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Philip IV. in armour wearing the order of the
Golden Fleece, inscribed 'A Religione Magnus,'
and an excellent head of Olivarez, the minister,
with the cross of Calatrava, both framed in tasteful
borders, and taken from pictures by Velasquez.

PANNEELS, WILLEM VAN, a Flemish painter
and engraver, was born at Antwerp about the year
1GOO. He was a disciple of Rubens, as appears
from the inscription on one of his prints. He
worked at Cologne and Frankfort-on-the-Maine,
and one of his plates is dated 1636. The year of
his death is unknown. Of his work as a painter
little is known, and from the number of his prints
he appears to have been chiefly employed in
etching after Rubens and from his own designs.
The following are his principal plates :

The Portrait of Rubens, in an octagon border.

David cutting off the Head of Goliath.

Esther before Ahasnerus.

The Adoration of the Magi.

Mary washing the Feet of Christ.

The Assumption of the Virgin.

The Holy Family, with the Infant Christ and St. John

playing with a Lamb.
St. John baptizing Christ.
64



Samson killing the Lion, with a companion, David kill-
ing the Lion and the Bear.
St. Sebastian.
The Toilet of Venus.
Jupiter and Antiope.
Jupiter and Juno (all after Rubens).
Holy Family.
The Fate of Phaeton.
The Nativity (these three after Annibale Carracci).

PANNI, an obscure Italian decorative painter.
He was a relative and pupil of Gio. Bat. Zaisl.

PANNICCIATI, JACOPO, according to Baruff-
aldi, was born at Ferrara about the year 1510.
He was a disciple of Dosso Dossi, and painted
history much in the style of that master. He died
young, in 1540.

PANNIER, JACQUES ETIENNE, French painter
and engraver ; born in Paris in 1802, and became
a pupil of Abel de Pujol. He mostly did portraits
in pastel, his engravings being after works by
Van der Meulen, Winterhalter, L>e Mirbel, Sandof,
&c., for the Versailles Galleries ; he also engraved
many portraits by well-known artists. In 1849
he obtained a third-class medal. He died November
14, 1869.

PANNINI, Cavaliere GIOVANNI PAOLO, or GIAJI-
POLO, (or PANINI,) was born at Piacenza in 1691,
or 1695. He went early to Rome, where he became
a scholar of Andrea Locatelli and Benedetto Luti.
He also partly adopted the style of Salvator Rosa.
He applied himself to designing the remaining
monuments of ancient architecture in the Roman
vicinity. His merit, however, is not confined to
architecture ; he decorated his pictures with figures,
gracefully designed, and grouped with taste.
Although he usually confined himself to pictures
of an easel size, he was not incapable of succeed-
ing in works on a larger scale ; and Lanzi speaks
in very favourable terms of a ' Christ clearing the
Temple,' with life-size figures, in the church of the
Signori della Missione, at Piacenza. Works of
Pannini are to be found in most large collections
in England, and several decorate the palaces of
Rome. Two of the finest are in the gallery of
the royal palace of Monte Cavallo. Pannini died
in 1764. He was a member of the Academies of
San Luca, at Rome, and of Paris. Many of his
pictures have been engraved by Lempereur, Le
Bas, J. S. Miiller, Vivares, Benazech, Bartolozzi,
and other eminent engravers. The following are
among those that remain :

Florence. TTffl:i. Ruins. (A similar subject at

Grenoble.)

London. Nat. Gallery. The Pyramid of Cestius.
Madrid. Escorial. A Cardinal visiting a Picture

Gallery.
Vestibule of St. Peter's at

Rome.

Moutpellier. Museum. Monuments of Rome.
Paris. Louvre. A Banquet ((wo copies).

A Concert.

,, Architectural Kuins (three sub-

jects).

Interior of St. Peter's at Rome

(Signed I. P. PANINI. ROM.H.
MDCCXXX.).

Concert given at Rome on the

Birth of the Dauphin in 1729.

Preparations for the Fete on

the same occasion.

Rome. Corsini Palace. The Porch of Octavia.
The Temple of Vesta.

The Pantheon.

Turin. Gallery. Three Views in Rome.

