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which are from his own designs, and thirty-two
after other masters. He engraved part of the
plates for the collection called the 'Gallery of
Teniers.' Among his plates the following may be
particularized :

T\vn Tmi<lsca|ics; after ftalvator Itosa.

( 'linsi asleep during the Storm ; ff/ir A'. </* niet/er.

Cavulradc of the Kmperor Leopold ill the Fort at Vicuna.

Procession of thei Kmperor Curl VI. to Schottwien.

The. ('.'iirai-ella.

The Children of Niobe ; after Talma.

The Children of Israel gathering the Manna in the

Desert ; after Tintoretto.

Orptiriis playing to tlie Animals ; after Hassano.
The Four Wcasons ; alter the same.
A set of twelve plates of different Animals ; from hi

own di'ti'/H*.

A. set of four of diflYrrnfr subjci'is ; tJn' sume.
'I'wo \'ic\vs ill anil near Koine;; the sume.
A Boar-hunt ; ultt'i- 1'i-ti-r l.<i<u\
A grand 1-Vstival f;i\'cn at Virnn:'., \ u great number

cf figures N lini srhack and tin i'uot ; .-1. Lartucci iitv.

J. Osst'nl'i-tt-k .*(.

OSSKNIiKKCK, W., a Dutch painter, of whom
scarcely anything is known. lie flourished about
Id.'t'J, and may have been the father of Jan van
( (sscnlieci-k. In the Itijks Museum, Amsterdam,
there is a picture by him of ' Mercury and lo.' It
is signed IT. Oxxi'ii/H'i'i'/:', /''. K5.">-.

OSTADR, APRIAEN VAN, a celebrated and
prolific painter and engraver, especially of scenes
from Dutch peasant life, but aKo of portraits and
still-life. He was bapti/ed (" Uetauft '') at Haar-
lem on (he 10th of December, Kill). His father,
Jan Hendrik, was probably a wiiiiver, and bad
retired before the religious persecutions from the
town of Kindhovcn. His mother's name is said
to have been Janneke llendriksz, and the chil-
dren adopt ed tin- name of Ostado from a small
hamlet, of that name near Eindhoven, which may
have been the birthplace of their father. Adrinon
and his younger brother Isaek became artists, and
the former, entering the studio of Frans Hals,
came there under the influence of Adriaen
Hrouwer, who was iu 1(527 also a pupil of Hals.
In later years he came under the, influence

of Rembrandt's chiaro-oscuro, (in leaving Hals,
Adriaen sei up as a painter at llaailem, and his
name as Ostadc- is first mentioned in ICi.'ili, when
he is recorded under it as a member of the
Scliutterij or civic guard. Iu lliiiM he married
Maohteltgen Piolersen, who died in ll'>40; and bis
father in the following year. It has been ascer-
tained that lie married u second time, but the
name of this wife is not. known. We only know
that sin' belonged to an aristocratic family of
Amsterdam, and this was the reason that Oslade
since visited sometimes that town. She died in
!('.(')('., and Adriacii himself, on the l>7th of April,
1085, in the Nieuwe Kruysstraet. On the 2nd of










Woodtury Co. photo]


^Antwerp Gallery


May he was buried in the Church of St. Bavon,
where lie had previously laid the remains of his
two wives. The sale-list of his works of art he
left included two hundred pictures by his own
hand, and acollection of his etchings, drawings, &c.
Smith's catalogue mentions nearly four hundred
of Adriaen van Ostade's oil pictures. He executed
besides an unknown number in water-colours, and
a vast quantity of pencil drawings and etchings.
Of the latter Bartsch has enumerated fifty.
The Teyler Museum at Haarlem contains a tine
collection. Besides his younger brother Isack,
Adriaen had the following pupils : Cornelis
Dusart, Cornelis Bega, Michiel van Musscher,
E. Brakenburgli, and Jan de Groot. These all
adopted more or less of Adriaen's manner. Jan
Steen also came under his influence when he
stayed at Huarlem. We distinguish clearly three
periods of painting in Ostade's art. The first is in
the style of Brouwer, also in the subjects. The
tone is greyish, and a little bit cold. In the second
period the painting is larger and thicker, and the
chiaro-oscuro proves the influence of Rembrandt's
works ; the tone becomes more brown and warm,
and the subjects more dintingues. His last period
is not so eminent. Though the painting is an
extraordinarily finished one, and the composition
made with great care and stud3', the impression of
the whole is not so vigourenx and less pittoresque.
The following are some of Adriaen Ostade's more
important works :

Amsterdam. Jfuseum. A Painter's Studio. A. o.

