with, the exact year of his birth. The date 1480,
usually given, is quite uncertain and based only
on Vasari's statement, that Palma died forty-eight
years old an event which took place in 1528.
Anyhow it may be the approximate date when
he was born. The very few indisputable facts
of his life and artistic career are now collected
and discussed in an article by Dr. G. Ludwig in
'Beiheft z. Jahrbuch d. K. Preuss. Kunst-samml.
1903.' His family name was Negretti ; "lacomo
de Antonio de Negreto " he signs himself in
earlier documents. When he first came to Venice,
and who was his master, we do not know. For
only two of his paintings we possess the dates.
In 1520 he undertook to paint an altar-piece for
the church of Sant' Antonio in Venice, on the
order of Marin Querini ; of this picture, which
represented the marriage of the Virgin, only a
fragment, the central part, is preserved (Palazzo
Giovanelli, Venice). In 1525 he signed a contract
with a lady of the Malipero family to paint for her
an altar-piece, representing the ' Adoration of the
Magi,' which was to be put on the high altar of
the church of S. Elena at Venice, and is now in
the Brera at Milan. On July 28, 1528, he made his
will, and died two days later. On August 8 an
inventory of his goods was made which gives us
the list of about forty-six pictures which remained
in his studio in very different states of accomplish-
ment, many of which, finished by his pupils, are
still preserved in various collections. Palma was
never married. The famous Violante, who is said
to have been Palma's daughter and Titian's mis-
tress, is a pure invention of a later time. He left
his fortune to two nephews and a niece, children
of his brother Bartolomeo. His nephew Antonio
became too a painter ; a signed picture of his, re-
presenting the 'Resurrection of Christ,' is in the
Stuttgart Gallery. The son of this Antonio, Jacopo,
was afterwards highly renowned as "Palma il
Palma never signed or dated a picture. (The
much-discussed signature on the ' Holy Conversa-
tion 'in the Chantilly Collection is now generally
accepted as a forgery.) This fact, together with
the very few dates, and even these only of his
later years, known from documents, makes the
difficulty of tracing his artistic development easy
to be understood, the more so as the character of
his painting has undergone only slight variations
during the various decades of his life. As it was
with all painters born in the Bergamask province,
his art preserved for ever a strong character of
provincialism which distinguished him at once
from the inborn Venetians. He must have had
his first instruction with one of the Quattrocentist
masters who did follow more the older traditions.
One may guess it from the fact that he painted
many pictures of the Virgin with Saints and
Donors in half-figures, like one of the generation
of later Quattrocento, Bissolo, Catena or Cima, and
that some of his altar-pieces, among which his
most famous, have the form of a polyptych, which
occurs quite exceptionally in the 16th century.
But this Quattrocentistic element is to be dis-
covered only on the outside of his art ; his treat-
ment of the form, his sense of colouring, his
understanding of nature, give him his position
with theinasters of the Cinquecento, with Giorgione,
Titian, and Sebastiano. So he has in Venice a
position not unlike Fra Bartolommeo in Florence,
as an artist who invested the composition of a pre-
vious period with the form of the classic style in
Italian art. But it is not only this to give him a
quite distinct position in the history of Venetian
art. He has perhaps not introduced, but surely
developed more than any one of his contemporary
artists, the theme generally characterized as' Holy
Conversation ' ; this means the reunion of various
Saints round the Holy Family sitting on the
meadow, with the background of some dark trees
and a large view of the landscape, up to the blue
mountains. Again and again he repeated this
theme, which became more popular afterwards
through his pupil Bonifazio. Besides tliis, Venetian
art is indebted to Palma for certain pictures of
beautiful women in half-length figure, not por-
traits, but figures of highly ideal forms, looking
out to the spectator with a somewhat sensual
expression. The Vienna Gallery is especially rich
in that genre of paintings by Palma, but specimens
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
of it are to be found in the more important art
collections of Europe, some of them bearing still
the names of more famous artists, e.g. the so-called
' Schiava di Tiziano ' in the Barberini Palace, or
the ' Bella,' also ascribed to Titian, when it be-
longed to the Sciarra Collection. The finest
picture of this group is the picture of the 'Three
Sisters' (1525) in the house of Taddeo Contarini,
and now preserved at Dresden. Like all artists of
his generation, he painted mythological subjects,
but the most of them are lost, and only two
pictures of 'Venus,' i.e. of a nude recumbent
figure, are preserved (Cambridge Gallery and
Dresden). Almost in a mythological sense he
painted the very beautiful picture of ' Adam and
Eve,' once in the house of Francesco Zio, now at
Brunswick, and like a genre-scene the meeting of
Jacob and Rachel, in the midst of a glorious land-
scape scenery (Dresden). The number of his
altar-pieces is not very large, but among them is
the polyptych witli the St. Barbara in the centre,
in Sta. Maria Formosa at Venice, painted for the
Venetian Bombardiers, by far the best and doubt-
less Palma's masterpiece ; another very beautiful
painting is the Virgin enthroned, with various Saints,
and an Angel playing an instrument at her feet, in S.
