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merit ; they usually represent views of the
coast of Holland, with fishing-boats, and groups
of figures on the strand. Among his etchings are
the following :

A set of twelve large and eight small Sea-pieces.
A set of twelve plates of the different Shipping used iu
Holland, with a Latin inscription. 1627.

PARCELLES, JULIUS, the son and scholar of
Jan Paroelles, was born at Leyerdorp in 1628.
He painted similar subjects to those of his father,
whose style he imitated with some success. His
productions cannot always be distinguished from
those of the elder Parcelles, as they both marked
their pictures with the initials J. P. Good ex-
amples of their work are to be seen in the galleries
of Berlin, Frankfort, and Vienna.

PAIiEDES, JUAN DE, was a Spanish painter,
who studied under Miguel Menendez at Madrid,
and afterwards with Evaristo Munoz at Valencia.
According to Cean Bermudez his drawing and
colouring excelled many of his contemporaries.
His best works are in the convent of the Shod
Trinitarians and in the College of Augustines, at
Valencia.

PAREJA, JUAN DE, known as the Slave of
Velasquez, was born at Seville in 1606. He
accompanied Velasquez to Madrid in 1623, and re-
mained in his service till he died. Being employed
in the menial work of the studio he took every
opportunity to perfect himself as an artist, but
kept his ambition studiously concealed from his
master. At length he painted a picture which he
placed in his master's studio in such a position as
to attract the attention of Philip IV. The king
was so pleased with the work that he asked for
*he author, whereupon Pareja owned that it was
himself, and in return received his liberty. Velas-
quez promoted him to the rank of a pupil, but he
remained in his master's service till the latter died,
and afterwards served his daughter till his own
death in 1670. The Madrid Gallery possesses a
single work of Pareja, ' The Calling of St. Matthew,'
and the Gallery of St. Petersburg the portrait of a
Provincial of some religious order. He excelled
in portraiture.

PARENTANI, ANTONIO, an obscure Italian
painter, who was at work in Turin in 1550. He
painted a ' Paradise," with many angels, in the
Chapter House of the Consolata.

PARENTING, BERNARDINO, who lived in the
15th and 16th centuries, is thought to have belonged
to the Benedictine Order, to have taken the name
of Lorenzo, and to have died at Vicenza in 1531.
He was an imitator of Sauarcione, and his earliest
68



production is a Religious Allegory in the Gallery
of Modena, representing the Saviour carrying His
Cross, St. Jerome penitent before a crucifix, and
a kneeling bishop in a landscape. The Doria
Gallery, in Rome, possesses three panels by him,
with scenes from the life of St. Anthony, which
show a Mantegnesque feeling. His latest work
consists of some unfinished frescoes of scenes from
the life of St. Benedict, in tbe cloisters of San
Giustina, Padua.

PARET Y ALCAZAR, Luis, painter, designer,
and etcher, was born at Madrid in 1747. He
received a liberal education, and becoming a scholar
of Antonio Gonzalez Velasquez, he obtained in
1760-6 prizes at the Academy of St. Ferdinand.
Having finished his artistic education, he applied
himself to studying oriental and other languages
and history. Returning to Madrid he became a
member of the Academy, and was employed by
Charles III. to paint views of the various harbours
of Spain on the Atlantic coast. He held the post
of vice-secretary to the Academy, and secretary
to a board of architecture for the purpose of exam-
ining works to be constructed at the state expense.
He died at Madrid in 1799. He painted a large
picture representing the ' Estates of the kingdom
taking the oath of allegiance to the Prince of
Asturias, afterwards Charles IV.' According to
Cean Bermudez, his best work was a series of
drawings made by request of Don Gabriel Sancha,
to illustrate ' Don Quixote : ' unfortunately they were
never engraved. He left several etchings and a
few frontispieces for books.

PARIA. See PERKIER, FRANgois.