PANNINI, GIUSEPPE, painter, was born at Rome



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



ar>out 1745. He was instructed by his father,
Giovanni Paolo Pannini. He painted chiefly land-
scape and marine pictures, and travelled in Italy,
France, and England. He died about 1812.

PANCENDS, a distinguished painter of ancient
Greece, was the nephew of the great sculptor,
Phidias, and probably some years younger than
Polygnotus and Micon. He exercised his talents
in conjunction with his uncle, in adorning the
temple of the Olympian Jupiter, where he painted
'Atlas supporting the World,' and 'Hercules, ac-
companied by Theseus and Peirithoiis, preparing
to relieve him of his burden.' He also painted
' Hercules combating the Nemean Lion ; ' ' Hippo-
damia, the daughter of ^Enomaiis, with her mother ;'
' Prometheus chained to the Rock, whom Hercules
is about to deliver ; ' and ' Penthesilea killed by
Achilles.' But the work which most contributed
to the establishment of his fame, was the ' Battle
of Marathon,' with which, assisted by Micon, he
decorated the Pcecile at Athens.

PANTALEO, a Byzantine miniaturist of the
10th century, by whom several of the miniatures
in a missal sent to Luigi Sforza, Duke of Milan,
by the Emperor Basilius Porphyrogenitus, were
painted.

PANTOJA DE LA CRUZ, JUAN, was born at
Madrid in 1551, and was a scholar of Alfonso
Sanchez Coello, in whose school he so greatly dis-
tinguished himself that Philip II. named him one
of his painters and valets-de-chambre. He became
very eminent both as an historical and portrait
painter. Palomino possessed the original designs
by him for the beautiful tombs of Charles V.
and Philip II. in the Escorial, which he painted in
oil, together with two escutcheons of the Arms of
Austria, en grisaille, which were used at the
funeral ceremony of the great Emperor. He painted
a great number of portraits of the family of Philip
II., of which many exist at the Escorial, the Retiro,
and in the tower of the Paradas. Several were
destroyed at the burning of the Prado. At the
death of Philip, he continued in favour with his
successor, Philip III., who commanded him to
paint his portrait on horseback, as a model for the
famous sculptor, Giovanni de Bologna, then at
Florence, to form the equestrian group in bronze
placed in the garden of La Casa del Campo ; Tacca
also executed a statue from it. He painted also
two magnificent portraits of Philip III. and his
Queen, which are dated 1606, and are still pre-
served in the palace of the Dukes d'Uceda at
Montalvan. Berrnudez lays particular stress upon
the portrait of the councillor Ruiz Perez de Ribera.
which is in the monastery of Santa Maria de Naxera.
It is dated in 1596. Mention is further made of
a picture of the ' Adoration of the Shepherds,'
in which the portraits of Philip II. and his
family are introd iced. Among the other notable
persons whom he portrayed, we find the Empress
Maria and the Princess Juana in the DescaLzas
Reales, and the same Empress with the Princess
Margarita of Austria and Isabel de Valois in the
Madrid Gallery. He was also a successful painter
of animals. After a laborious life he died at
Madrid in 1609. The Spanish parallel to the story
of Zeuxis is attached to a work by this master.
It is related that a superb eagle having been cap-
tured near the Prado, the king gave orders to Pan-
toja to paint its likeness ; which he did with so
much truth, that the royal bird on seeing it mistook
it for a real eagle, and notwithstanding all their

VOL. IV. F



efforts to control it, attacked the picture with
impetuosity and tore it to pieces. The Madrid
Museo possesses the following examples of his work :

Portrait of Donna Maria, daughter of Philip II., and
wife of the Emperor Maximilian II.

Portrait of Isabel of Valois, third wife of Philip II.
pitto. ditto.

Portrait of Margaret of Austria, wife of Philip HI.

Portrait of the Emperor Charles V.

Portrait of the Infanta Juana, daughter of Philip II.

Portrait of Philip II.

The Birth of the Virgin.

The Birth of Jesus Christ.

Two female portraits.

One male portrait.

PANTOT. A French painter of this name,
a native of Lyons, was the intimate friend of
Thomas Blanche! during the tatter's stay in Rome,
about the middle of the 17th century.

