Montpellier. Game, Dog, Flowers, and Fruit.
Nantes. Rustic scene.
, Dog seizing a Duck.
Narbonne. Bitch and Puppies.
., Dog and Pheasant.
Paris. Lorn-re. Wolf-hunt. 1746.
Dog and Game. 1747.
The Farm. 1750.
Three pictures of Dogs of Louis
Water-spaniel and Heron.
Tiger at the Meuagerie, Ver-
The Lion and the Spider.
Flowers and Fruit. 1721.
Spaniel aud Partridge. 1742.
Six still-life pictures.
Museum. Portrait of himself.
Louis XV. hunting the Stag.
T Gra " d \ Plenty.
Some of Oudry's drawings of birds in black and
white chalk on blue paper are peculiarly fine.
OUDRY, P., an unknown French painter, whose
name is appended to a portrait of Mary Queen of
Scots in the possession of the Duke of Devonshire
at Hardwick Hall, and probably painted at Sheffield
for the Countess of Shrewsbury.
OURS, J. S. SAINT. See SAINT OCRS.
OUSEY, BUCKLEY, painter of landscape and
figure subjects, was born at Stalybridge about
1851. Originally a weaver, he acquired by industry
a sound knowledge of drawing and painting.
Little is known of his early life. As a boy be
painted portraits at five shillings each, and used to
tell a story of one old woman who, on receiving
her portrait, asked, "Now, Mr. Ousey, is this a
real ile painting, will it waash ? " In or before
1884 he removed to the Conway valley. In that
year he was resident at Roe-Wen, and sent to the
Liverpool Autumn Exhibition ' Salmon Fishers on
the Conway,' 30, and 'A Wood Nymph,'15 guineas.
During the short remainder of his life Ousey sent
every year to this Exhibition. The most important
of three pictures in 1885 was 'Fishing-boats off
Puffin Island,' 50 guineas. In 1885-7 he studied
for a year and a half at Antwerp under Verlat,
ALBERT VAN OUWATER
THE RAISING OF LAZARUS
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
the requisite funds being advanced by a brother
artist. In 1887 he had removed to Conway, and
sent a large drawing, 'Gipsy Hawkers,' 65. In
1888 he made his only appearance at the Royal
Academy with an oil, 'Lone Margin of the Sea,'
which was afterwards at the Liverpool Exhibition.
He died in 1889, leaving a widow and several
children. He was a member of the Royal Cambrian
Academy. Early in 1890 a memorial exhibition
of his works was held in Stalyhridge ; and in
connection with it his remaining works, with a
large number contributed by brother artists, were
disposed of by an Art Union for the benefit of his
family. Ousey was a singularly versatile painter,
with much facility of invention. His cleverness
is well shown by a large number of small decorative
panels which he executed for the Bellevue Hotel,
Trefriw. These are now in the Gogarth Abbey
Hotel, Llandudno. Those that illustrate Welsh
scenery show acute observation and a tine percep-
tion of choice colour. Others, which represent
Shakespearean characters and romantic imaginary
scenes, are the work of a man of considerable
reading and fertile invention. There can be little
doubt that Onsey, but for his premature death,
would have surmounted the drawbacks of his early
career and made a considerable reputation in art.
E. R. D.
OUTKIN. See UTKIN.
OUVILLY. See GERBIEB.
OUVRIE, PIERRE JUSTIN, painter and litho-
grapher, was born in Paris in 1806. He was a
pupil of Abel de Pujol and of Chatillon. He visited
Italy, Flanders, and England. His landscapes are
remarkable for the skill with which the buildings
in them are treated. Ouvrie died in 1879. Among
his best works we may name :
The Grand Canal, Venice.
St. Laurence, Nuremberg.
San Pietro, Genoa.
AYurzburg Cathedral. (Water-Colour.)
View of Rouen. (The same.)
Market in Nuremberg. (The same.)
Somerset House. (The same.)
ODVRIER, JEAN, a French engraver, was bom
in Paris in 1725, and died in 1754. We have by
him a variety of vignettes, landscapes, and other
subjects, of which the following are considered
the best :
The Villagers of the Apennines ; after Pierre.