PARIGI, GIULIO, a Florentine architect, en-
gineer, and designer, was the son of the architect
Alfonso Parigi. There are three etchings ascribed
to Giulio by Bartsch and Nagler: 'The Garden of
Calypso,' ' The Temple of Peace,' and a Landscape
after R. Canta-Gallina, who was his scholar. Giulio
died in 1635. His son, ALFONSO PABIGI, ' the
younger,' etched some plates of opera scenes in the
manner of Canta-Gallina ; also some other theatrical
decorations, one of which represents a ' Dance of
Cavaliers and Ladies.' He was at one time military
engineer, and afterwards architect to the Duke of
Tuscany. He died at Florence in 1656.

PAR1LLA, MIGUEL, a painter, was born at
Malaga about 1620. He was at first orrly a village
painter, but he afterwards rose to considerable
distinction. He died about 1683.

PARIS, CAMILLE, French painter ; born in Paris,
March 22, 1834 ; was a pupil of Ary Scheffer and
of Picot ; devoted himself to landscape art. His
first work exhibited at the Salon in 1864 was
' Roche dt-lla Fala' ; this was followed by various
Italian Ian grapes ; his 'Taureau,' shown at the
Universal Exh bi ion of 1878, is now in the Luxem-
bourg. He obtained a third-class medal in 1874,
a second-class medal in 1889, and alsu a bronze
medal, receiving the Legion of Honour in 1895,
and a medal at the Universal Exhibition in 1900.
He died suddenly at Barbizon, August 19, 1901.

PARIS, Di. See AI.FANI.

PARIS, JEAN DE. See PERREAL.

PARIS, JEROME, engraver, was born at Versailles
in 1744. He was instructed by Longueil, and
engraved several landscapes and views, among
which were:

Views of Provence ; after Haokcrt.
Views of Besan^on ; after Zingy.
Views of Dresden ; after the same.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Views of Blois, Nantes, Noyon, etc. ; after Desfriches.
Landscape ; after Van der Meer.
Landscapes ; after Ter Heinpel.

He died about 1810.

PARIS, PIERRE ADRIEN, an architect and archi-
tectural designer, was born at Besanqon, in 1747,
and died in 1819. His architectural designs appear
in ' Le Voyage i Naples,' by Saint Non ; in ' Les
Tableaux de la Suisse,' by Delaborde ; and in works
published by himself: such as ' Recueil de desseins
et etudes d'Architecture,' nine vols. in folio ; ' Exa-
men des Edifices de Rome,' in folio ; ' Restoration
du Colysse,' forty-five plates ; and other pub-
lications.

PARISE, FRANCESCO, a painter of Calabria, was
called Cabresello. He studied at Naples under
P. de Matteis, and afterwards went to Rome to
study under Maratti. He painted pictures for
churches, landscapes, and sea-pieces. He died
about 1743.

PARISET, D. P., a French engraver, was born
at Lyons in 1740. He is supposed to have been a
pupil of Demarteau, under whom he learned the
art of engraving in the chalk style. In 1769 he
came to England, where he was for some time
employed by Ryland, and engraved some plates
for the collection of prints from the drawings of the
great masters, published by Rogers. He also
worked for Bartolozzi. The date of his death is
unknown. We have also by him several portraits
after Falconet and others, among them the follow-
ing:

Sir Joshua Reynolds ; P. Falconet del. 1 768.

Benjamin West, with his family ; after West.

Fraucis Cotes.

William Eyland.

Paul Sandby.

Ozias Humphrey.

J. Meyer.

Oliver Cromwell ; after Cooper.

The Death of Admiral de Coliguy.

The Death of the Duke of Guise.

PARISINUS, AUGUSTINUS, is supposed to have
been a native of France, and to have flourished
about the year 1640. He engraved several plates
of book ornaments, which are executed with the
graver ; also, in conjunction with J. B. Coriolano
and Olivier Gatti, a book of emblems by Paul
Macchi, published at Bologna in 1628. There are
also a few landscapes with his mark, a large A.
with a P. beneath it.

PARIZEAU, PHILIP Louis, a French engraver,
was born in Paris in 1740 or 1748, and died in
1801. We have by him several etchings after
Salvator Rosa and other masters, among them
the following :

An Assembly of Roman Soldiers ; after Salv. Rosa.

Marius seated on the Ruins of Carthage ; after the same.

