Park (in 1845 he repainted it) ; and from 1853 to
1856 he so completely "restored" Sir J. Thorn-
hill's paintings in the cupola of St. Paul's Cathedral
as to leave practically nothing of the original
work. Between these two undertakings he as-
sisted W. Daniell, R.A., in painting a panorama
of Madras, the building of which was also from
his design. His exhibits were chiefly fancy sub-
jects, and probably the most popular of these
was 'The Bridesmaid' (inspired by Haines Bailey's
' Lav of the Minstrel ')> exhibited at the British
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
Institution in 1830, and of which the engraving
by J. Bromley had a great success ; the picture,
thirty inches by twenty-two inches, was bought
by Sir Robert Peel, and at the sale of the Peel
heirlooms, May 11, 1900, it realized only eleven
fuineas. To the three sets of plates from his
rawings, ' Flowers of Loveliness,' ' Gems of
Beauty,' and 'The Passions' (1836-38), Lady
Blessington wrote the accompanying verses, and
he illustrated her ' Confessions of an Elderly
Gentleman,' 1836, and ' Confessions of an Elderly
Lady,' 1838. He had for many years a consider-
able vogue as a fashionable portrait painter, his
sitters including Queen Adelaide; this was lent
to the Guelph Exhibition in 1891 by Mr. John
Cleland ; in 1832 he was appointed historical
painter to Queen Adelaide. He made a sketch of
Queen Victoria on her visit to Drury Lane in
Nov. 1837, and this was engraved by Wagstaffe,
who also engraved (in 1842) his picture of the same
Queen's coronation ; the Queen gave him sittings ;
the original drawings in pencil and crayon were
sold at Sotheby's on July 10, 1899, and several of
these are now the property of the present writer.
An early picture, ' Christ Blessing Little Children,'
is in St. George's Church, Sheffield ; his cartoon of
4 Joseph of Arimathsea converting the Britons '
won a prize of 100 at the Westminster Hall
competition in 1843 ; and he designed a model
for a piece of tapestry forty feet long for the Paris
Exhibition of 1867, and "was much employed
in decorating the mansions of the nobility." A
number of his historical costume plates were
reproduced in the fourth and fifth volumes of 'The
Connoisseur.' Parris was a man of untiring and
extraordinary industry, but he is now perhaps
best remembered by the many pretty, sentimental
plates which he designed for the ' Keepsakes ' and
' Annuals' of the earlier years of the 19th century;
he was not in any sense a great artist, but he was
a conscientious and painstaking workman, and it is
a matter of regret that he is not represented in any
public Gallery. He died on Nov. 27, 1873. W.R.
PARROCEL, CHARLES, the son of Joseph Parro-
cel, was born in Paris in 1688, and was first in-
structed by his father, who dying when he was
only sixteen years of age, he was placed under the
tuition of Charles de la Fosse, and on leaving that
muster, travelled to Italy, where he studied some
years in Rome. On his return to France he ac-
quired considerable reputation as a painter of
battle-pieces, and though these and his hunting-
pieces are inferior to those of his father, they
possessed sufficient merit to procure his reception
into the Academy at Paris, of which in 1745 he
further became professor. He was in the same
year appointed to accompany the king to Flanders,
to depict his victories. Among his best paintings
are those of 'The Turkish Ambassador before and
after his audience in the Tuileries,' now at the
Gobelins. Parrocel has left thirty-seven etchings,
from his own designs, representing horse and foot
soldiers, among them six in the style of Salvator
Rosa. He died in Paris in 1752.
PARROCEL, ETIENNE, was the son of Pierre
Parrocel. He was born in Paris about the year
1720, and is stated to have been a painter, perhaps
also an engraver.
PARROCEL, BARTHELEMY, a native ot Bng-
nolles, father and first instructor of Joseph Parrocel.
He was of no repute as an artist, and died about
PARROCEL, IGNACE, the nephew of Joseph
Parrocel, was born in Paris in 1668. He was
apparently the scholar of his uncle, as he painted
similar subjects, battles and huntings, and in a
closely similar style. He died in Paris in 1722.