A View in the Alps ; after Vernet.
A View in the Apennines ; after the sajti
The Magic Lantern ; after Schenau.
The Flemish School ; after Eisen the elder.
The Dutch School ; after the fame.
The Genius of Design, an emblematical subject ; after
OUWATER, ALBERT VAN, a Haarlem painter
who flourished 1430-1460. He acquired a reputa-
tion for skill in the treatment of landscape and in
the painting of hands and feet. Cardinal Grimani
is said by the 'Anonimo' to have possessed some
landscapes by him, and Van Mander informs us
that he executed an altar-piece for the church of
St. Bavo at Haarlem representing SS. Peter and
Paul life-size, with, on the predella, pilgrims on
the way to Rome, in a finely-painted landscape.
These are now lost, and the only picture proved
to be by him is the ' Raising of Lazarus ' de-
scribed by Van Mander, and now in the Berlin
Museum. W. H. J; W,
OUWATER, GUEERARDT VAN. See DAVID.
OUWATER, ISAAK, an artist, born in 1747, at
Amsterdam. He painted there, at Utrecht, and at
Haarlem. His subjects were views of or in towns,
into which he introduced figures and animals. He
died at Amsterdam in 1793. Six pictures by him
were sold, in 1814, at the sale of J. C. van Hall ;
and there are in the Museum at Amsterdam, two
views of that city by him.
OUWATER, JAKOB, was a Dutch painter of
fruit, flowers, insects, birds, &c., of whom little is
known. He lived long, however, at the Hague,
where he was inscribed, in 1754, on the registers of
the ' Pictura ' brotherhood. He afterwards worked
for a time at Middelburg.
OUWERKERK, JAN VAN, an unimportant Dutch
painter, was established at Middelburg in 1774,
where he painted marine views. He was a pupil
of JIarintis Piepers.
OVENS, JDHIAEN, a Dutch painter and etcher,
was born at Amsterdam in 1623. He has been
supposed to have been brought up in the school
of Rembrandt. Whether this be correct or not,
he certainly excelled in painting night-pieces and
subjects by torch-light ; he was also eminent as
a portrait painter. There are some of his works
in the Stadt-house at Amsterdam, representing sub-
jects from Dutch history. In 1675 he was invited
to Friedrichstadt, to the court of the Duke of
Holstein, in whose service he remained till his
death, which occurred on the 7th December, 1678.
There has been some confusion as to the dates of
Juriaen Ovens, in consequence of a mistaken
assertion, supported by Nagler, that on a portrait
of himself, painted by him in 1666, the words
anno cetatis 66, were to be read. Pictures of
his are to be found as under :
Amsterdam. Town Hall. The Conspiracy of Claudius
Museum. Portrait of Mr. Jan Barend
Portrait group of seven regents,
half life size.
Copenhagen. Jfuseum. The Concert.
Nantes. JIuseum. The Departure of Tobit. 1651.
Vienna. Count Harrach's. Girl with a Fowl.
Girl with a Bunch of Grapes.
Among his etchings there are :
The Whale. 1659.
Inauguration of Kiel University. 1666.
Portrait of Chancellor Kielmann.
OVERBECK, BONAVENTCHA VAN, called 'Rorau-
lus,' ;i painter, engraver, and author ; was born
in 1660 at Amsterdam. He was probably a pupil
of Gerard Lairesse, and went three times to Rome,
many of the antiquities of which city he drew and
engraved. He painted there also a picture for the
Bentvogel Society, which was engraved by Van
Pool. Schenk engraved his ' Mars and Apollo,'
and C. Vermeulen his portrait by C. le Blon. He
died in 1706. After his death, his work, ' Reliquiie
antiquae urbis Romae,' was published in 1708, and
remarks npon it, by P. Rolli, in 1739.