The Martyrdom of St. Andrew ; after I)eshayes.

The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew ; after the same.

Psyche refusing the Honours of Divinity ; after Boucher.

PARK, THOMAS, an English engraver, born in
1760. His works are in mezzotint, and were pro-
duced in the early part of his career. After 1797
he devoted himself to literature and to antiquarian
pursuits. Amongst his plates are :

Hon. Lincoln Stanhope ; after 8ir J. Reynolds. 1788.

Dr. Thomas, Bishop of Rochester ; after the same. 1788.

Miss Penelope Boothby ; after the same. 1789.

Holman and Miss Bruuton as Romeo and Juliet ; after
Browne.

Mrs. Jordan as the Comic Muse ; after Hoppner. 1786.

Lord Henry Fitzgerald ; after the same.



PARKER, FREDERICK, an English wood en-
graver of much promise, who died young in
1847.

PARKER, HENRY PERLEE, a portrait painter
from the west of England, son of the teacher of
marine drawing at Plymouth. He was born in
1795, and resided in his native town till 1816,
when he moved to the north and settled at New-
castle, and was there ultimately associated with
the foundation of the Northumberland Institution
of Fine Arts. During his residence on the Tyneside
he became very popular by reason of his selection
of local incidents as the subjects for his pictures.
He was a Wesleyan, and was appointed in about
1840 to the position of drawing- master at Wesley's
College in Sheffield. In that town he resided for
some four years, and then moved to London, where
he died in 1873. He exhibited very constantly at
the Royal Academy.

PARKER, JAMES, an engraver, was born in
1750, and was a pupil of Basire. He was one of
the engravers employed by Boydell in his ' Shake-
speare : ' eleven of the plates are by him. He also
engraved ' The Revolution of 1688 ; ' ' The Novel ; '
and ' Yorick feeling the Lady's Pulse,' after North-
cote ; ' The Commemorations of the 14th of Feb-
ruary and the llth of October, 1797,' after Smirke ;
several of the plates for Flaxman's illustrations of
Homer's Iliad ; for the ' Vicar of Wakerield ' (1792),
after Stothard ; and for Falconer's ' Shipwreck '
(1795). He was one of the founders, and a
governor, of the Society of Engravers. He died
in 1805.

PARKER, JOHN, was an historical and portrait
painter, and was born in England about 1730. He
resided several years in Rome, where he displayed
sufficient ability to be employed to paint an altar-
piece for the church of San Gregorio, on Monte
Celio, representing St. Silvia. He returned to
England about the year 1762, and was an exhibitor
at the Society's Rooms, in the Strand, in 1763,
where he had two pictures. The subject of one
was ' The Assassination of David Rizzio ; ' the
other, his own portrait. He did not long survive
his return to England, but died at Paddington
about the year 1765.

PARKER, JOHN, landscape painter, was for
some time a student in the Duke of Richmond's
Gallery, and received some instruction from the
Smiths of Chichester. He was at Rome about
1768, but had returned to England by 1770. He
exhibited at the Academy in 1771, and again and
for the last time in 1776.

PARKES, DAVID, an English draughtsman, born
at Hales Owen in 1763. He was a schoolmaster,
and made sketches of antiquarian interest, some
of which appeared in the 'Gentleman's Magazine.'
He died at Shrewsbury in 1833.

PARKES, jAMES.an English draughtsman, the son
of D. Parkes, was born in 1794. He taught draw-
ing at Shrewsbury. Twelve etchings of antiquities
in Shrewsbury by him were published in the year
after his death, which took place in 1828.

PARKINSON, THOMAS, an English portrait and
subject painter, in the second half of the 18th
century. He had considerable practice in theatrical
subjects, and exhibited at the Academy from 1775
to 1789. Amongst his works are:

Scene from ' She Stoops to Conquer." 1775.
Scene from ' Cymon.' 1775.
Scsne from ' The Duenna.' 1776.
Garrick as Macbeth.

69



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Mrs. Bradshaw as Dorcas. Garrick dub, London.
Palmer and Reddish in ' Cymbeline.'

Some of his pictures have been engraved.

