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Christ and His Disciples. 1830.

birthplace of this Dutch painter and etcher is
uncertain ; but it was either Utrecht, or more
probably Schoonhoven, and the date of his birth
about 1619-20, as he was contemporary with Jan
Asselyn, who was born in 1610, died in 1660, and
painted figures and animals in landscapes by
Naeuwincx ; so that the pictures by him may have
been confounded with those of Asselyn. Immer-
zeel quotes very high prices as having been paid
for pictures by Naeuwincx, which consist of land-
scapes, towns, villages, &c. One in the style of
Waterloo, in which sportsmen are introduced, is
dated 1651. He is, however, more generally
known by his drawings and etchings, in which
the point is used with great delicacy. They are
rare, and were published in two sets of eight each ;
of which Nagler gives a full description. The
date of the death of Naeuwincx has not been

NAFTEL,MAUD,a clever flower painter, daughter
of Paul J. Naftel by his second wife. She was
born in 1856, studied in the Slade School, and
in Paris under Carolus Duran. She became as-
sociated with the Society of Painters in Watn-
Colours in 1887, but never attained to full member-
ship. She died in London in 1890 after a very
short illness. A book on ' Flowers and how to
Paint them' was written by her and became a
standard work on the subject,

NAFTEL, PADT, JACOB, a clever water-colour
artist, a native of the Channel Islands, born at


Guernsey in 1817. Neither his father nor mother
exhibited any talent in art, but from his earliest
youth Naftel was fond of drawing and delighted
in the use of brushes and colours. He began life
in a commercial pursuit, hut soon abandoned it in
favour of art, earning his living by giving lessons
in drawing and painting at various schools. After
a few years of rigid economy and very laborious
work he obtained the position of drawing-master
at the chief college of his native island. In 1870
he left Guernsey and came to London, and there
obtained considerable work in the teaching profes-
sion, becoming master in drawing and painting at
many fashionable schools. This work he continued
down to the time of his death, but gradually taught
less and less as the demand for his own exquisite
water-colours increased. He had joined the Old
Water-Colour Society in 1856 while he was in
Guernsey, first as an associate and then three years
after as a member, and he exhibited from that
time down to his death in the Galleries of that
Society. Part of his life he lived at Chelsea, but
he died near Feltham on September 13, 1891. He
did a little book illustration, preparing the designs
for two small volumes on the Channel Islands.
His landscapes were of exquisite quality and very
dainty refinement, most of them representing
scenes in Italy, the Tyrol, Scotland, and England,
whilst man}' of his works depicting the sea were
from scenes in his own much-loved island home.

NAGEL, JAN, an unimportant Dutch painter of
the 17th century. He was born at Haarlem. He
imitated Cornelius Molenaer, and died at the Hague
in 1602 (?).

NAGEL, LTJDWIQ VON, German painter; born
March 29, 1836, at Weilheim (Upper Bavaria) ;
was a pupil of W. Diez. He was fond of equestrian
subjects, and indeed is best known for his spirited
drawings of horses and of episodes in military
manoeuvres. He went through the Franco-German
War of 1870. He became popular by his con-
tributions to ' Fliegende Blatter,' and ' Mtinchener
Blatter.' He died in September 1899.

NAGEL, PETER, a Flemish engraver, who
flourished at Antwerp about 1569-84. He is said
to have been a pupil of Philip Galle, and he
engraved many subjects after Flemish masters.
Among other prints he has left, ' The Seven Works
of Mercy ' ; after M. Heemskerk.

painter of the 17th century. He was born at Cento,
and was a pupil of Guercino. Most of his active
life was passed at Rimini, where, in the Church of
Santa Maria degli Angeli, his best work is to be

NAGTEGEL, ARNOLD, engraver. He worked in
1690, probably at Amsterdam. His name is affixed
to prints in mezzotint, after portraits of Ishach
Aboab Rabin and of the English surgeon, Thomas