PANVINUS, ONULPH, is stated to have been
a native of Antwerp. He flourished in the latter
part of the 16th century. He engraved and pub-
lished a set of twenty-seven portraits from his own
designs, entitled ' Elogias et Imagines Pont. Max.
ad. viv. delin.' 1568. Zani mentions an ONOFRIO
PANVINUS, a designer arid engraver of Verona,
who was at work about the same period.

PANZA, FREDERIGO, was born at Milan between
1633 and 1643. He was a pupil of Nuvolone, and
went to Venice to co| y the works of Titian and
Paolo Veronese. On his return he settled at Milan,
where he executed several pictures, and was
knighted by the Duke of Savoy. He died in 1703.

PANZA C'CHI, MARIA HELENA, (PANZACHIA, PAN-
ZUCCHI,) was born, according to Orlandi, at Bologna
in 16^8. She was instructed in design by Ernilio
Taruffi, and became a reputable painter of land-
scapes, embellished with figures. Some of her
works are to be found in the private collections at
Bologna. Zani says she died in 1737.

PAOLETTI, ANTONIO D'ERMOLAS, painter, worked
at Venice, decorating the court of the Cana Luna
with frescoes and oil pictures in the style of Louis
XVI., and producing scenes from the fashionable
life of Venice in the 18th century.

PAOLE1TI, PAOLO, was a native of Padua, and
flour shed in the first half of the 18th century. He
exc-lled in painting fruit, fish, and dead game.
His pictures are held in considerable estimation
throughout Friuli. He died at Udine in 1735.

PAOLI, FRANCESCO DA, Florent le Comte men-
tions this artist as the engraver of a View of the
City of Rome. He lived about 1640.

PAOLI, JACOBUS, was an inferior artist, living
at the beginning of the 15th century, who was the
painter of an 'Annunciation' with a kneeling
patron, in the Archivio of the Podesta's Palace at
Bologna, and also part author of an altar-piece in
the chapel of San Croce, in San Giacomo Maggiore.

PAOLI, MICHELE, a pupil of Crespi, who practised 1
at Pistoja as a historical painter at the beginning
of the 18th century.

PAOLILLO, a Neapolitan, and the best pupil
of Sabbatini, to whom his works used invariably
to be ascribed. Paolillo died young.

PAOLINI, GIACOMO. See PAULINI.

PAOLINI, PIETRO, or LUCA PIETBO, (or PADXINI,)
was born at Lucca in 1603, and was sent early in
his life to Rome, where he entered the school of
Angelo Caroselli, and where he remained thirty
years. After returning to Lucca he established an
academy there. His death occurred in 1681 or
1682. He painted a fine picture of the Martyrdom

65



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



of St. Andrew, for the church of San Michele at
Lucca ; and his large work in the library of San
Frediano, representing Pope Gregory entertaining
the Pilgrims, is in the style of Paolo Veronese.
He invented an instrument for taking perspective
views, and designing them in their due proportions :
perhaps the Camera htcida.

PAOLINI, Pio (or FABIO), was a native of
Udine, but studied at Rome under Pietro da Cor-
tona. He painted historical subjects, and was re-
ceived into the Academy at Rome in 1678. There
are several of his frescoes in the Roman churches ;
a ceiling of one of the chapels in San Carlo al
Corso is particularly good.

PAOLINO, FRA. See DEL SIGNOKACCIO.

PAOLO DEL MAESTRO NERI, was a Sienese,
living in the middle of the 14th century, and a
pupil and follower of the Lorenzetti. His name
first appears on the roll of the Sienese Guild of
Painters in 1355. He is the author of a series of
chiaroscuro frescoes in the cloisters of the convent
of Lecceto, representing Heaven and Hell, the
Works of Mercy, incidents from the lives of certain
Augustine Hermits, and other subjects both sacred
and profane, which were finished in 1348.

PAOLO DEL MASACCIO. See PITTORI.

PAOLO DI DONO. See DONO.

PAOLO VENEZIANO, (or MAESTRO PAOLO,) a
north Italian painter, who was at work at Vicenza
in 1340. His two sons, GIOVANNI and JACOPO,
helped him in his work. In the Hopenzollern
collection, at Sigmaringen, there is a ' Coronation
of the Virgin ' with the following inscription :

REGINA CELI LET ARE ALELTJIA QDEN MERUISTI

CHRISTAM PORTARE ALELDIA ; and under the throne
the signature: MCCCLVIII JOHANINUS EIV(S)

PA0LUSCUM FILIU(S) PISERVT HOC OP(VS).

