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the similarity of their names and the fact that
both were involved in political difficulties, constant
confusion has arisen in the minds of both historians
and students of art between Pacchiarotti and a
very different artistic personality Girolamo del
Pacchia. He married in 1505 Girolama, daughter
of Ser Alessandro di Francesco, by whom he had
three daughters, Gabriella, Virginia and Lucrezia.
The following pictures are the best-known examples
of his work
Buoncon- Church of}

vento, SS. Pittro f >-Madonna and four Saints. E.

Pa o/o. J

Florence. Academy,Si, Visitation.
London. Mr. C Butler. Four small panels: Nativity;
Baptism ; Resurrection ;

Mr. Muir ) Moses, David, and other

Mackenzie. ) Prophets.
Rome. Don Marcello ) Cruci(UioD .

Jtfassarenti. }
Scotland- Lord Kinnaird) ... ,. .,

(Rossi e Priory }. f
Siena. Sala IX. 5. Five Saints.

,, A'. 14. Madonna and Saints (in Ian-

ette);Christ with SS. Jerome
and Francis.

23. Prcdella. E.

,, ,. 24. Altar-piece ; Ascension. E.

,, 31. Visitation. E.

Palazzo Pa/m,-?,-;-)? ^"y '< Madonna with
If*, > > s t. Jerome and a female
') Sa

Chtirch of the Car- ]
mine. <lth Altar. R. J


R; H. H. C.

PACE DA FAENZA, painter, flourished at that town
in the 14th century. His works were of a grotesque


painter of fruit and flowers, was born at Rome in
1610. He was a scholar of Fioravanti, and was
called ' Di Campidoglio ' from an office he held in
the Campidoglio, or Capitol, at Rome. There
was a fine picture by him in the collection of the
Duke of Marlborough at Blenheim, and many others
are to be found in England. He died in 1670.


PACELLI, MATTED, a native of the Basilicata,
and a pupil of Luca Giordano, whom he followed
into Spain. He died in 1731.

PACHECO, CRISTOBAL, a Spanish portrait and
history painter, who flourished about 1568. He
was a protege of the Duke of Alva, for whom he
painted many pictures, including several portraits.

PACHECO, FUANCISCO, a painter, was born at
Seville in 1571. He was a pupil of Luis Fernandez,
and his first recorded works were the Standards of
the Fleets which sailed in 1594. In 1598 he exe-
cuted the paintings for the Monument erected for
the funeral honours of Philip II. In 1600 he
painted for the Convent of Mercy some scenes from
the life of St. Raymond, and in 1603 the fable of
1 Daedalus and Icarus ' for the Duke of Alcala. In
1611 he visited Madrid, and on his return to Seville
established a school of painting in his own house.
In 1612 he painted for the nuns of St. Isabel his
greatest work, the ' Last Judgment.' In 1618 he
was appointed inspector of pictures. In 1620 he


1 1 'oodbury L\>. photo] Natic nal ('.allay



painted ' The Baptism of our Lord,' and ' His
Banquet served by Angels in the Desert,' for the
high altar of the college of St. Hermengild. In
1623 he visited Madrid with his son-in-law Velas-
quez, -where he resided till 1625. On his return he
devoted himself chiefly to the pen, and wrote the
' Treatise of Painting,' which was published in
1649. He died at Seville in 1654. The Madrid
Museo possesses the following examples of his
work :

St. Ines.

St. Catalina.

St. John the Evangelist.

St. John the Baptist.

PACHELBLIN, AMALIA, a German flower-
painter, who was working at Nuremberg between
1686 and 1723. The details of her life are un-

PACKER, MICHAEL, a painter who flourished in
the latter part of the 15th century. He was a
native of Bruneck in the Tyrol, and his chief work
is an altar-piece at Wolfgang in Salzkame gut.
dated 1481.



painter, who was living in 1525, according to the
Ruolo de' Pittori. Signer Milanesi suggests that
he was identical with the Biagio, a pupil of Sandro
Botticelli, of whom Vasari tells an absurd story in
connection with the sale of a picture by him to a

PACINI, SANTI, an obscure Florentine, who lived
towards the end of the eighteenth century. He
made the copy which took the place of Andrea del
Sarto's ' Deposition ' in the convent of S. Pietro in
Mugello, when the original picture was removed
to the Pitti Palace.