, , Travellers resting. A. v. OSTADE,

, The Charlatan. A. v. OSTADE,


The Baker.

Van far Hoop C. Peasants round a Hearth. A. v.

OSTADE, 1661.

Six Collection. The Fish-wife. (Dated 1672.)
Antwerp. Museum. The Smoker. A. v. OSTADE.

Berlin. Gallery. Portrait of an Old Woman. A

v. OSTADE, 16 .

(J The Lyre-player before an Ale-

house. A. V. OSTADE, 1640.
,, The Smoker. A. v. OSTADE,

Brunswick. Gallery. The Annunciation.

A Peasant smoking.

Brussels. Gallery. Man eating Herrings.

Arenlery Coll. Interior of a Tavern.
Casscl. Gallery. Peasants in the Arbour of an

Ale-house. A. v. OSTADE,

Peasants drinking in an Ale-

house. A. V. OSTADE. 16 .
Peasants playing Cards. A. V.

OSTADE, 1659.

Darmstadt. Gallery. Peasants dancing.
Dresden. Gallery. Peasants in an Ale-house. A.

V. OSTADE, 1639.
The Painter's Studio. A. v.

OSTAUE, 1663.
r Two Peasants eating at a Table.

A. v. OSTADE, 1653.

Two Peasants before an Ale-

house, one lighting a Pipe.

A. V. OSTADE, 1664.

Interior of an Ale-house, with

Men and Women. A. v. OS-
TADE, 1679.

Peasants playing Cards. AD.


Dublin. A'at. Gall. Boors carousing.

Dulwich. Gallery, Boors making merry. A. v. OS-

TADE, 164.

M Man and Woman in conversa-


Dulwich. Gallery. A Man smokiug. A. T. OSTAUE.

A Woman with a Jug. A. v.


Edinburgh. Nat. Gall. Interior of a Butcher's Shop.
Florence. Ujfizi. A Mau at a Window.

Frankfort. Stddel. Interior of a Shed. A. V. OS-

TADE. 1656.
Glasgow. Gallery. The strolling Fiddler.

The Village School.

Hague. Gallery. Peasants in an Inn A. v. os-

TADK, 1662.

The Fiddler. A. v. OSTADE,
1673. (Ploos van Amstet
made a facsimile engraving
from a drawing l>y A . ran Os-
tade, dated 1673. exactly simi-
lar to this picture.)
London. If at. Gall. The Alchymist. A. v. OSTADE,


Apsley House. A company of Peasants. (The

drawing for this picture in in
the British Museum.)
Ashburton Coll. Peasants playing and singing.

(Dated 1661.)

A Village Scene. (Dated 1676.)

Bridge-mater Ho. Peasants playing Skittles. A.

V. OSTADB, 1676.

t , Portrait of au Old Mau (prob-

ably a lawyer). 1671.

Buckingham Pal. Peasants conversing. A. v. OS-
TADE, 1650.

An Interior, with Peasants

smokiug. A. v. OSTADE, 1665.
Bute Coll. Lawyer in his Study.

Northbrook Coll. Four Persons playing at Cards.

(Dated 1648.)

[And fine examples in the collections of Lord Howe,
Mr. H. Lonsdale, Mr. Alfred de Rothschild, Lord
Rothschild, Miss de Rothschild, Mr. George Salting, &c.,
and other private collections.]
Madrid. Gallery. A Concert.

Peasants feeding,

A Toper.

Munich. Ptnakothik. Interior of a Peasant's Cottage.

A. v. OSTADE. 1647.

Peasants quarrelling. A. V. OS-

TADE, 1656.
Peasants playing and dancing.

A. v. OSTADE. 1647.

A Toper. A. v. OSTADE.

Peasants carousing. A. v. OS-

Peasants in an Ale-house. A.

v. OSTADE, 16 .

,, Peasants in an Ale-house, with

a Woman and her Children.
Oxford. Univ. Gait. A Dutch interior.