Stefano at Vicenza ; others are to be found in the
Venetian Academy, at Zerman, at Serimdta (this
is said to be of a hasty execution), in the Brera
(by a pupil in part), and other places near Bergamo.
As a portrait painter Palma did not excel, because
he seems not to have been gifted with the sense
for the individual. Fine portraits of his are a
gentleman and a lady (unfinished) of the Querini
family, still preserved in the family palace (now
Querini-Stampalia Gallery), both described in the
inventory of Palma's goods, but nevertheless given
by modern critics to Giorgione. His finest por-
trait, and almost to be called an ideal creation, is
the once-called ' Ariosto ' in the National Gallery,
erroneously ascribed sometimes to Giorgione. A
word is to be said on a famous picture which
Vasari was the first to give to Palma Vecchio, but
after having ascribed the self-same picture in the
first edition of his lives to Giorgione. This is the
' Storm,' painted for the Scuola di San Marco (of
which, by the way, Palma from 1513 on has been
a member), and now in the Academy at Venice.
This picture is by some modern writers still
attributed to Pnlma, but it is impossible to believe
that a painting full of movement and poetical
fancy like this should have had its offspring in
such quiet temperament like Palma's, which re-
mains unaltered through his whole life. In all
probability this much-ruined picture was begun
by Giorgione, it is surely finished b\ - Paris Bordone.
As colourist Palma Vecchio holds his own position
among the Venetian masters of his time. Even
only from a general look it is easy to recognize
his work. His colour scheme is very brilliant and
always of a very fair, almost golden general tone ;
the hair of his women very light and the flesh tone
fair, and even the colouring of his male Saints is
often rather pale, where Titian, for instance, puts
his men in a brownish, dark contrast to his female
Saints. His handling of the brush is very smooth,
so that the general impression of his art often is
somewhat effeminate. In his later years his pic-
tures are sometimes very pale in colouring ; a
specimen of this kind is the Madonna in the
Brignole-Sale Collection at Genoa. Not a few of
his later pictures are finished by his pupils,
Bonifazio and others, some of them for the large
part, which his assistants took in finishing the
pictures, up to the present time unrecognized
as Palma's works, as the ' Holy Conversation ' in
the Querini-Stampalia Gallery at Venice (finished
by Bonifazio), or the large picture of the Virgin
with two female Saints and two Donors, in the
Borghese Gallery, ascribed to Lotto (finished by
an unknown pupil). C.U.
Vienna. Gallery. 134, 135, 144. John the Baptist.
,, ,, S8. Boch and Sebastian. (For-
merly a triptych, in part a
work by p U} > it* . )
,i 139. Visitation. (Berenson:
finished by Cariani.)
,) ,. 140. Holy Conversation with
133, 137, 138. 141, 142, 143.
Half-length figuresof women,
amoug them the so-called
, 13(i. Lucretia.