PACK, CHRISTOPHER, an English portrait painter,
born at Norwich, in 1750. Brought up to trade, he
suffered some losses, and then devoted himself to
art. He came to London, and was introdoced to
Sir J. Reynolds, whose pictures he copied. Sub-
sequently he practised as a portrait painter at
Norwich, Liverpool, Dublin, and London, where
he is last heard of in 1796.

PACOT, was a native of France, and flourished
about the year 1690. He engraved some plates of
battles and sea-fights, which are etched and finished
with the graver.

PACUVIUS, the Roman tragic poet, practised
painting by way of amusement in his old age, and
executed some much-admired works in the Temple
of Hercules, about 150 r..o. After his time, Pliny
tells us, no worthy painter arose among the
Romans. The art, in fact, fell into disrepute, and
scarcely any but slaves and foreigners were found
to practise it at all.

PADER, HILAIRE, painter and engraver, flour-
ished at Toulouse in the middle of the 17th century.
He was a pupil of Chalette, and painted several
views of Toulouse.

PADERNA, GIOVANNI, was born at Bologna
about the year 1600, and was a scholar of Girolamo
Curti (Dentone), under whom he became an emi-
nent painter of perspectives and architecture. After
the death of Dentone he was much employed, and
his success was such as to excite the jealousy of
Agostino Mitelli, one of the ablest artists in that
branch. Of his numerous works at Bologna, the
decorations of the Capella Zagoni, in the church of

La Madonna della Liberia, are considered among
his best performances. He died, according to some,
in 1640 ; butZani says he was living in 1647.

PADERNA, PAOLO ANTONIO, was born at Bologna
in 1649, and for some time studied under Guercino.
On the death of that master he entered the school
of Carlo Cignani. Although he acquired some
celebrity as an historical painter, he was more
distinguished for his landscapes, which are in the
style of his first instructor. He died in 1708.

PADEKNI, CAMILLO, a Neapolitan painter, who
flourished in the 18th century. He came to Eng-
land, where he made several drawings from old
pictures. He died about 1770.



PADOVANINO, FRANCESCO, was born at Padua
in 1561. It is not known by whom he was in-
structed in the art, but he painted history with
some success. One of the most esteemed of his
works is a picture representing a Saint interceding
for two criminals condemned to death, in the
church of La Madonna del Carmine, at Venice.
He also was much employed in painting portraits.
He died in 1617.



PADOVANINO, IL (OrrAVio, son of Ludovico).

PADOVANINO, OTTAVIO, the son of Francesco
Padovanino, \vas born at Padua about the year
1582. After studying some time under his father,
he was sent to Rome for improvement. He ac-
quired some celebrity as an historical painter, but
was chiefly engaged in portrait painting, in which
he was more successful. He died in 1634.



PADOVANO, LAURO. In the ' Venezia Descritta,'
by Sansovino, this painter is said to have been a
native of Padua, and a scholar of Francesco Squar-
cione. He was a successful imitator of the style
of Andrea Mantegna, and painted for the church
of La Carith, at Venice some subjects from the life
of St. John, which rank among the most creditable
productions of the time. He is stated by the above
author to have flourished about the year 14'20. It
is expected, however, that he is one with Laurn,
or Laura da Padova, who lived to a much hiter
period : Zani says he was at work from 1470 to

PADRO Y PEDRET, TOMAS, designer and painter,
was born at Barcelona in 1840, and died there in
1877. He was a pupil of the school of art in that
city, and of the Academy of San Fernando, studying
under Madrazo and Riviera, and being specially
distinguished for his caricatures.