Paris. Louvre. The Family of Adriaeu van


The School-master. A. v. OS-

TADE, 1662.

,, The Fish-market.

Interior of a Cottage. A. v. OS-

TADE, 1642.

A Mau reading in his Cabinet.

A Smoker.

A Toper. A. v. OSTADE. 1668.

Pesth. Gallery. Interior of a Peasant's Cottage.


Interior, with Peasants.

Peasants drinking.

Interior, with Peasants.

A Man mending a Pen.
Interior, with Peasants. 4. V.


Petersburg. Hermitage. A Village Fete.
A Peasant Family.

The Violin-player. (Siyued arid

dated 1648.)

An old Woman seated on a

Window-sill, surrounded by
a Vine.
A Village Minstrel playing a

The Baker. (Signed.)



Petersburg. Htrmitayt. The Village Concert.
>i Peasants smoking.

Peasants, while smoking and

drinking, listen to a Woman
who reads a Letter.

A Peasant Family.

, Peasants in an Ale-house.

,i Touch. (Siyned.)

.1 i) Sight. (Signed and dated 1651.


Peasant in a Cottage.

" i, Landscape.

Rotterdam. Museum. A Man reading. A. v. OSTADE.

., A Village Tavern.

Vienna. Gallery. The Mountebank.

Czernin Coll. Peasants.

>i A Smoker.

i, A Drinker.

Liechtenstein Coll. Four good pictures. ,^ ->r

OSTADE, ISACK VAN, the brother and scholar' of
Adriaen van Ostade, born at Haarlem, 2nd of June,
1621. Little is known of his life. He painted at
Haarlem, and was buried there 16th of October,
1649. His earliest pictures were pain ted in imitation
of the first style of his brother, they are of a brown-
ish tone, and are inferior to the works of Adriaen ;
but he afterwards adopted a manner of his own, in
which he was most successful. This latter is to
be found in his pictures representing winter scenes
and frozen canals, with figures amusing themselves
on the ice. Some of these are faithful and admir-
able representations of nature, and are deservedly
held in the highest estimation. They approach to
the productions of Albert Cuyp, and it may fairly
be presumed that if Isack had lived longer, he
would have readied a still higher rank than he
now enjoys in the Dutch school. A large pro-
portion of his best pictures are in England, where
he was appreciated long before he met with much
recognition abroad.

Amsterdam. Museum. A Village Inn. ISACK VAN

The Merry Peasant.

A Way -side Inn.

Antwerp. Museum. Wiuter Landscape. ISACK VAN

OSTADE, 1645.

Berlin. Museum. A Halt before an Inn. I. VAN


Interior of a Dutch Peasant's


A Peasant in a Flap-hat. ISACK


Brussels. Museum. Travellers Halting. I. VAN

OSTADE, 1660 (sic). [This
date must tie a forgery , for the
painter was dead in 1660.]

Woman Winding Thread.


Copenhagen. Gallery. WiEterLandscape,with Figures.


Dresden. Gallery. WinterLaudscape,withFigures.


,, Peasants Drinking and Dancing.


Glasgow. Gallery. A Fish Auction.

H&gue.SteengracktCoil. Peasant with a Pig (swine).


London. Nat. Gallery. Village Scene ; a capital ex-
ample. (Engraved by Dunker.)

H Frost Scene. ISAAC VAN OS-


A Frozen Eiver. i. v. OSTADE.

(A masterpiece.)

., Ashlrurton Coll. Travellers and Villagers before
an Inn.

^ Bridgewater House. A Village Street.

Buckingham Pal. Boors Making Merry. ISACK


A Village Street. ISACK VAN

OSTADE, 1643.

London. Dudley House, Selling Fish. ISACK VAN OS-
TADE, 1649.
Lcinsdomne House. The Frozen Canal. ISACK VAN


., Northbrook Coll. Winter Landscape.
Madrid. Gallery. Peasants.

Munich. Pinakothek. A Rocky Landscape, with a
Donkey ami his Driver.


Peasants Drinking. ISACK VAN


Paris. Louvre. Travellers halting at an Inn.


5. The Halt. (Em/raved in

,, A Frozen Canal in Holland

(No. 378). ISACK OST\DE.