NAHL, JOHANN AUGUST, one of a family of
artists, mostly sculptors, established at Ausbach.
He was born in 1752 at Channe, near Bern, on a
property belonging to his father, who gave him
his first instruction in art. As his taste inclined
rather towards painting than to sculpture, he
became a scholar of Tischbein at Cassel, then of
Tannesch at Strasburg, of the landscape painter
Bemmel, and of Handmann at Bern. At the age
of twenty Nahl went to Paris, and studied Le
Sueur so ardently as to assimilate his style. In
1774 Nahl proceeded to Rome, where he passed

seven years in drawing from antiques, and copying
the works of Raphael and Guido. He there painted
his fine picture ' An Offering to Venus,' one of his
richest and most highly-finished works. The
illness of his father induced him, in 1781, to re-
turn to Cassel, where, shortly afterwards, his father
died. Nahl did not remain long in that place, but
went to England. There he remained fifteen
months, and after visiting Holland, returned to his
native place. In 1786 and 1787 he was again in
Rome and Naples ; and in 1792 returned to Cassel.
There he became a professor in the Academy, and
in 1815 ' Professor of Painting.' He died at
Cassel in 1825. Twice Nahl gained prizes given
by Goethe for pictorial composition. In 1799-
1800 by his ' Parting of Hector and Andromache,'
and, in 1801, by his 'Hercules at the Court of
Lycomedes.' Nahl's works include history, por-
traits, and landscapes. He also etched several
mythological subjects.

NAIGEON, JEAN, a French historical and por-
trait painter, and relative of the French philosopher,
Jacques Andr6 Naigeon, who himself began life
as an artist. Jean Naigeon was a scholar of
Devosge, at the Dijon Academy, and of David.
His principal pictures are, ' The infant Pyrrhus
presented at the Court of Glaukias ; ' ' jEneas going
to Battle;' 'Numa Pompilius consulting the Nymph
Egeria ; ' two bas-reliefs in the gallery of the
Luxembourg, being allegories (en grisaille) of the
glory of Rubens and Le Sueur ; the design for the
Vignette engraved by Roger for the official docu-
ments of the Government'of the French Republic.
He also painted theatrical decorations, and por-
traits of distinguished persons of the time, among
them Monge and Laplace. He was instrumental
in saving many works of art from destruction in
1793, and was conservator of the Museum of the
Luxembourg, and a member of the Legion of
Honour. He was born at Beaune (Cote d'Or) in
1757, and died in 1832.

historical and portrait painter, born in Paris in
1797. He studied under his father, Jean Naigeon,
and also under David and Gros. He entered the
'Ecole des Beaux Arts' in 1815, and having gained
the second grand-prize in 1827, went to Italy. In
1832 he succeeded his father as curator of the
Luxembourg Gallery. He died in Paris in 1867.
Amongst his works are :

The Magdalen in the Desert. 1836.

The Adoration of the Shepherds. 1845.

Gleaners near Naples.

The Vintage at Amain.

Several Portraits. ( Versailles Gallery.)


NAISH, WILLIAM, an English miniature painter
of the 18th century. He was a native of Axbridge,
Somersetshire, and practised in London. He ex-
hibited at the Royal Academy from 1783 to 1800,
in which year he died. His brother, JOHN NAISH,
was also an artist.


NAKE, GUSTAV HEINRICH, a German painter of
history and portraits, who flourished between 1784
and 1834. Works :

Faust and Marguerite.

St. Elizabeth of Hungary distributing Alms.