PARMA, BATTISTA PENSIEBI DA. See PAB-

MENSIS.

PARMA, CRISTOROFO DA. See CASELLI.

PARMA, DANIELE DA. See PORRI.

PARMA, FAB. ANDREA DA. See PARMIGIANO.

PARMANTIO, JACQUES. A painter of this name,
of French extraction, lived at the end of the 17th
century at the Hague, where he painted some
ceilings in the Binnenhof.

PARME, JCLIEN HE. See JDLIEN, SIMON.

PARMEGIANO (or PAKMEGIANINO). See MAZ-
ZUOLA, FRANCESCO.

PAEMENSIS, BATTISTA PENSIERI, (or DA
PARMA,) an Italian engraver, was born at Parma
in the former part of the 16th century, and worked
from 1538 to 1601. He chiefly resided at Rome,
where he engraved several plates after various
masters, and from his own designs. He was
patronized by Pietro Aretino, and praised by him
in some of his letters. His prints are executed
with the graver, in a style resembling that of
Cornells Cort. Among others, we have the follow-
ing by him :

The Portrait of Philip II., King of Spain. 1589.

The Virgin and Infant appearing to St. John; after

Baroccio. Baptista farmtiisis fee. 1588.
The Baptism of Christ. apt. Parmensis del.
The Chastity of Joseph. 1592.
The Crucifixion, in two sheets ; Sapt. Parmensis for*

mis. 1584.

PARMENSIS. JACOBUS. See CAEAGLIO.

PARMENTIER, JACQUES, called JAMES, was
born in France in 1658. He was a nephew of
Sebastian Bourdon, by whom he was instructed
in art. On the death of Bourdon, he came to
England in 1676, and was for some time employed
by Charles de la Fosse, to assist him in the works
upon which he was engaged at Montague House.
King William sent Parmentier to Holland, to
ornament his palace at Loo, but he quarrelled with
Marot, the superintendent of the works, and
returned to London. Not finding much employ-
ment on his arrival, he went into Yorkshire, and
was engaged in several historical subjects as well
as portraits. He painted an altar-piece for the
principal church at Hull, and a picture of 'Moses
receiving the Law,' for St. Peter's church in Leeds.
His best performance was the staircase at Work-
sop. He gave a picture of 'Diana and Endymion'
to Painters' Hall. On the death of Laguerre, in
1721, he returned to London, where he died in
1730.

PARMENTIER, L., engraved a title for the
' Works of Philips Wouwerman,' with the portrait
of the painter at the bottom, from a design by
J. de la Jure.

PARMIGIANINO. See ROCCA, MICHELE.

PARMIGIANO. (or PARMIGIANINO). See MAZ-
ZUOLA, FRANCESCO.

PARMIGIANO (or PARMIGIANINO). See SCAGLIA.

PARMIGIANO, GIULIO, a battle painter of
Venice, called CA GRIMANI, was educated in the
school of F. Monti. He accompanied General
Grimani to the Morea, to make drawings of battles,
which he painted for the Palazzo Grimani at Venice,
He died in 1734.

PARMIGIANO, FABRIZIO ANDREA, (or DA
PARMA,) was born about 1555, and flourished at
Borne as a landscape painter in the pontificate of

70



Clement VII. In the church of Santa Cecilia in
Trastevere, are eight large pictures by him, painted
in fresco, in which, like some of the landscapes by
the Carracci, there is more fancy than truth. He
died in 1600.

PAROCEL. See PARROCEL.

PARODI, DOMENICO, (or PARRODI,) was born at
Genoa in 1668. He was the son of Giacomo
Filippo Parodi, an eminent sculptor, who bestowed
on him an excellent education. He acquired the
first elements of design under his father, and for
some time applied himself to the pursuit of
sculpture ; but a partiality for painting prevailed,
and he was sent to Venice, where he entered the
school of Bombelli, and became an excellent
colourist by studying the works of Tintoretto
and Paolo Veronese. He also visited Rome, where
he attached himself to the manner of Carlo
Maratti. His ' S. Francesco di Sales,' in the
church of San Filippo Neri at Genoa, is in the
style of that master. He further painted ' The
Holy Trinity, with SS. Stephen and Leonard,' in
Santa Vergine delle Vigne, and representations of
the deeds of the Negroni family in their palace in
the same city. He died in 1740.