,> 329E. Portrait of Old Man.
(Crowe Hint Cavalca.-e/te ;
t* Holy Family ami two female
Saints. (JBerenson; Crowe
and Cavalcctaelle : Copy.}
Buda Pesth \ 82. Madonua.with St. Francis.
Gallery. $ (Berenaon: finished ><ii < ',/,-/-
Alnwick. Duke of) Lady with lute. (15i5 in t!,e
Northumberland, j" house of Jei'onimo Marcello
Blenheim (formerly). Madonna adored by a warrior
and a female Saint. (Crowe
Ham Museiim.$ Venus -
Cauford, j ,")
Wimborne nr j^^ >Bust of a Lady. (Berenson.)
(Dorset). ' 'J
Glasgow. Corporation > 336. Madonna, with SS. Cath-
Galleries. $ erine, John ami Peter. (Be-
renson: finished by Cariani.}
Hampton Court. 115. Holy Couversation.
140. Half-length figure of
Horsmonden. Mrs. ) Portrait of a Courtesan. (Be-
London. Rational Gall. 636. Portrait of Mau. (The
so-called ' Ariusto ').
Mr. Benson. Holy Conversation with SS.
Catherine, John ami a
Donor, (Kerenson : finished
ZIr. WicMtam ) Holy Conversation with SS.
Flower, J John, Elizabeth and Cath-
erine. (Uereitson: jinished
iff. Mond. Half-length figure of Woman.
Chautilly. Gallery. Madonna with two Saints and
Donor. ( Jl'ith a forged in-
scription. Uerrnson : Rocco
Paris. Louvre. 1399. Adoration of Shepherds
with female Donor.
3fr. Alfhonse de ) Portrait of a Lady. (Far-
Rothschild. j merly in the Sciarra Col-
Berlin. Gallery. 1T4. Portrait of Man.
197 A, 107ii Half-length figures
Brunswick. Museum. Adam and Eve. (Formerly in
the htiuse of Francesco Zio
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
Hamburg. Consul Weber.
188. Madonua, with SS. Cath-
erine and John.
189. ' The three Sisters.'
(1525 in the house of Taddeo
Contarini in Venice.)
191. Holy Family, with the
Infant John and St. Cath-
192. Jacob and Rachel.
1107. Portrait of Man (?).
(Morelli anderenson: Cari-
1108. Madonna, with SS. Roch
and Mary Magdalen.
271. Salvator mundi (?).
Archangel with Tobias (?).
183. Madonna, with SS. John
and Mary Magdalen.
Florence. Uffid. 619. Judith.
,, ' 623. Holy Family, with Mary
Magdalen and the Infant
Genoa. JSrignole Sale. Madonna, with SS. Magdalen
Milan. Brera. 172. Adoration of Magi.
(Formerly Church of &t.
Elena, Venice; only in
280. SS. Helen, Constantine,
Roch and Sebastian.
Poldi Pezzoli. 560. Half-length figure of
Modena. MarcJiese \ Madonna and Saints. (Be-
Lotario Ranyoni. j reason.}
Naples. Gallery Sola \ 28. Holy Conversation with
Grande. J three Saints and two Donors.
Peghera (near r , , ) Polyptych. (Morelli and e-
Bergamo). rctl - / renson.)
157. Madonna, with SS. Bar-
bara, Cristina and two
Donors. (Finished by un-
known hand. )
,, 163. Madonna, with SS. An-
tony, Jerome and female
Capitol. 203. Christ and Adulteress.
(Formerly in the house of
Francesco Zio at Venice.)