TISTA DEGLI INNOCENTI, was born at Florence in
1537, and spent the greater part of his youth with
the superintendent of the Foundling Hospital,


He was first a scholar of Jacopo Carrucci,
but afterwards studied under Angelo Bronzino.
According to Baglione he visited Rome in the
pontificate of Gregory XIII., where he painted
several altar-pieces for the churches, and on his
return to Florence he was engaged by Giorgio
Vasari as his coadjutor in the works in which he
was employed in the Palazzo Vecchio, where he
was occupied fourteen years. His pictures of the
Purification and Entombment in Santa Maria
Novella, at Florence, are extolled by Borghini.
Other works of his are the ' Pieta ' over the tomb
of Michelangelo, and Adorations ' of the Shep-
herds,' and ' of the Magi' in the Dresden Gallery.
He was living in 1590. Zani supposes that he
died about 1600.

NAMEUR, Louis DE, a French historical painter,
was born in 1629, and received into the Academy
in 1665. None of his works can now be identified.


NANI, JACOPO. (or GIACOMC,) an unimportant
Italian painter, of the 18th century. He was em-
ployed at the Neapolitan Court, where he painted
landscapes, flowers, and fruit. Lanzi says he was
a scholar of Belvidere.

NANINI (MATTEO). An obscure pupil of Carlo

the Embriverero, was born at UdLne on the 15th
October, 1487, and having discovered an early
disposition for art, by making drawings from the
animals and birds killed in the chase by his father,
Francesco Recamatore, he was sent to _ Venice,
where he was placed under the tuition of Giorgione.
The fame of Raphael had reached Venice, and
inspired Nanni with an ardent desire to visit
Rome. His protector, the patriarch Grimani, de-
sirous of promoting his wishes, furnished him with
letters of recommendation to Baldassare Castig-
lione, by whom he was introduced to Raphael,
who admitted him into his school. He was there
employed in painting the ornamental accessories.
While he was in Raphael's studio the discovery
was made of the remains of antiquity in the baths
of Titus. Nanni was selected by Raphael to make
designs from the beautiful grotesques on stucco,
found in the different apartments. He not only
succeeded in his commission to the entire satisfac-
tion of his master, but discovered a process of
compounding u stucco, which had the same appear-
ance, and probably the same durability, as that
used by the Romans. He was now employed by
Raphael to execute the greatest part of the gro-
tesques in the Loggie and Stanze of the Vatican, a
commission he discharged so well as to link his
name indissolubly with that of his master. The
grotesques in the lower Loggia were entirely from
the brush of Giovanni, but in 1867 they were much
painted over by Mantovani. After the death of
Raphael he was employed by Clement VII., in con-
junction with Pierino del Vaga, to ornament that
part of the Vatican called La Torre di Borgia,
where they represented the Seven Planets ; the
emblematical figures were designed by del Vaga,
but the grotesques and symbolical decorations
were executed by Nanni. The festoons of the
' History of Psyche,' in the Farnesina Palace, were
also by him, and he decorated the vestibule of
the Villa Madama, now in ruins, and prepared
the designs for the windows of the Laurentian
B 2

Library. In 1527 he was compelled, by the sack-
ing of Rome, to fly from that city, and he took
refuge at Udine, where he was for some time em-
ployed. He was afterwards engaged at Florence,
by the family of the Medici, in several considerable
works. He returned to Rome in the pontificate of
Pius IV., and there he died in 1564. He was buried in
the Pantheon, near the tomb of his master Raphael.

NANNI, GIBOLAMO, was a native of Rome, and
flourished about the year 1642, during the pontifi-
cate of Sixtus V., by whom he was employed in
several considerable works. He was generally
known by the name of " poco e buono," from the
following circumstance. Being of a very studious
disposition, and rather slow in his operations, he
was reproached for his tardiness by Giovanni da
Modena, a contemporary artist, when he replied,
" Faccio poco e buono ; " and he bore that name
ever afterwards. His works are to he seen in
several of the public buildings of Rome. In the
church of the Madonna dell' Anima there is an
' Annunciation ; ' and in San Bartolomeo dell' Isola,
two subjects from the life of St. Bonaventura.