PARODI, OTTAVIO, was born at Pavia in 1659,
and was a scholar of Andrea Lanzano. He after-
wards visited Rome, where he studied some years.
On his return to Pavia he executed several works
for the public places in that city, which established
his reputation as a painter of history. He was
still living in 1718.

PARODI, PELLEGRO, a portrait painter, was the
son of Domenico Parodi. He went to Portugal,
and in Lisbon painted portraits of many leading
men. Capinetti engraved after him the portrait
of the Marquis Pombal, and Gregori that of the
Doge Spinola. He died about 1769.

PAROLINI, GIACOMO (or GIACOMO FILIPPO), was
born at Ferrara in 1663. His father dying when
he was only five years of age, he was taken under
the protection of a maternal uncle, who perceiving
his disposition for'art, placed him with the Cavaliere
Peruzzini at Turin, with whom he remained until
he was sixteen, when he visited Bologna, and
entered the school of Carlo Cignani. He returned
to Ferrara in 1699, and finished some pictures
left imperfect by M. Aurelio Scannavini, who had
been his fellow-student under Cignani. He was
successful in the design of his female figures and
children, and his bacchanals and festive dances
remind us of Albani. His pictures of those
subjects are to be found in almost every collection
in Ferrara. Of his historical works the most
considerable are, the 'Last Supper,' in the cathedral
at Ferrara; and a fresco representing 'St. Sebastian
with a glory of angels,' in the church dedicated to
that Saint at Verona. He was the last eminent
painter of his country, and " with him," says
Lanzi, " was buried the glory of the Ferrarese
school." He died at Ferrara in 1733.

PAROLINI, PlO, was, according to Titi, a
native of Udine, though he chiefly resided at
Rome, where he was received into the Academy in
1678. He painted an allegorical subject on the
ceiling of'one of the chapels in San Carlo al Corso.

PARONE, FRANCESCO, was born, according to
Baglione, at Milan, near the end of the 16th
century. He was the son of an obscure artist ;
but at an early age lie visited Rome, where he
had the good fortune to be taken under the
protection of the Marquis of Giustiniani, who



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



enabled him to study the works of art in his own
collection and elsewhere. In the church of the
monastery of San Romualdo, is an altar-piece by
him, representing the 'Martyrdom of a Saint.'
Parone died at Rome in the prime of life, in
the year 1634.

PAROY, JACQUES DE, glass painter, was born at
Saint Pourcain sur Allier, Auvergne, towards the
end of the 16th century. He studied in Rome
under Domenichino. He painted the choir windows
in St. Mery, Paris ; he designed the story of
Susanna for another set of windows in the same
church, and also the four ' Fathers of the Church.'
Paroy died at the end of the 17th century, aged 102.
PAROY, JEAN PHILIPPE GUY, a French painter
and engraver, was born in Brittany in 1750. In
his youth he showed great talent for art, in spite
of the opposition of his father. In 1800 he
produced his engraving of the ' Modern Antigone,'
which had great success. He wrote a history
of the Royal Academy of Painting, and other
works. He died in 1822.

PARR, REMI, (or REMIGIUS,) an architectural
designer and engraver, was born at Rochester
in 1723, and in 1737 published a View of London
from Westminster Bridge, with other plates of a
similar kind. He was, however, chiefly employed
by the booksellers in portraits, book-plates, and
humorous subjects. He was still living in 1750.
Among others, we have the following engraved
portraits by him :

Maria Louisa, daughter of Charles II.

John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester.

William Becket, prefixed to hisChirurgical Observations.

1740.

PARRASIO, ANGELO, a Sienese painter, who was
employed at the court of the Marquis Leonello
d'Este, in the middle of the 15th century.

PARRASIO, MICHF.LE, a painter of the 16th cen-
tury, was a pupil of Titian and of Paolo Veronese.
He was a man of wealth, and continued through
life in intimate correspondence with Titian. There
remain by him :

Madrid. Escorial. The Marys at the Sepulchre.

