels in
or before 1527, and died there in 1532, leaving four
sons who were all painters. W, H. J. W.

painter, designer, etcher, and lithographer, who
was born at Warsaw in 1777. He studied under
Norblin, and at the Academy of St. Petersburg,
after which he travelled in France, Germany, and
Italy. He distinguished himself at this period
chiefly by his battle-pieces. In 1812 lie was named
court painter to the Czar, Alexander I., an appoint-
ment which the next Czar, Nicholas, continued. He

died at St. Petersburg in 1832. His best pictures
of battles are in the possession of the Russian
Emperors, but others, together with sketches from
Russian popular life, historical pictures, and por-
traits, are in the collections of the nobility of that
country. Eight hunting and rural pieces are in
the Hermitage. He also executed a number of
drawings which either himself or others repro-
duced in lithography, among them the humorous
' Cat Court.' Four original lithographs by him
represent military subjects, and his own portrait.
An etching of a 'Race-horse and Jockey' is


ORME, DANIEL, an engraver and miniature
painter. He worked about 1800, and exhibited
many portraits in miniature, and one or two in
oils at the Royal Academy, between 1797 and
1801. He engraved in stipple many portraits of
persons celebrated at the time, some battle-pieces,
and a picture of 'Alexander and Thais,' from a
picture painted by himself. There is a water-
colour drawing of Margate New Pier by him in
the South Kensington Museum, dated 1799.

ORMEA, MARC, a painter of Utrecht, who waa
dean of the College of painters from 1621 to 1625.
He painted sea-pieces.

ORMEA, WILLEM, son of Marc, was a painter of
still-life. In 1638 he presented to the Hospital of
St. Job (Utrecht) a picture of various kinds of

ORMIS, LEONARD, an obscure Burgundian, who
pointed at Liege in the 16th century.

ORO, IL MONACO DEL' ISOLA D", a painter, poet,
and historian, was born in Genoa about 1346. He
became a monk in the monastery of the Isola
d'Oro (Stecati), and subsequently librarian there.
He wrote several books which he embellished with
miniatures, and presented to the Queen of Aragon.
He died in 1408.

OROZCO, MARCOS DE, a Spanish priest and
engraver, who resided at Madrid in the 17th
century, and executed many title-pages to books
printed in his time. The title-page to Ortiz de
Xuniga's ' Annals of Seville,' published in 1677,
is probably the best work from Orozco's burin.
Tlu'i'o are many devotional prints by his hand.
Among them portraits of St. Francis de Sales ; of
the Bishop Crespi di Borja, executed in 1664; in
1680 the title-page bearing the royal arms, and
a curious folding plan for the authorized history
of the great auto-da-fe at Madrid ; in 1682, a
' Crucifix and angels bearing shields charged with
episcopal devices,' designed by Ximenez Donoso,
and prefixed to an official account of the synod
held at Toledo that year ; in 1696, a title-page
containing effigies of the seven first canonized
bishops of Spain, for Don Pedro Juarez's ' History
of the united sees of Guadix and Baza ; ' and in
1597, an ' Our Lady of the Forsaken,' and the arms
of the Archbishop Rocaberti of Valencia, for Don
Felipe Finnin's treatise on minor benefices.

ORRENTE, PEDHO, was a Spanish painter, born
at Montealegre, in Mtircia, about the year 1560.
He was probably a scholar of II Greco's, at Toledo,
but he subsequently visited Italy, where he became
a follower of the Venetian school, and an imitator
of Titian, Giorgione, and Bassano. He was favoured
with the protection of the Duke of Olivarez, who
employed him in painting several pictures for the
palace of the Buen Retiro at Madrid. Soon after
1611 he" painted for the Vizconde de Huesca, in


Murcia, eight pictures on ' The History of the Crea-
tion ; ' and in 1616 he produced a ' St. Sebastian,' for
the cathedral at Valencia, where also he established
a school in which Pontons and March were among
his pupils. He next proceeded to Cuenc,a, where
he founded another school, in which he had Sal-
meron for a scholar. Many of his works are in the
churches and convents at Valencia and Cordova.
In the cathedral at Toledo, over the door of the
sacristy, is a fine picture representing ' Santa Leo-
cadia coming out of the sepulchre, before St. Ilde-
fonso;' and in the Reyes Nuevos, in the same
church, was a 'Nativity' painted by him, which
has been since removed into the royal collection.
Another picture by this master representing 'Or-
pheus playing to the brute Creation ' hangs in the
Royal Palace. There are also in the king's posses-
sion four landscapes, whilst the Madrid Gallery
has eight of his paintings, including 'The Ador-
ation of the Shepherds,' and 'The Repose of Lot's
Family.' A 'St. John in the Wilderness' was
in the Suermondt Collection at Aix-la-Chapelle, and
other works of his are at Dresden, Paris, and St.
Petersburg. Being especially successful with
animals and landscapes, he made choice of such
Biblical subjects as permitted the introduction of
these. His last years were spent at Seville and
at Toledo, where he died in 1644, and was buried
in the same church as II Greco.