NANNUCC10, or NANNOCCIO, was a Florentine
painter, and a pupil of Andrea del Sarto ; he
flourished about 1540. He went to France with
the Cardinal Tournon, and spent a large part of
his life there.

torical and genre painter and lithographer, born at
Rome in 1813. He was brought to France when
only two years old, and studied under J. M. Lang-
lois and Ingres. In 1829 he entered the Ecole des
Beaux Arts, but was expelled for heading a stu-
dent's disturbance. Much of his time was occupied
in illustrating books by Victor Hugo, Dumas, and
others, for which he made an immense number of
drawings. He obtained medals in 1837 and 1848.
In his later years he held the post of Director of
the Dijon Academy. He died in 1873. Amongst
his pictures are:

A Ray of Sunshine. 1848. ( Valenciennes Museum.)

The Temptation. 1851. (Havre Museum.)

Souvenirs of the Past.

Scene from Don Quixote. (Lille Museum.)

Hunting-dogs reposing. (Luxembourg, Paris.')

The Fawn. ( The same.)

His chief lithographs are :

The ' Bebedores ' ; after Velazquez.

The Studio of Velazquez ; after the same.

The Toper ; after Tenters.



NANTEUIL, ROBERT. This celebrated French
engraver and draughtsman in crayons, was born at
Rheims about 1623, according to the ' Mercure
Galant' of December 1678, or in 1630 as stated by
other authorities. There is an engraving by him
dated 1645, and it was not the first he did. He
was the son of a merchant, who gave him a classi-
cal education, but a decided inclination for the art
of design induced him to adopt it as a profession.
He was instructed in engraving by his brother-in-
law, Nicolas Regnesson, whose sister he married in
1647, and then went to Paris, where he received
further instruction from Abraham Boke and Phil-
lippe de Champagne. He acquired considerable
reputation as a maker of portraits in crayons, and
his talent in that branch recommended him to the
protection of Louis XIV.. whose portrait he painted,
and after this was appointed designer and engraver
to the Royal cabinet, with a pension. In 1648 he


applied himsel more to engraving in the style of
C. Mellan and others, but in 1650 he adopted one
infinitely superior, which in clearness and beauty
of effect has never been surpassed. The portraits
by him will ever hold a rank among the most ad-
mired productions of the art. Nanteuil died in
Paris in December 1678, and it appears extra-
ordinary that in so short a life, if he was born in
1630, he could accomplish so many plates in so
finished a style. Mariette possessed two hundred
and eighty prints by this artist. The following
are among his most esteemed portraits :

Anne of Austria, Queen of France ; after Sfignard.

Several Portraits of Louis XIV. ; from his own designs,
and after Miynard, and others.

Louis, Dauphin ; son of Louis XIV. 1677.

Louis Bourbon, Prince de CondiS ; after his own design.

Henri Jules de Bourbon, Duke d'Engheiu ; after Miq-

nard. 1661.

Christina, Queen of Sweden ; after S. Bourdon. 1654.
Louisa Maria, Queen of Poland ; after Juste. 1653.
Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy. 1C6S.
Charles, Duke of Lorraine. 1660.

Johann Friedrich, Duke of Brunswick Lunebure 1674
Charles II., Duke of Mantua. 1652.
Antonio Barberini, Cardinal, and Archbishop of Eheims


Emanuel Theodore, Duke of Bouillon, Cardinal. 1670
Leon le Bouthellier, Minister of State; after Cham-

paiane. 1652.

Jules Mazarin, Cardinal. 1655.
Armand Jean du, Plessis, Cardinal de Richelieu ; after

Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount Turenne. 1665.


Pompone de Bellievre.
Two Plates ; one after P. de Champaigns ; dated 1653.

The other, an oval, after C. le Erun. The latter is

one of NanteuiFs best engravings.

Robert Nanteuil was also a poet, and the verges
he addressed to Louis XIV., begging for more
time to finish his portrait, are graceful.