PAOLOTTO,lL FBATE. See GHISLANDI, VITTORE.

PAON. See LE PAON.

PAOUL, JEAN. An artist of this name was
painter-in-ordinary to the court of Lorraine in
1575. Portraits by him are still extant in Nancy
and the neighbourhood.

PAPA, SIMONE, "il Giovine," born at Naples in
1506, was the son of a goldsmith. He was placed
under the instruction of Giovan' Antonio d'Amato,
the elder, and became a painter of history. In the
church of Santa Maria la Nuova, at Naples, are
two frescoes by this master, in one of which he
has represented the Assumption of the Virgin, and
in the other the Annunciation. Another of his
frescoes is in the choir of Monte Oliveto, in the
same city. He died at Naples in 1567.

PAPA, SIMONE, " il Vecchio,'' was born at Naples
about the year 1430 ; his death occurred in 1488.
He was the scholar of Antonio Solario, surnamed
" lo Zingaro." In the church of San Niccold alia
Dogana, Naples, there is a picture of the Annun-
ciation by Papa ; and the church of San Lorenzo
in the game city possesses his altar-piece of the
Virgin and Child, with Saints.

PAPARELLO, TOMMASO, (or PAPACELLO,) painter
was a native of Cortona. In 1551 he was employee
as assistant by Giulio Romano. He was still alive
in 1553.

PAPE, A. PE. See DE PAPE.

PAPE, .(EoiDius SIMON (DE), a native of Oude-
narde, who flourished from 1585 to 1636. He
spent his life in his native town, where he enjoyec
a considerable reputation as painter, goldsmith, anc
architect. His son JOSSE was also a painter, and
en the death of his father, migrated to Rome.

66



Another son, SIMON, lived and worked at Oudenarde,
where, and at Ghent, some of his works are to be
found. This Simon died in 1677. His son GILLIS
practised as an historical painter in Oudenarde,
where he died in 1705!

PAPE, F. DE, a Flemish miniaturist and painter
n water-colours. He was born in 1814, and died
at Bruges in 1863.

PAPE, MARTIN DIDIER, was an enamel painter,
who lived at Limoges from 1574 to 1609, and was
about the former date superintendent of the enamel
Factory there.

PAPELED, VICTOR DE, French painter ; born
February 10, 1810, at Ghent ; he became a pupil
of A. Benouville and Jules Dupre ; afterwards
travelled in Europe and the East. Painted French,
Italian, and Dutch landscapes, as, for instance,
Ferme dans les Lanrles,' ' lie de Capri, pres de
Naples,' and ' Abecoude ; environs d' Amsterdam.'
He died at Ghent in 1885.

PAPERMANN, ERNST MORITZ, German painter ;
born October 28, 1830, at Fischergasse, near
Meissen ; became a pupil of Bendemann and of
the Dresden Academy. Painted on porcelain ;
also portraits and genre pictures, such as his
' Sandalenkinder.' He died at his birthplace,
April 2, 1893.

PAPETY, DOMINIQUE Louis FEREOL, a French
painter, born at Marseilles in 1815. He was a
pupil of L. Cogniet, and carried off the Grand Prix
in 1836. In Rome he painted 'Moses in the
bulrushes ;' a copy of the 'Council of the Gods,'
after a fresco of Raphael's ; and ' Dream of Hap-
piness.' He travelled in Greece and the East, and
made many drawings ; on his last voyage he laid
the seeds of a fever which carried him oif in 1849.
PAPI, CRISTOFANO DI, called DELL' ALTISSIMO,
was a Florentine painter of the middle or latter
half of the 16th century. He was a pupil of Bron-
zino and Pontormo, and in his youth produced
several important pictures, chiefly portraits, for
Cosmo I. Duke of Tuscany ; also a large number
of those portraits of distinguished persons which
hang in the corridor of the Uffizi at Florence.
Neither the year of his birth nor that of his death
has been ascertained, but he was still living in
1568.