PADTBRUGGE, H. L., was a native of Stock-
holm, and flourished about the year 1700. Ha
engraved the greater part of the plates for a work
entitled 'Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna,' published
in three vols. folio; the first in 1693, the last in
1714. It contains about three hundred and fifty
plates, consisting of bird's eye views and maps.

PAELINCK, JOSEPH, an historical paintc-r, wn-
born at Oostacker, near Ghent, in 1781. He com-
menced his artistic studies under Verh.iej. - en, the
professor of painting at the Academy of (ihent ;
after this he went to Paris, and enrolled himself
among the scholars of David. In 1804 lie obtained
a prize offered by the Academy at Ghent, with his
picture of ' The Judgment of Paris,' and was also.



named Professor of Design to the Academy. He
shortly after vacated this appointment, and went
to Italy in order to study the works of the great
masters. Here he corrected much of the academic
manner which he had imbibed in the school of
David, and produced what is considered his best
picture, ' The Finding of the Cross, 1 which is now
in the church of St. Michel at Ghent. He remained
at Rome for about five years, and during that time
he painted a large picture for the palace of the
Pope at Monte-Cavallo, representing the embellish-
ments of Rome by Augustus. In 1815 he became
court painter to the queen, and a member of the
Netherlands Institute. In 1820 he obtained the
great prize at Ghent for his ' Anthia.' Finally he
became professor at the Academy of Brussels. He
died in that city in 1839. His principal pictures,
in addition to the above, are :

The Adoration of the Shepherds. (Convent of La

Trappe, near Antiw]).)
The Flight into Egypt. (At Malines.)
The Departure of Tobit. (l/pbraekel, near OudenarJe.'i
The Return of Tobit. (For Maria Oudenhove.)
The Assumption of the Virgin. (For Mat/sen, near

Malines. }
The Disciples at Emmaus. (Church at Ei'erghem,near


Calvary. ( Village of Oostadcer.)
The Toilette of Psyche. (Hague Museum.)
The Dance of th<- Muses.
The Judgment of Midas.
The Abdication of Charles V.


PAEST, HENRY, a portrait painter and copyist,
who practised in England in the latter half of the
17th century. He worked under Henry Stone and
Francis Barlow. There was a copy by him of
Luca Giordano's ' Cyclops ' at St. James's Palace.
He died in 1697.

PAGANELLI, NICCOLO, a painter of Faenza
born in 1538. He worked chiefly at Rome, but
executed a famous picture of ' St. Martin ' for the
cathedral of Faenza, which has been ascribed to
Luca Longhi. He died in 1620. Paganelli signed
his pictures N + P.

PAGANI, FRANCESCO, was born, according to
Baldinucci, at Florence in 1531. After learning the
first rudiments of art in his native city he went to
Rome, where he studied the works of Polidoro da
Caravaggio and Maturino. He returned to Florence
at the age of twenty-one, and died young at
Castelfiorentino in 1561.

PAGANI, GREGORIO, the son of Francesco
Pagani, was born in 1568. His father dying when
he was an infant, he was placed as a disciple of
Santo di Titi, and afterwards improved his style by
the instruction of Lodovico Cardi, called Cigoli.
In imitation of the style of that master, he painted
a picture of ' The Finding of the Cross, 1 for the
church of the Carmelites, of which a print by
Cecchi is the only record. The church was de-
stroyed by lire. Some of his fresco works remain
in the cloister of Santa Maria Novella, Florence,
including a ' Nativity.' His own portrait by him-
self is in the Riccardi Gallery of the same city,
and in the Uffizi there is a ' Family of Tobit' by
him. Baldinucci dates his death in 1605.