OVERBECK, JOHANN FRIEDRICH, the leader of
the modern religious movement in German art,
was born at Lubeck on the 4th of July, 1789. His
ancestors for three generations were Protestant
ministers ; his father was doctor of laws, a poet,
and Burgomaster of his native city. After a
general education conducted mostly at home, Over-
beck was sent, in 1806. to prosecute his art studies
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
at Vienna, in the Academy. The method there in
force soon awakened strong opposition in his
peculiar temperament, which led to his expulsion
with several of his sympathizers. In 1810 he went
to Borne, where, with his friend Cornelius, he
founded the school of German pre-Raphaelites ; the
home of the brotherhood being the disused monas-
tery of Sant' Isidore, on the Pincian. The first
important commission O^erbeck received was one
from Queen Caroline of Bavaria for an 'Adoration
of the Kings." This was in 1811 ; two years later
he renounced the Lutheran heresy, and was re-
ceived into the Catholic Church. This change,
which can hardly have failed to distress his parents
at home, must no doubt be taken as the explanation
of Overbeck's deliberate avoidance of his native
place on his several visits to Germany. After his
parting with them in 1806, he never again saw his
mother and father, although they did not die until
1820 and 1821 respectively. In 1819, an exhibition
of German pictures, painted in Rome, was held in
the Palazzo Cafarelli, and the chief interest centred
in the works of Overbeck, Cornelius, Veit, and
Schadow. One of Overbeck's contributions was a
' Madonna ' which showed an almost slavish defer-
ence to Raphael. The other was a ' Flight into
Egypt,' in which little of his own ascetic bent
could be perceived. In 1819 Overbeck married a
lady, a native of Vienna, whose Christian name
was Nina, and who, we are told, had no right to a
surname, for she was the illegitimate daughter of
a Viennese noble, from whom she received a
dowry. By her he had two children, a girl who
died young, and a boy, Alfons Maria, who only
lived long enough to give promise of considerable
powers. In 1831 Overbeck paid a visit to Germany.
In 1833 he was present at the opening of Raphael's
tomb in the Pantheon. In 1840 occurred the death
of his son, which was followed thirteen years later
by that of his wife. In 1855 he visited Germany
for the last time. Two years later he was honoured
by a visit in his studio from Pius IX., on the 7th
of February, and on the 12th November, 1869, he
died at the age of eighty. The following list
includes most of his important works :
Assisi. f^l I Vision of St. Francis. (Fresco.)
Carlsruhe. Gallery. The Christian Parnassus. (Car-
Cologne. Cathedral. Assumption of the Madonna.
Basle. Museum. The Finding of Moses. (Cartoon.)
Israelites gathering Manna. (The
Translation of Elijah. (The same.)
,, Death of St. Joseph. (The same.)
Berlin. Sat. Gallery. The Seven Sacraments. Seven
., Portrait of an old Monk.
. Raczynski CoU. Marriage of the Virgin.
Dusseldorf. Academy. .Raising of Lazarus.
Frankfort. StadelGal. Joseph sold by his Brethren.
Haffiburg " tal }
Portrait of Cornelius.
Lubeck. Town Library. Meeting of Ulysses and Tele-
Marien Kirclie. Christ entering Jerusalem.
Munich. aW Pirn.- j Holy Family>
Munich. New Pina- ) Italia and Germania, as two
cothek. J female figures in a landscape.
Portrait of Vittoria Caldoni.
Kome. Card Bartholdi. History of Joseph. (Frescoes.)
r , 1'iUa Massimo. Jerusalem delivered. (Frescoes.)
Weihern (near Lotz- ) ' Cyclus ' from the Gospels.
Munich), beck Coll. f (Forty Cartoons.)
OVERBECK, (or OVERBEECK,) LEENDEET, a
Dutch landscape painter and engraver, born at
Haarlem in 1750. He was a pupil of H. Meyer,
and at first designed tapestry and ornaments, but
afterwards turned his attention to drawing and
etching, in which latter he became very skilful.
In the year 1775 he was Moderator in the Academy
at Haarlem, and gave the following year a dis-
course which was printed. He worked in Amster-
dam and at Weesp, and died at Haarlem in 1815.