A 'Turkish Battle ' and a ' Field Encampment ' by
him are in the Belvedere of Vienna.
PARROCEL, JOSEPH, an eminent painter of
battles, was born at Brignolles, in Provence, in 1648.
He was the son of Barthelemy Parrocel, a painter
of little note, who, together with his elder son
Louis, instructed Joseph in the first elements of the
art. Without the help of any other teaching, the
latter went to Paris, where he obtained the notice of
some distinguished artists, who recommended him
to visit Italy. On his arrival at Rome, he found
the works of Borgognone in the highest estimation ;
and he entered the school of that artist. After a
residence of some years at Rome, he visited Venice,
where he rapidly improved his colour by study-
ing the works of the best Venetian masters. The
encouragement he experienced in Venice led him
to think of establishing himself there, when one
evening he was assailed on the Rialto by several
assassins, posted, it was believed, by persons jealous
of his success, and it was only by his courage and
personal vigour that he escaped. In 1675 he re-
turned to Paris, and immediately met with public
favour. He was made a member of the Academy
the following year, on which occasion he painted
the ' Siege of Maestricht ' for his reception picture.
He was commissioned by the Marquis de Louvois,
to decorate one of the four refectories of the In-
valides, with the conquests of Louis XIV., and after
this he was employed on some of the works at
Versailles and Marly. He became one of the
favourite painters of Louis XIV., in whose service
he remained until his death, which occurred in
Paris in 1704. He painted several historical sub-
jects for the Hotel de Toulouse, and an admirable
picture of ' St. John in the Wilderness,' for the
church of Notre Dame de Paris. The Museum of
Lyons possesses a ' Horsemen Resting ' by him.
We have ninety etchings by Parrocel from his own
designs : among which are the following :
The Four Parts of the Day ; J. Parrocel inv. el. fee.
Four Battles ; the same inscription.
A. set of forty-eight prints from the Life of Christ.
PARROCEL, Louis, a painter, the eldest son of
Barthelemy Parrocel, was born at Avignon in 1640.
He was instructed by his father, and painted chiefly
PARROCEL, PIERRE, nephew of Joseph and son
of Louis Parrocel, was born at Avignon in 1664,
and died in Paris in 1739. He was first instructed
by his uncle, and afterwards entered the school of
Carlo Maratti at Rome, and in 1730 became a
member of the Academy there. His principal work,
as a painter, was in the gallery of the Hotel de
Noailles, at St. Germain-en-Laye, where he repre-
sented the history of Tobit in thirteen pictures ;
but the ' Coronation of the Virgin,' in the church
of St. Mary at Marseilles, is considered his chef-
d'oeuvre. He also etched and engraved. His
etchings are executed with dexterity and spirit, in
a style analogous to that of A. Rivalz ; but he was
not equally successful with the graver. Of the
fourteen etchings left by him, 'The Triumph of
Amphitrite ' is perhaps the most noteworthy.
PARHOCEL, PIERRE IGNACE, was born at Avig-
non in 1702, and was at Rome in 1739-40. He
was afterwards director of the school of art there.
PALTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
He etched thirty-six plates, comprising among
them a series of Bernini's statues.
PARRODI. See PARODI.
PARROTT, WILLIAM, the son of a farmer at
Aveley in Essex, was born in October 1813.
Coming to London, he was apprenticed to John
Pye the engraver, but soon forsook the burin for
the brush. In 1840 he published a series of twelve
lithograph views of 'London from the Thames,'
and in 1843 his residence in Paris is marked by a
similar set of Paris views. During the years 1844
and 1845 he travelled in Italy, and on his return
settled in Warren Street, Fitzroy Square, which
neighbourhood he never left till his death. In
1851 he visited Germany, and afterwards spent
much time in Normandy and Brittany. From
1836 to 1857 he was a regular exhibitor at the
Royal Academy, showing twenty-five pictures in
all. From 1835 to 1869 he also exhibited twenty-
five pictures at Suffolk Street, and nineteen at the
British Institution. His work consists mainly of
landscapes, but he occasionally produced figure
subjects full of life and vivacity, such as ' The
Monk preaching in the Colosseum,' ' Catering for
the Convent,' &c. One of his best-known works is
his caricature portrait of Turner, painted in 1842,
and now in the Rusfcin Museum. To his last years
belong the 'Part of St. Malo' (1864); 'Margate
Jetty ' (1865) ; ' Sea View, Isle of Wight ' (1866) ;
'Across the Thames at Henley' (1867); 'The
Romantic Fair of Quimperle, Brittany,' and
'Vesuvius in Eruption' -(1868). His last exhibit
was in 1869, and it may be presumed that he died
in that year, or shortly after.