Adoration of the Kings.

Museum. The Dead Christ adored by

Pius V-

Venice. Academy. Deposition from the Cross.

Male Portrait.

PARRE, MATHIEU, a Dutch painter of the present
century, who was at work in Amsterdam from 1811
to 1849. He was a pupil of J. Van der Stok.

PARREU, Jos, was born at Rusafa, Valencia,
in 1694. He was a pupil of D. Vidal, and executed
several works for the churches in Valencia. He
died in 1766.

PARRHASIUS, the younger contemporary and
rival of Zeuxis, was a native of Ephesus, and a
disciple of Euenor. He was in the fulness of his
reputation about 400 B.C. According to Pliny, he
was the first who arrived at perfect symmetry in
the proportion of his figures, and Quintiliau terms
him " the legislator of art," from the canon which
he established on this point having been accepted
by succeeding artists. He gave to his forms more
relief and roundness, more life and motion, than
were known before his time. He was also par-
ticularly successful in the treatment of the hair,
and in the expression of his female figures. This
characteristic he carried so far as to impart to his
pictures some of the soft and sensuous quality of
the Asiatic school, and this not to the female
figures only, for Euphranor remarked that the



'Theseus' of Parrhasius had been fed on roses,
while his own was fed upon beef. The painter,
moreover, was voluptuous in his own habits, and
used to add to his signature the epithet, d/3po&airoc,
' the luxurious.' Parrhasius was remarkable, too,
for vanity and arrogance. He styled himself the
prince of painters, and asserted that he had carried
the art to the highest possible perfection. He
was always clothed in sumptuous attire, and
claimed to be descended from Apollo. He pre-
tended to have painted Hercules from a revelation
of his form in a vision ; and when defeated by
Timanthes in a contest for a picture upon the
' Strife of Ajax and Ulysses,' he declared that
Ajax was a second time overcome by an unworthy
rival. The story versified by the American poet
Willis, of his putting a slave to the rack in order
to furnish himself with a model for the expression
of intense agony, whether it be founded upon fact
or not, is too much in accordance with his nature :
" I'd rack thee though a thousand lives were thine ;

What were ten thousand to a fame like mine ! "
Notwithstanding these serious personal defects,
Parrhasius cannot be denied the glory of having
been one of the most accomplished painters of
Greece. The well-known story of Pliny in refer-
ence to the contest between him and Zeuxis is
related in the article upon the latter artist. One
of his principal works, representing a ' High Priest
of the goddess Cybele,' was afterwards purchased
by the Emperor Tiberius, for sixty thousand
sesterces. Pliny highly commends two pictures
by Parrhasius, one representing a warrior rushing
to the combat, the other a soldier taking off his
armour. His celebrated picture of ' Theseus ' was
in that historian's time preserved in the Capitol at
Rome ; and another representing Melenger, Her-
cules, and Perseus, in one group, was formerly at
Rhodes. Yet another of his most notable produc-
tions was his picture of ' The Athenian People,' in
which he appears to have caught and expressed
all the varying modes and passions of the populace.
Some of his subjects were lascivious.

PARRHASIUS (of Antwerp). See ScHOONJANS
PARRIS, EDMUND THOMAS, was born in the parish
of Marylebone on June 3, 1793, and served an
apprenticeship with Ray and Montague, the
jewellers, where he learnt enamel-painting and
metal-chasing ; he studied mechanics in his spare
time. In 1816 he was admitted as a student
in the schools of the Royal Academy ; in this
year two of his pictures were hung at the Royal
Academy, 'The Butterfly,' and a view of West-
minster Abbey, " with old houses as they appeared
in 1816." Between 1816 and 1874 eighty-six of
his works were exhibited in London, including
twenty-six at the Royal Academy ; thirty-six at
the British Institution ; and eighteen at Suffolk
Street ((iraves, 'Dictionary of Artists'). From
1824 to Nov. 1829 Parris was chiefly engaged in
painting Homer's Colosseum, erected near Regent's



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