PAPILLON, JEAN, ' the elder,' a French engraver
on wood, was born at Rouen in 1639. He was
instructed by Du Bellay, but his design was not
equal to his engraving. He died in Paris in 1710.
PAPILLON, JEAN BAPTISTE, ' the younger,' the
son of Jean Papillon, was born at St. Quentin in
1661. After receiving some instruction in drawing
from his father, he was sent to Paris, where he was
placed under the tuition of Noel Cochin. His first
pursuit was drawing with a pen. He afterwards
turned his attention to engraving on wood, and his
cuts possess considerable merit. He executed a
great variety of vignettes and book ornaments,
and is said to have been the inventor, about the
year 1688, of'paper-hangings for rooms. He died
in Paris in 1723. Among his cuts were the por-
traits of Popes Paul III., Julius III., and Pius IV.,
also of King James II. of England. His most
famous work was a ' Mass-book ' in chiaroscuro
after Leclerc.

PAPILLON, JEAN BAPTISTE MICHEL, the son of
Jean Baptiste Papillon, was born in Paris in 1698,
and was instructed by his father in the art of
engraving on wood, which he practised with great
success. Among his best performances are the



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



cuts he executed in conjunction with N. le Sueur,
from the designs of J. J. Bachelier, for the fine
edition of 'Les Fables de la Fontaine,' iii four
volumes f<51io. He also furnished 217 plates to
the Amsterdam Historical Bihle. He published a
history of the art of engraving on wood, in two
volumes, entitled, ' Traite^ Historique et Pratique
de la Gravure en Bois,' in which, however, he was
guilty of many mistakes, while the appearance of
more recent works on the subject has destroyed
its value. He died in Paris in 1776.

PAPILLON, JEAN NICOLAS, wood engraver, was
born at St. Quentin in 1663. He was the son of
Jean Papillon ' the elder.' He executed several
unimportant works. He died in 1714.

PAPIN, J. A., a French painter, and native of
Bordeaux, was born in 1800. He never rose above
mediocrity, and died in 1880. His best work is a
' Dream of St. Joseph.'

PAPINI, GIUSEPPE, (or GIUSEPPE BENEDETTI DE
PAPINI,) an Italian engraver, who, according to
Zani, was born in 1707, and died in 1782. He
executed several plates of ceilings, and other
decorations for the ' Museo Etrusco,' by Gori ; the
' Museum Capitolinum ;' and other works published
between 1737 and 1750.

PAPPANELLI, NICCOL6, a native of Faenza,
was born in 1537. He was a knight, and an
amateur in art, which, however, he studied with
enthusiasm under the influence, at least, of Baroccio.
His best work is a 'St. Martin' in Faenza cathe-
dral. Pappanelli died in 1620, aged 83.

PAPPERITZ, GUSTAV FBIEDRICH, landscape and
genre painter and etcher, was born at Dresden in
1813. He studied at the Academy there under
Clausen-Dahl, and, after 1836, at Munich. He
travelled in Italy and Spain. His death occurred
at Dresden in 1861. In 1836 he brought out twelve
etchings of Italian views. Among his paintings
there are :

The Valley of Elche, in Spain. (Dresden Museum.)

Ruins of Petersberg, near Halle.

Sicilian Pilgrim scene.

PAPPINO DELIA PIEVE, an Italian painter of
the 16th century. He was a pupil of Niccol6 Soggi,
but died in his first youth.

PAPWORTH, EDGAR GEORGE. For his clever
drawings, and especially for his sketches for a
panoramic view of Rome, this talented sculptor
finds mention in this volume. He was born in
1809, resided at Rome in the time of his youth,
having won a travelling scholarship at the Royal
Academy, and died at Highgate in 1866.

PAPWORTH, GEORGE, an architect, the uncle
of E. G. Papworth, and a man of unusual skill as
a draughtsman and colourist. He was responsible
fur many important buildings in Ireland, but especi-
ally deserves notice on account of the intrinsic
beauty of his architectural designs, the originality
of his drawing, and the refinement of his schemes
of colour. He was born in 1781 and died in
1855.