ORSAY, COMTE D 1 , the son of General d'Orsay,
an officer of the French Republic and Empire, was
born in Paris at the beginning of the present
century. When about twenty years of age he
entered the French military service, and whilst
with his regiment at Valence, became acquainted
with the Earl of Blessington and his Countess.
After that he threw up his commission and
travelled with them on a tour in Italy, eventually
marrying Lord Blessington's daughter by his first
wife. He was appointed Superintendent of the
Fine Arts by Louis Napoleon, but shortly after-
wards (1852) he died of disease of the lungs. There
is a half-length by him of the Duke of Wellington
in the National Portrait Gallery, and the South
Kensington Museum possesses some of his pencil
caricatures. D'Orsay also practised sculpture.

ORSEL, VICTOR, a French historical painter,
born at Lyons in 1795. He went to Rome, where,
about 1825, he came under the influence of Over-
beck, but he also studied from the antique, and was
a close observer of nature ; his object being, as he
said, ' to baptize Greek art.' In Paris he was one
of the artists employed in the chapel of the Virgin
in the church of Notre Dame de Lorette. Orsel
died in 1850. Among his other works are :

La Charite. 1822. (Lyons Hospital.)

Adam and Eve with the body of Abel. 1824.

Moses, when a child, presented to Pharaoh. 1839.

(Exhibited in the Capitol at Borne.)
Good and Evil. 1833. (Engraved by Vibert.)

ORSI, BENEDETTO, was a native of Pescia, and
flourished about the year 1660. Lanzi numbers
this artist among the disciples of Baldassare Fran-
ceschini, and mentions in favourable terms a
picture by him in the church of San Stefano, at
Pescia, representing 'St. John the Evangelist.'
He also painted the ' Seven Works of Mercy,' for
La Compagnia dei Nohili, and a large lunette at
Pistoja, in S. Maria del Letto, which was long
attributed to Volterrano. He died about 1680.


a painter, designer, and architect, and was born
at Reggio in 1511. Having been banished from
his native city, for some unknown reason, he first
proceeded to Rome, and subsequently established
himself at Novellara, whence his common appella-
tion. From the similarity of his style to that of
Correggio, he has been supposed to have been a
disciple of that master, with whom he was
certainly on terms of friendship. That he studied
Correggio'a works attentively is evident, from
his having occasionally copied his pictures, of
which one of the most remarkable is a fine copy
of the famous ' Notte,' in the Casa Gazzola, at
Verona. Others have stated him to have been a
scholar of Michelangelo ; but this tradition is
suspected, although Tiraboschi asserts that he
resided at Rome in the time when that artist was
painting some pictures for the churches. There
were many of his fresco works in the churches at
Reggio and Novellara, which are now nearly all
perished. Orsi died in 1587. Italian writers say
he was "in pittura grande, in architettura ottimo,
e in disegno massimo " (in painting great, in
architecture best, and in drawing greatest).

ORSI, PROSPERO, was born at Rome, apparently
about 1560. He lived during the pontificate of
Sixtus V., who employed him in the palace of S.
Giovanni Laterano, where he painted two of the
ceilings, one representing ' Moses with the Children
of Israel passing the Red Sea ; ' the other, ' Jacob
receiving the Blessing from Isaac.' He was the
particular friend of Giuseppe Cesare d'Arpino,
whose manner of painting he imitated. He died
at Rome in 1635.

ORSI, TRANQUILLO, was a painter and architect
of Venice in the present century, who died, in
1844, while professor of perspective there. He
produced views of churches, palaces, and public
buildings, and some of his works are in the Venice

ORSINI, ANTONIO, a native of Ferrara, who
engraved there about 1730.

ORSOLONI, CARLO, an Italian engraver, was
born at Venice about the year 1724. He carried
on a considerable commerce in prints, and was
employed in engraving some of the plates for the
' Museo Florentine.' Among others, we have the
following by him :

St. Jerome in Meditation ; after Ant. Balestra.

St. Francis de Sales ; after the same.

The Virgin with several Saints ; after Pietro Ricchi.

ORSONI, GIUSEPPE, (or ORSINI,) a Bolognese
painter, born 1691, died 1755. He was a pupil of
Pompeo Aldrovandini, and worked much with Ste-
fano Orlandi at ornamental painting in theatres and
private houses.