(Enr/raved in Landon and

A Frozen Canal in Holland


Petersburg. Hcrmitaije. A Wiuter Landscape, with

Figures. (Signed.)

., A Landscape Travellers stop-

ping before an Inn. (Sii/ned.)
., ., A Frozen Lake in Holland.

Rotterdam. Museum. A Village Scene. i. VAN

OSTADE, 16 .
Vienna. liehedire. A Peasant having a Tooth

extracted. \y ]&

OSTENDORFER, HANS, probably the son' of
Martin Ostendorfer, prepared a Tilt-book for Duke
Wi'liam IV. of Bavaria, in conjunction with the
maitre d'armes, Hans Schenk. It is now in the
Royal Library at Munich.

OSTENDORFER, MARTIN, was court painter to
the Duke William IV., in the first half of the 16th
century; he belonged to the school of Landshut.
He painted the portraits of his master and his wife,
Maria Jacobaa. Two pictures of his are in the
Moritz Chapel at Nuremberg, viz. :
The Martyrdom of St. Andrew.
The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew.
OSTENDORFER, MICHAEL, painter, sculptor, and
wood engraver, flourished in the first half of the
16th century, and formed himself mainly upon A.
Altdorfer. He worked in Ratisbon from 1519 to
1559, and died there in the hitter year. Among
his pictures we may specify :

Munich. Gallery. A Scene from the Apocalypse

(signed M. O. in a mono-
Regensburg. An Altar-piece with wings.

A Portrait.

Schleissheim. Gallery. A Christ on the Cross.

In the Munich Gallery there is also a small
' Hilly Landscape,' which was formerly in the
Wallerstein collection, and is now ascribed to Alt-
dorfer, but is much more probably the work of
Ostendorfer. He engraved on wood a genealogical
tree of the Turkish Sultans, with their busts.

OSTERWALD, GEOEG, painter and etcher, was
born at Rinteln in Wesertlial, in 1803. He was
trained under Gartner in Munich. From 1830 to
1832 he studied in Paris. He painted history, genre,
landscape, architecture, and portraits. Among his
better works we may name :

The Cathedral of P.amberg.

The Cathedral of Siena.

The Prophecy of Jeremiah (water-colour).


OTELIN, of Valenciennes, the first painter men-
tioned in the annals of his native city, flourished
in the 15th century, and executed a picture of 'The
Valenciennois setting out to pull down the Houses
of Bruay and Fresnes, April 25th, 1456,' which is
at Valenciennes.


Woodbury Co. photo \

[National Gallery



OTHO, EDWARD FITZ, 1245, painted the Apostles
and King Henry III. and his Queen in St. Stephen's
Chapel, Westminster, and the 'Last Judgment' on
the wall at the west end.

OTT, JOHANN GEORG, was born at Schaffhausen
in 1782, and in 1801, with the assistance of Landolt
and Breitinger, first devoted himself to art, after
having been brought up to business pursuits. In
the following year he went to Vienna, and there
produced some ' Studies of Horses.' He then
travelled in Germany, Holland, and France, and
returned in 1805 to his native place, where he
devoted himself to the painting of battle-pieces,
in which he evinced much acquaintance both
with military matters and with horses. He died
at Zurich in 1808. Among his works we may
mention :

Patrol of Hussars.
A Horse dragging a dead Chasseur.
Brother Nikolaus von der Flute at the fatal Meeting at
Stauz in 1481 (left incomplete at Ott's death).

OTTAVIANI, GIOVANNI, an Italian designer
and engraver, was born at Rome about 1735, and
died in 1808. He was a pupil of Wagner at
Venice, and on his return to Rome engraved several
plates after some of the most distinguished masters.
The following are among the best of his works :
St. Jerome with a Crucifix ; after Guercino.
St. Cecilia ; after the same.
Angelica and Medoro ; after the same.
Mars and Venus ; after the same.
Three Women bathing surprised by a young Man ; after

the same.

Diana and Actaeon ; after the same.
Twenty-three plates, from the paintings by Raphael, in

the loggie of the Vatican.

Four plates from the pictures by Raphael, in the Far-
nesina, representing

Jupiter and Ganymede.
Juno on her Car.
Neptune on the Ocean.
Pluto and Prosperine.
The Aldobrandini Marriage ; after Smwgliemcz.