'La Schiava di Tiziano.' (Mo-
22. Madonna, St. Peter and
,, Seiarra Colonna) 'La Bella di Tiziano.' (Now
(now dispersed). J[ Mr. Atphoiisc de Rothschild,
Eovigo. Madonna, with SS. Helen and
Jerome. (Crowe and Caval*
Serina (uear . ) Polyptych, with presentation
Bergamo). J of the Virgin in the central
part. (Croweand Cavalcaselle,
302. St. Peter enthroned with
six Saints. (From the Church
of Fontanelle. )
a 310. Christ and the woman of
315. Assumption. (Crowe
and Cavalcaselle : perhaps by
(Recently bought.) Madonna with SS. Catherine
Gall. Querini- ) Portrait of Man. ( Francesco
,, ,, Portrait of a Lady (Paola
Priuli. wife of Francesco
Venice. Gall. Querini-
\ Holy Conversation with four
J Saints. (Finished by Boni-
\ Polyptych, with SS. Barbara,
) Antony and Sebastian ; above
Piet;i, St. John and Dominic.
., Prince Giooanelli. Sposalizio. (Fragment of an
Knight and Lady. (erenson.)
Madonna enthroned with SS.
Lucy and George.
Madonna enthroned with four
Saints. (Crowe and Caval-
Santa Maria ]
Vicenza. S. Stefano.
Zernian (near Gallery.
St. Peters- Leuchten-
burg. burg Gallery.
' Holy Conversation. (Formerly
in the hall of the Council of
Six; Croweand Cavalcaselle'.)
PALMA, JACOPO, called ' IL GIOVINE,' was born
at Venice in 1544. His father, Antonio, nephew
of Palma Vecchio, was also his instructor. At
the age of fifteen he was taken by the Duke of
Urbino to Rome, where he studied chiefly the
works of Polydoro Caravaggio. His manner, though
mechanical, shows much talent, especially in the
treatment of heads. Some of his best pictures are
in the palace of the Doge, and in the Academy.
After the death of Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese
he seems to have displayed less care, as many of
his later pictures are very inferior. He died in
1628. A good ' Madonna, with Saints,' is in the
church of S. Francesco della Vigna ; and a ' St.
Catharine rescued from the Wheel' at S. Frari in
Venice. The following examples of his art may
also be named :
Dresden. Gallery. The Presentation of Mary.
, , St. Sebastian.
Crucifixion of St. Andrew.
Florence. Uffi:i. St. Margaret with the palm of
Milan. Brera. The Temptation of St.Beuedict.
Munich. Gallery. The Deposition. (fSinntd
JACOBUS PALMA. F. 1600.)
,, The Flagellation.
Venice. Acadet/tia. Two scenes from the Apoca-
Vienna. Gallery. The Murder of Abel.
The Daughter of Herodias.
Two pictures of the Deposition.
,, ,, Christ supported on the edge
of the Tomb by three Angels.
Christ's Body watched by
The Immaculate Conception.
St. John and the Angel of the
PALMAROLI, PIETEO, was an Italian painter
and picture restorer, to whom the world is indebted
for the preservation of the famous ' Descent from
the Cross,' by Daniele da Volterra, which in 1809
he transferred from the wall, on which it was
painted in fresco, to canvas. This was the first
work of the kind, and he afterwards transferred
and restored several other pictures in Rome, and,
in 1826, in Dresden ; among the latter the cele-
brated 'Madonna di San Sisto,' by Raphael. He
also freed Raphael's ' Sibyls,' in the church of Santa
Maria della Pace, from the destructive restorations
in oil made by order of Alexander VII. Palmaroli
died at Rome in 1828.
PALMAROLI, VICENTE, Spanish painter ; born
in 1835 at Madrid ; was a pupil at the Academy
there, and studied with Madrazo ; pursued his
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
art studies in Rome ; became Director of the
Madrid Gallery in succession to Madrazo ; resident
for a long while in Paris ; at the Exhibition of
1867 he obtained a second-class medal ; some of
his works found appreciation in London ; he painted
portraits of various Spanish notabilities, including
one of the young King Alfonso XII. He died in
PALMASANUS (or PALMEGGIANI). See PAL-
PALMER, Sir JAMES, was a member of the
household of Charles I., and was employed by him
in the purchase of pictures. He made copies of
several works in the Royal Collection, among them
Titian's 'Tarquin and Lucretia.'