NAPPI, FRANCESCO, was born at Milan about
1573, and after studying for some time both there
and at Venice, visited Rome during the pontificate
of Urban VIII. He was employed for some of the
public edifices at Rome ; but his works do not rank
above mediocrity. His best productions are, his
pictures of the ' Resurrection ' and the ' Assump-
tion of the Virgin,' in the cloister of Santa Maria
sopra Minerva ; and the ' Annunciation ' in the
Monasterio dell' Umilitk. He died in 1638.

NARCISO, Josfs ANTONIO, a Spanish painter of
the 18th century, no details of whose life are known.


NARDI, ANGELO, was born at Florence about
1601, and after studying the works of Paolo
Veronese, visited Spain in the reign of Philip IV.,
whose court-painter he became in 1625, and whom
he assisted with advice in the purchase of Italian
paintings. He was a favourite of the Archbishop
of Toledo, and executed for him seven altar-pieces
for the Bernardin Nuns at Alcala de Heneares,
eleven for those at Jaen, and eight in the Atocha
Church at Madrid. Nardi died at Madrid in 1660.

NARDINI, TOMASO, an Italian painter, was born
at Ascoli about 1658. He painted figures in the
perspectives of Collaceroni. He died in 1718.

NARDOIS, J. GALIOTH, a French painter of the
17th century. He is quoted in Nagler's ' Mono-

gramisten,' where he is said to have painted in the
style of Claude, and to have engraved some plates.

wards' Fray Juan de la Miseria,'an Italian painter,
was born in Molica about 1526. He acquired some
knowledge of painting in the Schools of Naples,
whence, being of a pious disposition, he made
pilgrimages to all parts of Italy, and at last left
his native country for the shrine of Santiago at
Compostella. Proceeding afterwards to Madrid,
he entered tlie school of Sanchez Coello, where his
piety recommended him to the devout sister of
Philip II. In 1560 he entered one of the reformed
Carmelite convents at Pastrana. There he painted
an ' Ecce Homo,' and two portraits of Santa Teresa
de Jesus. It is doubtful whether any of his works
still exist. He painted also portraits of St. Luis
Beltran and of Fray Nicolas Factor, the artist, of
Valencia. He closed a long life of devotion at
Madrid in 1616.

NASELL1, FRANCESCO, was born at Ferrara, and
flourished about the year 1610. When young, he
studied the works of the Carracci and Guercino.
which he copied with surprising success, but after-
wards devoted himself to the manner of his coun-
tryman Giuseppe Mazzola. He was employed for
several of the churches in Ferrara. In the cathe-
dral there is an altar-piece by him, representing
the ' Nativity ; ' in the church of Santa Maria de
Servi, a large picture of the 'Last Supper;' ana
in the church of Santa Francesca, the 'Assumption
of the Virgin.' Naselli died at Ferrara about 1630.

NASH, EDWARD, an English miniature painter,
born in 1778. He exhibited at the Academy from
1811 to 1820. In his later years he practised in
India, sending his works home to be exhibited.
He died in England in 1821.

NASH, FREDERICK, an English water-colour
painter and draughtsman, born in 1782 at Lambeth.
His instruction in art was due to Malton. His
works first appeared at the Academy in 1800, and
he occasionally exhibited there till 1847. In 1808
he was elected a member of the Water-Colour
Society, where he exhibited with some intermis-
sions till 1856. To show his facility and industry,
it may be stated that his contributions to the latter
Society amounted to nearly five hundred works.
He was also draftsman to the Society of Anti-
quaries, and made several tours in France, Switzer-
land, Germany, &c. In 1834 he retired to Brighton,
where he spent the remainder of his life, and died
there in 1856. There are water-colour drawings
by him of ' Tintern Abbey,' and the 'Versailles
Fountains,' at the Kensington Museum. Amongst
the works which he illustrated are:

' Views of St. George's Chapel, Windsor.' 1805.

' Twelve Views of the Antiquities of London.' 1810.

Ackerman's ' History of Westminster Abbey.'