He engraved a number of Dutch landscapes with
figures, among which are views in the neighbour-
hood of Haarlem, dated 1791-93, and two of Leyden.
OVERBEKE, ADRIAN VAN, entered in the register
of the Guild of St. Luke in 1495 as an apprentice of
Quentin Metis's, was admitted as free master in
1508. In 1509-10 he painted an altar-piece for
the chapel of Our Lady attached to the Hopital
Comtesse at Lisle, for which he was paid the large
sum of 438/. In 1510-11 John van Ghent painted
the shutters for 24?. This altar-piece was one of
the 354 old pictures sold by auction by order of
the municipality in 1813. On August 11, 1513,
the confraternity of St. Anne established in the
church of Kempen (Rhine Province) made a
contract with him by the terms of which he bound
himself to execute a reredos for the high- altar of
that church for the sum of 300 gold florins. The
centre of this altar-piece, which still occupies its
original position, represents the ' Nativity,' 'Adora-
tion of the Magi,' ' Presentation in the Temple,' and
the 'Tree of Jesse'iri richly-polychromed sculpture,
whilst on the shutters are painted episodes from
the legend of St. Anne and St. Joachim, with the
'Last Judgment' on the exterior. In March 1524
Adrian was found guilty of publicly reading and
expounding the Scriptures, and was sentenced to
leave the town before sunset and go on a pilgrim-
age to Wilsenaken. Van Overbeke is probably
the master Adrian whose portrait Diirer drew
when he was at Antwerp in 1520, and to whom he
gave some of his prints. In 1529 Van Overbeke
painted another altar-piece for the chapel of St.
Joseph in the church of Kempen ; this was taken
away to Kaiserwerth in 1662 and is now lost.
H. Keussen. ' Der Meister des Schreines am Hauptal-
tare in der Pfarrkirche zu Kempeu.' Coin, 1873.
' The Academy,' June 21, 1S79, p. 547.
f. Clemen. ' Die Kunstdenkmaler des Kneises Kempen.'
Dusseldorf, 1S91. \f g. j yjr
OVEREXD, W. H., was born at Coatham, York-
shire, in 1851, and educated at the Charterhouse.
His boyish drawings showed considerable natural
powers of observation. Strongly attracted to the
sea and seafaring life, he started at first as a
painter of marine subjects, but was soon drawn
aside to work as an illustrator for the ' Illustrated
London News,' a connection which lasted till his
death. He soon acquired a special reputation for
his intimate knowledge of life at sea, whether on
merchantman or war vessel, and his numerous
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
renderings of such scenes are always marked by
accuracy and spirit. In later years he occasionally
exhibited at the Royal Academy, and he was a
member of the Institute of Painters in Oil-Colours.
A portrait-study of the Duke of York as command-
ing officer of a torpedo-boat, and another of Admiral
Farragut in the battle of Mobile Bay (now in the
possession of the U.S. Government), are his best
pictures. His life-work was done, however, in
black and white, and the bulk of it appeared in the
pages of the 'Illustrated London News.' He did
occasional work also as a book-illustrator. His
death occurred in 1898.
OVERLAET, ANTON, a designer and etcher,
who lived at Antwerp in the latter half of the 18th
century, and had at first been a journeyman baker.
He was admired for his pen-and-ink drawings
from portraits, historical pictures, landscapes, and
genre scenes. Among his copies we may name :
Beggar and his Wife ; after Rembrandt. 1760.
Dutch Village, with Castle and Canal ; after the same.
Two drawings of Male and Female Peasants; in A.
OWEN, The Rev. EDWARD PRYCE, an English
etcher and painter, born in 1788. He graduated
at Oxford, took orders in the Church of England,
and cultivated art as an amateur. He published
Borne etchings of ancient buildings in Shrewsbury,
1820-21, and another volume of etchings in 1826.
He died at Cheltenham in 1863.