PALMER, SAMUEL, water-colour painter, was
born in 1805. He early showed a taste for art,
and at the age of fourteen he exhibited at the
British Institution, ' Bridge Scene ' and ' Land-
scape,' and at the Royal Academy, ' Cottage Scene,
Banks of the Thames, Battersea,' ' Landscape with
Ruins,' and ' A Study.' By the advice of his
father-in-law, John Linnell, he underwent a course
of figure drawing at the British Museum, during
which time he was introduced to W. Blake. He
then went to live at Shoreham with his father,
and we find him exhibiting at the Academy and
British Institution. In 1839 he married, and for
his wedding tour spent two years in Italy. He
then returned to London, and lived in Kensington
till 1851, when he removed to Furze Hill, near
Reigate, where he spent the remainder of his life.
His last appearance at the Academy was in 1842.
He was elected an Associate Exhibitor of the
Society of Painters in Water-Colours in 1843, and
a full member in 1855. He was chosen a member
of the Etching Club in 1853. A translation of
Virgil's ' Eclogues' by him was published after his
death, with plates designed and partly etched by
himself. The subjects of his finest drawings were
mostly from Milton. He died at Reigate in 1881.
The following is a complete list of his etchings :
The Willow. 1850. His first plate.
Christmas ; or Folding the Last Sheep. 1850. (From
The Herdsman's Cottage. 1850.
The Skylark. 1850. (Published by the Etching Club.)
The Vine ; two subjects on one plate. 1852. (Published
in the ' Songs and Sonnets of Shakespeare.')
The Sleeping Shepherd. 1857. (Published by the Etch-
The Rising Moon. 1857. (Published by the Etching
The Herdsman. 1867. (Published by the Etchintf Club.)
The Early Ploughman. 1868. (Published in ' Etching
The Morning ot Life. 1872. (Published by the Etching
The Bellman ; from 11 Pensieroso. 1879.
The Lonely Tower ; from II Pensieroso. 1880. (Pub-
lished by the Etching Club.)
Early Morning ; opening the Fold. 1880.
PALMERUCCJ, GUIDO., was born at Gubbio in
1280, and is known to have executed frescoes in
the church of Santa Maria de' Laici. Gubbio, pre-
vious to 1337, and to have painted at the Town
Hall in 1342. In the former of these buildings, on
an exterior wall, are the remains of a figure of St.
Anthony ; and in the latter is a colossal ' Enthroned
Virgin and Child, with Saints and a kneeling
Gonfaloniere.' His death occurred about 1345.
PALMEZZANO, MARCO (DI ANTONIO), was born
at Forli. probably about the year 1456, and lived
up to 1537. He was a pupil of Melozzo da Forli,
and was in the habit of signing his early produc-
tions Marciis de Melotiiis, a fact which has occa-
sioned many of his best paintings to be attributed
to his master. He closely followed Melozzo's
teachings, and his frescoes exhibit a sculpturesque
hardness of style. In a chapel of San Biagio in
San Girolamo, at Forli, are some frescoes repre-
senting secular scenes which are signed, Marcus
Palmezzanus Victor foroliviensis M. . . ., which,
according to Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, closely
resemble, both in style and colour, a fresco repre-
senting eight of the prophets, painted on the dome
of the Capella Tesoro in the church of Loretto. In
1497 Palmezzano executed, by order of the Prior
of the Company of San Michelino of Faenza, an
altar-piece representing the Virgin and Child,
enthroned between SS. Michael and James the
Less. The church of the Zoccolanti, at Matelica
near Fabriano, contains an altar-piece, 'An en-
throned Virgin and Child, with a Pieta and Saints ; '
etc., signed Marcus de Melotius Foroliviensis
fatiebat, ai temp, de frate Zorzo Guardiano del
MoO-C.C.C.C.J., with a curious monogram. The
church of the Carmine at Forli possesses a ' Glory
of St. Anthony, between SS. John the Baptist and
Sebastian,' with a similar inscription. The exact
date of Palmezzano's death is unknown. A por-
trait of the artist, painted by himself in 1536, is
now in the Pinacoteca of Forli. Examples of
Palmezzano are also to be found as below :
Dublin. Nat. Gallery.