PAGANI, PAOLO, was bom at Valsolda, in the
Milanese state, in 1661. He formed his manner
by studying, at Venice, the works of the best
masters, and, according to Zanetti, established
there an academy, where he introduced a style of
designing the nude, which, though occasionally


surcharged and extravagant, is bold and effective.
After a residence of some years at Venice, where
he painted several pictures for the churches, he
returned to Milan, and was much employed for the
public edifices and for private collections. One of
his best works is in the Dresden Gallery. He died
in 1716.

according to Orlandi, at Mantua in 1670, and was
a scholar of Antonio Calza. His genius led him to
paint battles and encampments, but having seen
some of the pictures of Borgognone at Florence,
he attached himself to the study and imitation
of that artist's works. No particulars as to his
individual works appear to be recorded.

PAGE, WILLIAM, American painter; bornJanuary
28, 1811, at Albany (New York) ; became a pupil
of Herring and of S. Morse. Lived at Florence
and Rome from 1849 to 1860 ; in 1874 visited
Kesselstadt to make a drawing of the Shakespeare
Death Mask. His ' Holy Family ' is in the Boston
Athenseum. He occasionally painted portraits.
He died at Tottenville, Staten Island (New York),
September 30, 1885.

born at Genoa in 1554 or 1556. He was first a
scholar of Luca Cambiaso, and improved himself
in design by studying antique statues and bas-
reliefs. He had acquired some reputation as a
painter of history, when he unhappily killed an
antagonist in a quarrel, which obliged him to take
refuge at Florence, where he resided twenty years.
His first productions were rather distinguished by
grace than energy, as his ' Holy Family ' in the
church Degli Angeli, at Florence, proves. He
afterwards adopted a manner more robust and
masculine ; and his large work of the ' Tranfigura-
tion,' in the church of San Marco, is painted with
such vigour and effect, that it does not appear to
be by the same hand. Another of his earlier works
is his ' St. Catherine of Siena,' in Santa Maria
Novella of the same city. Lanzi mentions as his
finest works, three subjects from the Passion of
our Saviour, at the Certosa at Pavia. His best
performances at Genoa are two pictures in the
church of St. Bartolommeo, and 'The Murder of
the Innocents,' in the Palazzo Doria, painted in
1606, in competition with Rubens. He died in
1627. He was also a sculptor, architect, and
writer on art.


PAGLIA, ANTONIO, a native of Brescia, born in
1680, was a son and pupil of Francesco Paglia.
He died in 1747. His brother ANGELO was born
in 1681, and died in 1763. Antonio was in the
habit of painting from groups of little clay figures
modelled by himself, by which means he obtained
a piquant chiaroscuro. In colour he was akin to
the second-rate Venetians.

PAGLIA, FRANCESCO, was born at Brescia in
1636, and was brought up in the school of Guer-
cino. He painted some pictures for the public
edifices at Brescia, of which the most distinguished
is an altar-piece, in the church of La Carita.
His best productions are his portraits. According
to Zani he died in 1713.

Cremona, was born in 1641. He died in 1717.

painter, bom June 9, 1790, in Paris, and became
a pupil of David. He painted rather over-elabor-
ately-finished portraits ; as, for instance, those of


Nanteuil Lanorville (in the Louvre) and of General
de Salle (also in the Louvre). His ' Mort de
Lucrece' is in the Angers Museum. He died in
Paris, May 25, 1819.

PAGNI, BENEDETTO, was a native of Pescia, and
was brought up at Rome in the school of Giulio
Romano. He followed that master to Mantua,
where he distinguished himself as a painter of
history. In the church of Sant' Andrea is an altar-
piece by him of the Martyrdom of St. Lorenzo;
and at the Collegiati, a picture of the Marriage of
Cana. Zani says he was at work from 1525 to

this engraver is affixed to a slight etching from
a picture by Paolo Veronese, representing the
' Mother of Moses brought to Pharaoh's Daughter.'
PAILLET, ANTOINE, a pupil of Bourdon, was
born in Paris in 1659, and died in 1739. He was
a portrait and historical painter, and professor of
the Royal Academy of Paris. In 1659 he was
rector of that institution.