OWEN, SAMUEL, marine painter in water-coiours,
was born in 1768. His subjects were generally
shipping, which he executed in a correct and
skilful manner. He exhibited for the first time at
the Royal Academy in 1794, and again in 1797,
when his subject was the ' British and Spanish
Fleets, commanded by Sir John Jarvis.' He was a
member of the ' Associated Artists in Water-
Colours,' a defunct society, which was founded in
1808. For several years before his death (which
occurred at Sunbury in 1857) he had given up
painting. He made the eighty-three drawings
illustrating Bernard Cooke's ' The Thames.'
OWEN, WILLIAM, an eminent painter of por-
traits and fancy subjects, was born at Ludlow in
1769, and was educated at the grammar-school of
that town. It is not known that he received any
instruction in painting until he reached his seven-
teenth year, although he had as a boy exhibited a
strong inclination for art. About 1786 he was sent
to London and placed under Catton, who had been
a coach-painter, but was then a Royal Academi-
cian ; and soon afterwards a copy Owen made of
Reynolds's picture of Perdita, introduced him to
the notice of the President and to the benefit of his
instruction. In the year 1792 he made his first
appearance as an exhibitor at Somerset House,
with the ' Portrait of a Gentleman,' and a view of
Ludford Bridge, Ludlow ; each succeeding year
his practice as a portrait painter increased, till in
the year 1798 he exhibited no less than ten. This
may be considered good evidence of his artistic
skill, for he had no advantage of patronage like
Reynolds, Beechey, Lawrence, and Hoppner, who
divided the world of fashion between them. And
among those who sat to him were some of the most
distinguished men of the day ; such as William
Pitt, Lord Grenville, Sir William Scott, Cyril
Jackson, Vicary Gibbs, Chief Justice Abbot, the
Marquis of Stafford, the Earl of Bridgewater, John
Soane the architect, Viscount Exmouth, and many
others. The ' Blind Beggar's Daughter of Bethnal
Green,' ' The Sleeping Girl,' 'The Schoolmistress,'
'The Girl at the Spring,' 'The Road-side,' 'The
Cottage Door,' ' The Children in the Wood,' are
among his subject pictures. In 1804 he became
an Associate, and in 1806 a full member of the
Royal Academy ; in 1810 he was appointed por-
trait painter to the Prince of Wales. The Prince
Regent offered to knight him, an honour which he
refused. For the last five years of his life he was
in a state of almost utter helplessness, but his
sufferings were at lust put an end to in 1825 by
the mistake of a chemist's boy, who sent him a
bottle of opium instead of a harmless draught.
Owen died on the llth of February, 1825. Besides
the pictures already named the following may be
London. Hoy. Academy. ( Boy and Kitten.
(D-iploma Gall.) \ Cottage Children.
Nat. Port. Gall. John Wilson Crocker.
(?) John Philpot Curran.
OZANNE, JEANNE FRANQOISE, and MABIB
JEANNE, were the sisters of Nicolas Ozanne, and
were instructed in engraving by Aliamet. We
have by them several prints of sea-ports, &c.,
among which are the following :
A View of the Port of Dieppe; J. F. Ozanne; after
A View of St. Vallery ; the same.
Two Views of the Port of Leghorn; 31. J. 0:anne;
A Calm; the same ; after the same.
Two Pastoral subjects; after Phil. Jl'ouicerman ; J/. J.
OZANNE, NICOLAS, a French engraver, was born
in Paris about the year 1724. He engraved from
his own drawings a number of plates of marines
and sea-ports, which are esteemed for their neat-
ness. We have, among others, the following by
A set of four Landscapes and Marines ; 0:anne fee.
Two Views of the Port of Brest.
OZANNE, PIERRE, designer and engraver, was
born in Paris in 1725, who produced four seta of
etchings of shipping. He was probably a brother
PAAPE. See DE PAPE.
PAAR, WEXZEL, Count VON, executed some
drawings and etchings. His son Louis, born at
Vienna in 1772, and died in 1819, also painted
PAAS, CORNELIUS, a German engraver, born in
1740. He settled in London about 1765, and
became engraver to George III. He died in London
PABLO, PEDRO, was a Catalonian, who in 1563,
in conjunction with Pedro Serafin, a Greek, painted
the doors of the great organ in Tarragona cathe-
dral. The artists received three hundred Catalonian
pounds for this performance, and were employed in
various works by the chapter.