PAPWORTH, JOHN BUONAROTTI, another mem-
ber of this talented family, son of John Papworth,
born 1775, and died in Huntingdonshire in 1847.
He was not only an architect, but also " a designer
of decorations, furniture, and accessories," and
remarkable as an artist in water-colour. He was
an honorary member of the Old Water-Colour
Society, and a frequent exhibitor in its Galleries.
He was appointed Director of the Government
School of Design in 1836, and was the author of
F 2



many important works on decoration, architecture,
and ornamental gardening.

PAPWORTH, JOHN WOODY, born 1820, died
unmarried in 1870, the elder son of J. B. Pap-
worth, and the brother of W. A. V. S. Papworth.
He was, like other members of bis family, an
architect, but he was also a very clever heraldic
painter, and an admirable designer for "glass,
pottery, terra cotta, paperhangings, and carpets."
He was the author of numerous works on art and
architecture.

PAPWORTH, W. A. V. S., the younger son of
J. B. Papworth, and the editor of the ' Dictionary
of Architecture.' He was born in 1822, became
curator in 1893 of the Soane Museum, and died
therein 1894. He was a most skilful draughtsman
and designer, intimately connected with many
architectural and artistic societies, the author of
many treatises and books on art, and a very
diligent student of archaeology. His designs were
of great merit and beauty, and all students of
architecture are indebted to him for the results of
his diligent and persevering study.

PAQUEST, AIMABLE Louis CLAUDE, a pupil of
David, born in 1790, and died in 1819. Though
well endowed by nature, his early death and his
laborious finish curtailed his productiveness ; a
portrait of M. de Nanteuil-Lanorville, exhibited in
1817, with three or four other portraits and a few
studies, complete the list of his pictures.

PARADISI, NICCOLO, a Venetian painter of the
15th century, whose name is preserved by the
signature on a ' Crucifixion,' which runs thus :
Nicholaus Paradixi Miles de Venetiis pinxit,
1404. The picture belongs to the Agostiniani
family at Verucchio.

PARANT, , a painter referred to in the will of
Pierre Mignard. Probably a journeyman who
'forwarded' that master's pictures and completed
the accessories.

PARANT, Louis BEETIN, a famous painter on
ivory and porcelain, was born in 1767. He was
distinguished by Napoleon when First Consul ; for
him he executed several works. Parant died in
1852.

PARASACCHI, DOMENICO, an Italian designer
and engraver, resided at Rome about the year 1630.
In conjunction with Giovanni Maggi, he engraved
a set of plates of the Fountains at Rome, published
in 1618, and again, with additions, in 1636.

PARASOLE, BERNARDINO, was the son of Leo-
nardo Panisole, and studied painting in the school
of Giuseppe Cesari. He was a native of Norcia.
He had begun to distinguish himself as an his-
torical painter, when he died, in the bloom of life.
He executed a few engravings on wood, from his
own designs.

PARASOLE, GERONIMA, was a sister of Isabella
Parasole. We have by her some engravings on
wood ; and, among others, the ' Battle of the Cen-
taurs,' after Tempesta ; and a series of scenes from
the Life of St. Anthony.

PARASOLE, ISABELLA, was the wife of Leonardo
Parasole, who assumed her family name. She
executed several cuts of plants for an herbal, pub-
lished under the direction of Prince Cesi, of Aqua-
sparta. She published a book on the methods of
working lace and embroidery, with ornamental
cuts, which she engraved from her own designs.
She was working at Rome about 1600, and died
there in her 50th year.

PARASOLE, LEONARDO, born NORSINI (or NOB-

67



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



CINO), an Italian engraver on wood, was born at
Rome about the year 1570. He chiefly distinguished
himself by his cuts in the Herbal of Castor Durante,
physician to Pope Sixtus V., which were engraved
by order of that pontiff. He also engraved the
wood-cuts to a ' Testamentum novum, arabice et
latine,' and several prints from the designs of
Antonio Tempesta, including an ' Annunciation.'
He married Isabella Parasole, and thenceforth
went by her name.

PARCELLES, JAN, (PARCELLIS, PERCELLES, POR-
CELLIS, &c.,) painter and etcher, was born at
Ghent about the year 1597, and was a scholar of
Hendrik Cornells de Vroom. He lived at Haarlem
from 1622 to 1680, and died there in or subsequent
to the latter year. He excelled in painting marines,
particularly tempests, thunderstorms, and ship-
wrecks. His pictures of calms have also considerable



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