PAINE, JAMES, a water-colour draughtsman, was
ason of James 1 aine, the architect. He exhibited at
the Spring Gardens Exhibitions in 1761-64-70, and
was a member of the St. Martin's Lane Academy.
PAIOT, , was a French engraver of little note,
who appears to have been chiefly employed by the
booksellers. Among others, there is a print by
him of ' David,' a half-length figure, after Vignon.
He lived about 1627.

PAJOU, AUGUSTE DESIRE, was the son of Jacques
Augustin Pajou. He was born in 1800, and studied
under his father and Baron Gros. His best work
is ' Las Casas and his Guides attacked by a Tiger.'
PAJOU, JACQUES AUGDSTIN, historical painter,
was born in Paris in 1766. His father was the
famous sculptor, Augustin Pajou. He was in-
structed in painting by Vincent. At first he painted
portraits, among which were those of the Emperor
Napoleon and several of his Marshals. He after-
wards took to historical scenes, among which an
'CEdipus and Polynices,' at Fontainebleau, may be

PALAC10S, FRANCISCO, a Spanish painter, was
born at Madrid about 1640. He entered the school
of Velasquez, and early gave indications of a talent
for portraiture, but the death of his master in 1660
appears to have put a limit to his progress. Jean
Bermudez notices his picture of ' St. Onophrius,'
in the church of the female penitentiary. He died
in 1676.

PALADINI, ARCANGELA, was born at Pisa in
1599. She was the daughter of FILIPPO PALADINI,
a portrait painter, by whom she was instructed in
the rudiments of the art. Her talents were not
confined to painting, for she excelled in music,
and above all in embroidery. Her portrait, painted
by herself, was placed in the gallery of artists at
Florence. She died in 1622.

PALADINI, LITTERIO. In the 'Memorie de'
Messinesi Pittore,' by Hackert, this painter is said
to have been born at Messina in 1691. He worked
at Rome, in the school of Sebastiano Conca, but
studied largely from the antique. On his return
to Messina, he was engaged in several considerable
works in fresco, of which the most esteemed is the
ceiling of the church of Monte Vergine. He died
of the plague in 1743.

PALADINO, FILIPPO, a native of Florence, was
born in 1544. He was a pupil of Allori. He lived
in Rome and Milan, but chiefly in Sicily, where

most of his works are to be found. He died at
Mazzarino in 1614.

PALAGI, PELAGIO, historical painter, was bom
at Bologna in 1775, and was a pupil of Appiani.
In the time of Napoleon he was director of the
Academy at Rome, and later on a professor in that
at Milan, and member of that of San Luca. He
died at Turin in 1860.



was born at Caspen in the Veltlin, in 1640. Altar-
pieces by this artist are found at Cremona, Verona,
and Milan. He also painted a few portraits. He
died in 1729.

(who died at Presburg in 1754), was born at
Breslau in 1724. He was first a pupil of his elder
brother, Franz Anton, at Presburg. and then at-
tended the Vienna Academy and travelled in Italy.
In 1752 he became court painter at Dresden, and
in 1764 at Munich. He died in 1767, apparently
at Prague. Among his paintings are :

Judith and Holofernes.

Deliverance of Captives. (Trinitarians, Presbury.)

St. John. (Dresden Court Chapel.)

Two etchings by him are known :

Christ and the Samaritan Woman.
Adam and Eve hiding themselves in Fear.