Forli. S. Girolamo.
London. Nat. Gallery.
The Resurrection. 1515.
Virgin and two Saints.
Enthroned Virgin and Child,
between SS. John Baptist
and Lucy. 1508.
Subjects from the Life of the
Apostle James. 1485.
Virgin surrounded by Saints.
Communion of the Apostles,
Christ on the way to Calvary.
The Nativity. 1530.
Virgin and four Saints. 1493.
The Nativity. 1492.
Coronation of the Virgin.
The _Dead Christ.
Virgin and six Saints. 1537.
Christ on the way to Calvary.
PALMIERI, GIOSEFFO, (or GIUSEPPE,) was born
at Genoa in 1674. Although he acquired some
reputation as a painter of history, he is chiefly cele-
brated for his pictures of animals. One of the best
of his historical works is his picture in the church
of San Domenico, at Genoa, representing the
' Resurrection.' He died in 1740.
PALMIERI, PIETEO, painter and engraver, was
born at Parma in 1740. He learnt the elements of
art in his own city, and then went to Paris. He
painted chiefly landscapes and genre subjects.
After several years' residence in Paris, he was ap-
pointed a Professor in the Academy at Parma.
He died at Turin in 1804.
PALMIERI, PIETBO JACOPO, engraver, was bom
at Bologna in 1720. He engraved landscapes and
battle scenes, the latter chiefly after Simonetti
PALMISANUS. See PALMEZZANO.
PALOMARES. See SANTIAGO PALOMARES.
PALOMBO, BAKTOLOMMEO, was born at Rome
about the year 1612, and was a scholar of Pietro
da Cortona. In the church of St. Joseph, at Rome,
is an altar-piece by him, representing the death of
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
painted for the brotherhood ' della Morte,' of
Ferrara. His death occurred before 1513. Many
of the private and public galleries of his native
city contain pictures by Panetti ; the Costabili
Collection alone possesses eight. The following
may also be named :
Ferrara. Pinacoteca. The Annunciation.
,, St. Paul. (And others.)
Paris. Louvre. The Nativity.
PANFI, ROMOLO, was born at Carmignano, near
Pistoja, in 1632. He was instructed in the art of
painting by G. Vignali, and at first painted small
portraits, but afterwards took to landscapes and
battle-pieces. He died about 1700.
PANFILO. See NOVOLONE.
PANHUIJS, LUISE FBIEDRIKE AUGUSTE VON,
was born at Frankfort in 176H. She was the
daughter of the designer and painter Helena Elisa-
beth von Barkhaus-Wiesenliuttcn (who lived from
1736 to 1804), and married van Panhuijs, the
Dutch governor-general of Surinam, and resided
with him at Paramaribo during 1810-16. She
visited that place a second time, and on both
occasions painted landscapes, plants, and butter-
flies from nature. She was a pupil of Gerard C. H.
Schu'tz, and painted landscapes after Waterloo,
Moucheron, and also after her own designs. She
died at Frankfort in 1844.
PANICALE. See FlNI.
PANICO, ANTONIO MARIA, was, according to
Bellori, a native of Bologna, and a disciple of
Annibale Carracci. He accompanied that master
to Rome when he was very young, and was taken
under the protection of Signor Mario Farriese, who
employed him in ornamenting his country-seats of
Castro and Latera. In the cathedral at Farnese
he painted a picture of the Mass, in which he is
supposed to have been assisted by Annibale
PANICO, UGO DA. See CARPI.
PAN1NI. See PANNINI.
PANNEELS, HERMAN, a Fleming, was the
engraver of two plates for a book to vindicate
Philip IV. 's claim to the title of 'the Great,' pub-
lished by Don Juan Antonio Sapia y Roleles at
Madrid in 1638. He also engraved a portrait of