' History of the University of Oxford.' 1814.

' Picturesque views of the City of Paris and its Environs.

NASH, JOSEPH, an English water-colour painter
and draughtsman, born in 1808. He became a
member of the old Water-Colour Society, where
he first exhibited in 1835. His forte was the de-
piction of mediaeval buildings and scenes. He
published 'Architecture of the Middle Ages'
(1838) ; ' Mansions of England in the Olden Time '
(1839-49) ; and ' Views of Windsor Castle ' (1848)
He also contributed illustrations to Lawson's
' Scotia delineata' (1847) ; E. MacDermott's ' Merrie
Days of England' (1859); and 'Old English




Ballads' (1864); and he drew on stone Sir D.
Wilkie's ' Oriental Sketches.' At the Paris Exhibi-
tion of 1855 he exhibited six water-colour draw-
ings, and was awarded an " honourable mention."
He died at Bayswater in 1878.

NASINI, ANTONIO, a brother of Guiseppe Nic-
colo, by whom he was trained in art. He after-
wards became a monk, and worked for the churches
of Siena. He died in 1716.

NASINI, Cavaliere GIUSEPPE NICCOLO, was born
at Siena, probably in 1664. His father, FRAN-
CESCO NASINI, an artist little known, instructed him
in the first rudiments of art ; but he afterwards
went to Rome, and became one of the ablest dis-
ciples of Giro Ferri. By the recommendation of
this master he was employed by the Grand Duke
of Tuscany, to paint, from the designs of Pietro
da Cortona, the ' Four Ages of Man,' in emblem-
atical subjects, in the Palazzo Pitti at Florence. On
his return to Rome he was commissioned to paint
the ceiling of the Capella Bracciana, in the church
de SS. Apostoli ; and his picture of the ' Prophet
Amos,' in the Basilico of St. John of Lateran. He
died at Siena in 1736. Among his pictures are:
Foligno. Madonna del j g Le0 nardo.

Rome. Chapel of S. An- ) Th(j Cu ,_

tomo. )

Siena. Conventuale. Death, Judgment, Heaven, and


He etched a print of the Virgin and the Infants
Jesus and St. John in a landscape, with Cherubs
flying in the air, in the taste of Giro Ferri, and also
engraved in the manner of P. S. Bartoli.

NASINI, FRANCESCO, an obscure painter of Siena,
who in the 17th century painted in fresco in the
refectory of the Monasterio del Carmine of that

NASMYTH, ALEXANDER, a Scotch landscape
painter, was born at Edinburgh in 1758. He went
early to London, and was a pupil of Allan Ramsay.
Afterwards he went to Rome, where he remained
several years, and studied historical painting,
landscape, and portraiture. On his return to Edin-
burgh, he commenced practice as a portrait painter,
and had Robert Burns as one of his sitters. His
portrait of the poet is now in the National Gallery
of Scotland ; a replica is in the National Portrait
Gallery, London. He was a member of the
original Society of Scottish Artists, and an Asso-
ciate of the Royal Institution. His inclination,
however, being towards landscape painting, he
ultimately confined himself to that branch ; but
much of his time was occupied in teaching, in
which he was very successful. He exhibited
landscapes occasionally at the Royal Academy in
London, from 1813 to 1826. In 1822 he published
sixteen views of places described in the 'Waverley
Novels.' He died at Edinburgh, April 10, 1840.

NASMYTH, PETER, commonly called by himself
and others, PATRICK, was the son of Alexander
Nasmyth, and was born at Edinburgh in 1787. He
showed an early and decided predilection for land-
scape paintting ; and his zeal in pursuit of his
favourite art left him little opportunity of acquiring
any other instruction. Early in life he injured his
right hand, and learned to paint with his left, and
owing to an illness he became deaf. At the age of
twenty he went to London, and his productions
became very popular, obtaining for him the desig-
nation of ' the English Hobbema,' which was about

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