His brother, FRANZ ANTON PALCKO, was a pupil
of his father, and became court painter to Prince
Esterhazy. He has left altar-pieces in the cathedral
and in the Salvatorskirche, at Vienna,


PALISSY, BERNARD, was born about 1510, at La
Cliapelle Biron, a village in Perigord. He was
brought up to his father's trade of a glazier, but
having a taste for drawing, design, and decoration,
lie turned it to account in painting glass for churches
in the district. At the age of twenty-one he set
out on his travels. He first went into the country
of the Pyrenees, and after settling for a time at
Tarbes, he went through France, Switzerland, and
Southern Germany to Belgium and Flanders. He
returned to France in 1539, and settled atSaintonge
in the south-west, where he married, and pursued
his manifold callings of portrait painting, glass
painting, and land-measuring. While thus en-
gaged he was seized with the desire to produce
enamelled faience, and his ardour in prosecuting
his researches is well known. His fame as a potter
spread, and he soon attracted the notice of the
Duke of Montmorency, Constable of France, who
by using his influence with Catharine de' Medicia,
saved Palissy from being burnt as a Huguenot.
After his release from imprisonment he removed
from Saintonge to the Tuileries at Paris, where he
long continued to carry on the manufacture of his
famous pottery. At the age of seventy-six he was
again arrested as a heretic and imprisoned in the
Bastile, where he died after about a year's imprison-
ment, in the year 1588.

PALIZZI, FILIPPO, Italian painter ; born at
Vasto in 1818; originally intended for the law,
but studied art at the Naples Art School with
Bonolis, and also at Paris ; excelled in landscape
and as a painter of animals. He presented his
best paintings to the National Gallery of Rome,
where there is a special Sala Palizzi. His last
work was an 'Agnus Dei,' which he presented to
his native town. He obtained many decorations



and was a member of various Academies. He died
at Naples in September 1899.

PALLADINO, ADEIANO, according to Orlandi,
was born at Cortona in 1610. and was a scholar of
Berrettini (Pietro de Cortona). He painted history
in the style of his master, and executed several
works for the public edifices of his native city
He died in 1680.

PALLAVICINI, LEO, appears to have resided at
Milan in the early part of the 17th century. He is
said to have published some prints marked with
the initials L. P.f.

PALLIERE, ARMAND JULIEN, a painter of Bor-
deaux, was born in 1783. He was a brother of
Louis Palliere, and was also instructed by Vincent.
He painted mythological and historical pictures,
such as ' The Death of Epaminondas/ ' Love,' and

PALLIERE, Lorjis-ViNCENT-LoN, a French his-
torical painter, was born at Bordeaux in 1787. He
was a scholar first of his father, who was an en-
graver and draughtsman, and then of Vincent, and
gave early promise of arriving at excellence in the
art. In 1809 he obtained a second prize for his
' Priam kneeling before Achilles,' and in 1812 the
Prix de Rome for his ' Ulysses slaying the Suitors
of Penelope.' At Rome, where he remained five
years, he painted ' Argus slain by Mercury ; '
'Prometheus tormented by the Vulture;' 'The
Flagellation of Christ' (for which Louis XVIII.
awarded him a gold medal: it was painted for
the church of the Trinita de' Monti) ; and ' Juno
borrowing the Girdle of Venus.' In 1819 he ex-
hibited at the Musee ' St. Peter curing the Lame
Man ' ; ' Tobit restoring Sight to his Father '
(now in the Bordeaux Museum); 'A Shepherd in
Repose ' ; 'A Nymph coming from the Bath ' :
' Preaching at Rome during the Night' ; and other
subjects. He died in 1820.

PALM, GUSTAV WILLEM, Swedish painter ; born
March 14, 1810, at Christianstad ; was a pupil at
the Stockholm Academy ; after travel in Scandi-
navia he spent sixteen years in Italy, and sub-
sequently visited France and England ; made his
name as a landscape painter ; his 'Canal Grande'
is in the Stockholm National Museum; was a
member of the Stockholm and Venice Academies.
In 1867 obtained the Gustavus Vasa Order. He
died at Stockholm, September 20, 1890.

PALMA, JACOPO, later on called PALMA IL
VECCUio,to distinguish him from his'grand-nephew,
was born at Serinalta, in the Valle Brembana, near
Bergamo. Of his life little is known ; to begin

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