ORTIGA, BONANT DE, painter to the deputies
of Aragon, was living in 1457. He painted an
altar-piece with figures of St. Simon and St. Jude
for the church of St. Francis, in Saragossa.

ORTO, DIEGO DE, was a miniature painter of
Seville, son of BERNARDO DE OHTO. Between 1540
and 1575 he decorated a number of choir-books,
&c. In some of these his brothers assisted him.


two painters who worked at Orvieto between 1405
and 1457.

ORVIETANO, UQOLINO, a painter, who was em-
ployed in the cathedral of Orvieto about 1321.




painter, was the second son of Jan van Os, and
wan bom at the Hague in 1782. Ho gained a
pri/.o at Amsterdam in 1809, and on going to
Paris in 1812 he won a gold medal, and wan em-
ployed on designs fur Sevres. Here lie spent the
greater part of the next fifty years, painting flowers
after I lie manner of Van Ilnysum, and now and
then cxhiliiling landscapes. Two of his best flower-
pieces arc now in the Hague Museum. Van Os
died in Paris in 18(51. He was a member of the
Academy of Amsterdam. Among his works we
may also name :
Amsterdam. /,'. Museum. Flowers.
Rotterdam. Museum. Flowers.

Fruit anil Flowers.

Landscape in (Judders.

OS, JAN VAN, a painter of fruit, flowers, and
marine subjects, was born at Middelharnis, in
Holland, iii 17-14, and was a nebular of Aart
Seliouman, at tin' Hague. His marine-pieces aro
only fair, but. his fruit and flowers arc in great
request, and approach those of Jan van Iluysum.
Ho died at the Hague in 1H08. A good ' Vase of
Flowers' by him is in the possession of Cramer of
Rotterdam. Jan van Os was also a poet. Among
his works may be included :

Frankfort. Ktn,l,-l (!af. A Sen-pi ,

Lomlou. Sut. (in!. Floweri, Fruit, and Dead Birds.

Paris. l.ottrri'. Flowers anil Fruit.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Flowers uud Fruit.

OS, PiETKR GEIUUDUS VAN, the eldest son of
Jan van Us, was horn at the Hague, in 177(5, and
was instructed in the elements of art by his father,
but devoted himself mainly to cattle painting, and
made the works of Paul Potter and Knrel du
.lanlin his models. His etchings, consisting of
cattle, she> |>, &c., from his own designs, and
also after Paul Potter, Hcrehcm, and Kuisdad,
aro valuable. His prints are some times si"ncd
P. G. ran Os fee. tt, exc., and KOIIM' limes with his
initials only, P. (,'. V. O.f. He died at the Hague?
in IH.'t'J. There is a good ' Landscape with Cattle '
by him in Hie Rotterdam Museum.

OSBOItNK, JOHN, an Knglish portrait painter,
who practised at Amsterdam in the 17lh century.
There is a portrait of Frederick Prince of Orange
by him.

OSItoh'NK, WAI.TKU P., an Englishman who
Bet!lrd in Ireland, was an occasional exhibitor
at the IJoyal Academy. He was an Academician
of the Royal Hibernian Academy, and practised
portraiture and landscape in oil and in black and
while. He died in ItKW at the age of forty-three.

OSKLI.O, CAM'All, calh-d (iASI'All All AVIIIUS ClT-
was an en;; raver, born at Padua in 15I50. He imi-
tated the style of Giorgio Ghisi Manl.uano, whose
pupil he may possibly have been. He lived until
I.W>. He has left sixty-six plates of ' Portraits of
the Archdukes of Austria ;' also that of the Phy-
sician Andreas Mattiolus Sinensis, and a 'Mar-
riage of the Virgin,' after Paolo Veioncse. lie
signed his prints with a monogram composed of

the letters, C.A.P.


OSSENBEECK, JAN (or JOSSE VAN), a painter and

etcher, was a native of Rotterdam, born about
lli'27. After having received some instruction in
his native city, he wont to Italy, and distinguished
himself at Homo as a painter of landscapes, with
animals, fairs, and huntings, in the stylo of IVler
van Laar, whoso works were then greatly admired,

Thence ho proceeded to Vienna, where he became
court painter; next to Frankfort; and, lastly, to
Katisbon, where ho died in 1678. He usually
embellished his pictures with waterfalls, grottoes,
ruins, and architecture, designed from the remains
of antiquity in and near Rome. Pictures :

( 'liristinnia. Plundering of a Caravan.

Dresden. Gallery. ( iroup of Herdsmen,

(ilnsgow. linlleri/. A Hawking Party.

Now York. Museum. AWahain with Sarah and Hugar

in a romantic landscape.
Vienna. lielvcilrre. Jni'ob's .journey to Mesopotamia.

We have by this artist sixty-two etchings, exe-
cuted in a firm and free style, twenty-seven of

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