PABST, CAMILLE ALFRED, French painter ; born
at Colmar (Alsace) in 1828 ; became a pupil of
Charles Comte ; was a regular exhibitor at the
Paris Salon since 1865 ; his principal works,
several of which have been engraved, include :
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
' Jeune Mere,' ' La Toilette,' ' Chez 1'AIcliimiste,'
' Jeu de Quilles,' ' Une Mariee en Alsace,' and
'Alsaciens a Paris'; obtained tliird-claRS medal in
1874 ; died in Paris, September 30, 1898.
PABST, PAUL, a Dutch gentleman, who was
Burgomaster of Rochlit, Leipsic, in 1490, and
built the church of St. Peter there. He decorated
its interior with pictures, and was still living in
1524. He was also called Pabst van Ohorn, or
PACCHIA. See DEL PACCHIA.
PACCHIABOTTI, GIACOMO, was the son of one
Bartolnmmeo di Giovanni Pacchiarotti, a dresser
of woollen cloth, and Elisabetta his wife. He was
born at Siena in 1474, and at an early age entered
the studio of Bernardino Fungai, then considered
the most distinguished exponent of art in that city.
So well did he imitate his teacher's mannerisms,
rigid with the traditions of the earlier Sienese
School, that the work of the pupil is not in-
frequently mistaken for that of the master. In
spite of a stormy life, due to his turbulent and
excitable disposition, and his fondness for mixing
himself up in the continuous political strifes and
revolutions of the period, he seems to have received
a good deal of employment from public bodies.
We read of work executed by him in 1503 in paint
and stucco (heads of the Emperors) in the nave
of the Duomo, and standards ordered for such State
occasions as the Elevation to the Pontificate of
the Sienese Pius III., and the Reception of the
Legate of Pope Julius II. In 1512 lie was com-
missioned to make the heraldic and other decora-
tions to be used at the public funeral of Pandolfo
Petrucci, whilst various religious confraternities
entrusted their processional banners to him. In
1507 the sons of Andrea Piccolomini, a brother of
Pius III., employed him to complete the adornment
of a chapel at San Francesco, commenced in 1504,
under the direction of their father, by Finturicchio.
This work, however, owing to the artist's idleness,
was not finished until 1514, and was totally
destroyed by fire in 1655. In 1518 he was engaged
by the Signoria to restore the face of the clock on
the Torre del Mangia. In 1525, and again in 1536,
he received commissions from the Guild of Notaries ;
the latter one being a triumphal arch on the occa-
sion of the visit to Siena of the Emperor Charles V.
The two best-known works of his, still existing in
his native city, are two ' Ascensions ' ; one in the
Church) of the Carmine, and the other painted for
the Convent of the Osservanza, but now in the
Academia delle Belle Arti. Although holding
the positions of Gonfalonier and Captain of the
Company of Stalloreggi, in which quarter of the
city he resided, his political activity largely, how-
ever, braggadocio led to his getting more than
once into trouble, for which he was imprisoned and
banished to his property outside the town. His
worst scrape, which forms the subject of one of
Fortini's Novette, occurred during a serious famine
in 1533, when the Society of the Bardotti,of which
body he was a prominent member, raised a civil
tumult. The authorities, however, succeeded in
forcibly quelling the disturbances, and the terrified
Pacchiarotti took refuge in the vaults of a church
(variously indicated as S. Giovanni Battista della
Morte, the Baptistery, or the Church of the Osser-
vanza, to which latter place he ultimately fled) :
even passing two days at close quarters with a
newly-buried corpse. He escaped punishment for
some time for this escapade, but on November 17,
1539, for the good of the State, he was sent into
lifelong exile, and his life declared forfeit. Never-
theless this harsh sentence was, at the petition
of his wife, repealed on August 17th, in the follow-
ing year, and he returned to his country house,
where he shortly afterwards died. Owing to