OTTENS, FREDERIK and JAN, two little known
engravers, who flourished at Delft early in the
18th century.

OTTEVAERE, ADGDSTE, a native of Everghem,
Flanders, who painted from 1809 to 1856. He
lived chiefly in Paris, but died at Ghent in the
latter year mentioned. He was a pupil of E. Ver-
boeckhoven, and painted similar subjects.

was one of the best scholars of H. Brandi. In the
churches of Rome there are but a few pictures by
him, for he died young in 1697. He also etched
from his own designs and from the works of
other Italian masters. He signed his etchings

born at Verona about 1570, and died in the same
city, of the plague, in 1630. He was a disciple of
Felice Ricci, whose manner he imitated so happily
that he was employed, after that artist's death, in
conjunction with Turchi, to complete several pic-
tures which Ricci had left unfinished. A study of
the works of Raphael added much to the improve-
ment of his talent. A good example of his work-
manship is ' The Slaughter of the Innocents,' in
San Stefano; and he appears to still more advan-
tage at San Giorgio in the picture of St. Nicholas,
with St. Bernard and several fathers of the Church.
A. single etching is known by him ; it is an ' En-
tombment,' and is signed Pasg 1 . Otti>. Ver'. inv.


OTTLEY, WILLIAM YOUNG, an English writer,
and artist, was born near Thatcham (Berks.), in
1771. He was of a good family, and cultivated
art as an amateur. Having studied under Cuitt,
and in the schools of the Academy, he went, in
1791, to Italy, where he remained ten years, study-
ing and collecting works of art. He is mainly
known as an author, but he illustrated many of
his books himself. In 1833 he was appointed
Keeper of the Prints in the British Museum. He
died in London in 1836. His chief works are :

Inquiry into the Origin and Early History of Engrav-
ing.' 1816.

' The Stafford Gallery.' 1818.

'The Italian School of Design' (uith etchings bu him-
self.) 1823.

'A series -of plates after the early Florentine School.'

'Fac-similes (by himself) of Prints of early Italian,
German, and Flemish Schools.' 1826.

' Fac-similes (by himself) of rare Etchings after Italian,
Flemish, and Dutch Schools.' 1828.

' Notices of Engravers and their Works.' 1831.

' An Inquiry into the Invention of Printing.' 1863.

In 1823 Ottley exhibited a spirited design at the
Royal Academy, of ' The Battle of the Angels.'

OTTMER, KARL THEODOR, an architect and
painter, was born at Brunswick in 1800, and
after having attended the Carolinum there during
1816-19, he in 1822 went to Berlin, seven years
later to Paris, and thence to Italy, where he first
devoted himself to painting, although through-
out his life he was more engaged in building.
He died at Berlin in 1843. He was a member of
the Architectural Union of Great Britain, and an
honorary member of the Berlin Academy.

OTTO, GAEL, German painter ; born August 26,
1830, at Osterode ; at first was a painter of porce-
lain at Klausthal, and subsequently a pupil of
Piloty's at the Munich Academy ; completed his
studies by travel in Holland and by residence in
Paris ; he finally settled in Munich. His works
are to be found in various Galleries of Germany ;
they include his ' Battle of Nordlingen,' ' Belshaz-
zar"s Feast, 1 &c. He also painted frescoes. He
died at Munich, Oct. 6, 1902.

OTTO, H. F., an obscure German engraver, said
to have been a native of Berlin. He resided at
Frankfort in 1707, and engraved part of the heads
for a work enti'led, ' Nutitia Universitatis Franco-
fortianse,' published in that year. His plates con-
sist chiefly of book ornaments.

OTTO, JOHANNES SAMUEL, was born at Unruh-
stadt, in the province of Posen, in 1798. He
visited the Berlin Academy, where he was much
occupied in etching after the architectural drawings
of Sehinkel. He also painted several altar-pieces,
as well as many portraits ; some of his portraits of
royal personages he reproduced by lithography.
He also worked in facsimile after Holbein's 'Dance
of Death.' In 1844 he was named a Royal Pro-
fessor. He was a great friend of Kiss the sculptor.
Otto died in Berlin in 1878. There is a portrait of
Kiss by him in the National Gallery at Berlin. We
may also name :

Portrait of the Opera singer, Lehmann.

King Frederick William IV. (engraved ly




OUDENDIJK, ADRIAEN, a landscape painter,
was born at Haarlem about 1648, and instructed
by his father. He painted landscapes and views of



<owns, some of which are enriched with figures by
Dirck Maas, probably when he was young ; but his
chief skill lay in copying, or rather pillaging, the
works of Adriaen van de Velde and Thomas Wyck,
for which he was surnamed ' Rnpianus.' The time
of his death is not known, but lie was living in

OUDENDIJK, EVERT, a painter at Haarlem,
who was admitted into the guild in 1640. He
was the father of Adriaen Oudendijck. He painted
landscapes enlivened with stag-hunts and similar

of whose life few particulars are known, but in
the Museum at Amsterdam there is a picture, ' The
Workshop of a Weaver,' signed by him, and dated
1652. Oudenrogge visited France in 1651 and
(lied two years later, in 1653, at Haarlem.

OUDKY, JACQUES CHARLES, animal painter, was
the son of Jean Baptiste Oudry, and the pupil of
his father. He was born in Paris in 1720. He
was received into the Academy in 1748. He
travelled much ; he lived for a time at Brussels,
where he was painter-in-chief to Prince Charles of
Lorraine ; and died at Lausanne in 1778.

OUDRY, JEAN BAPTISTE, a French painter and
engraver, born in Paris in 1686. His first art
instruction was received frcm his father, an artist
who combined the trade of picture-dealing with
painting. He also studied in the old ' maitrise ' of
St. Luke, and under de Serre, the king's painter at
Marseilles, whom he accompanied to that city.
On his return to Paris he became a pupil of Lar-
gilliere, under whom he studied five years, and
who bestowed great care on his training, and fully
recognized the peculiar bent of his genius. In
1717 he had already risen to such repute, that
when Peter the Great came to Paris in that year,
he had his portrait painted by Oudry. He was
elected a member of the 'maitrise' in 1708, and
subsequently filled in it the offices of assistant and
professor. Oudry was received into the Acad&nie
des Beaux Arts as an historical painter in 1717.
on his picture of 'Abundance.' For many years
his practice consisted of portraits and votive pic-
tures for churches : in fact, whatever came to him.
Among these works, the most noteworthy were
the ' Nativity ' in the church of St. Leu, and the
' Adoration of the Magi ' in St. Martin-des-Champs.
At one time he was disposed to seek better fortunes
in Russia, whither he was invited by the Czar, whose
portrait he had painted. A commission to paint
some hunting-scenes for the Duke d'Antin, however,
turned the scale in favour of his native country,
and induced him to remain in France. But it was
not until he was presented to Louis XV. that lie was
enabled to devote himself entirely to the class of
work on which his reputation rests. He became
a great favourite with the king, and was assigned
apartments in the Louvre. His brush was in con-
stant requisition to portray the royal dogs and
hunts, as well as any additions to the king's col-
lection uf wild animals. Basking in the sunshine
of court patronage, there was now no lack of com-
missions to paint his favourite subjects. One of
his chief patrons was Fagon, the finance minister,
for whom he executed many decorative works. By
him he was appointed, in 1734, to the superintend-
ence of the manufactory at Beauvais, and his
piiccess in this undertaking obtained him the like
appointment at the G obelins. In producing designs
for execution at these establishments, he worked



Stockholm. Nat. Gallery.

assiduously, and for some time single-handed, until
he summoned Boucher and Natoire to his aid.
Notwithstanding these labours he found time to
paint a great number of pictures. Moreover, his
appreciation of La Fontaine led him to produce
illustrations for the fine edition of that poet's
fables which was published in 1755. In the same
year he was struck with apoplexy. He removed to
Beauvais, in the hopes of obtaining benefit from
the change ; and there he died on the 30th April,
1755. The following is a list of his better works :
Amiens. Museum. Dog and Game.

Arras. Fox-bunt.

Besancon. Dog guarding Game.

Caen. Wild Boar Hunt. 1748.

Cherbourg. Eagle and Hare.

Dijon. Prefecture. Fish, Eel, and Ducks.

Lille. Museum. Pug-dog. 1730.

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