PARRY, CHARLES JAMES, a younger son of D.
H. Parry, and a clever amateur artist. He was
born in 1824, educated at Manchester, where he
was afterwards engaged in commercial pursuits,
and died in London in 1894. Two of his sons
were also artists.
PARRY, DAVID HENRY, junior, a painter of mili-
tary subjects, and a writer, son of Charles Parry.
PARPvY, DAVID HENRY, a son of Joseph Parry,
born in 1793, whose success in the world as a
portrait painter caused him to remove to London,
where he died in 1826. He painted both in oil
and in water-colour, and some notable portrait
drawings were executed by him in pastels.
PARRY, JAMES, a son of Joseph Parry, and an
engraver. His work is well represented in Corry's
' History of Lancashire,' and he both drew and
engraved many views of buildings in that county.
He died in 1871.
PARRY, JOSEPH, a Liverpool artist, the son of
a master pilot, who was apprenticed to a ship
painter, but who speedily proved his capacity for
artistic work. He painted a great many pictures
dealing with the curious by-streets and quaint
buildings of Manchester and Liverpool, and he
also had considerable practice as a portrait painter
in those towns. He etched a very clever portrait
of himself which is exceedingly rare. He died at
Manchester in 1826, and two of his sons practised
PARRY, THOMAS GAMBIER, a well-to-do amateur
artist, born in 1816, whose chief title to fame rests
upon his discovery of the " spirit fresco " process,
which was adopted both by Ford Mudox Brown ami
Lord Leighton in their most notable works. He
decorated a church which he built at Highnam, the
roof of the nave at Ely Cathedral, and some im-
portant portions of Gloucester Cathedral, and
Tewkesbury Abbey at his own cost with fresco
work, and attained to a very eminent position
thereby, being considered the greatest living
authority on internal decorative work. He was
a great collector of fine old Italian paintings,
many of which were described in the ' Burlington
Magazine ' for July 1903. He died suddenly in
PARRY, WILLIAM, was bom in London in 1742.
He was the son of Parry, the celebrated blind per-
former on the Welsh harp, and received his first
instructions in design in Shipley's drawing-school.
He afterwards studied from the plaster-casts in
the Duke of Richmond's gallery, and became a
pupil of Sir Joshua Reynolds ; about which time he
also entered the academy in St. Martin's Lane. He
was considered at that time a very promising artist,
and obtained several premiums from the Society
of Arts, and in 1766 he became a member of the
Incorporated Society of Artists. On leaving Sir
Joshua he was favoured with the patronage of Sir
Watkin Williams Wynn, by whose liberality he
was enabled, in 1770, to visit Italy, where he
remained four years, and among other things he
painted for his protector a copy of Raphael's
' Transfiguration,' at that time in the church of
San Pietro in Montorio. He returned to London
in 1775, and in 1776 was chosen an Associate of
the Royal Academy ; he then exhibited some por-
traits, as he did again in 1778, 1779, and 1788.
Not meeting with the employment he expected, he
removed to Wales, and on the death of his wife,
in 1788, revisited Rome, where he found sufficient
encouragement to induce him, with the help of a
small fortune acquired through his wife, to remain
several years. His ill state of health obliged him
to return to his native country at the commence-
ment of the year 1791 ; but he only survived his
arrival a few days, and died on February 13th.
There is a small etching by Parry, prepared as a
ticket for a benefit concert on behalf of his father,
whom it represents playing on the harp.
PARS, HENRY, an English draughtsman, born in
1734. He was the elder brother of W. Pars,
A. R. A., and was brought up as a chaser. His
chief claim to remembrance is in connection with
the St. Martin's Lane School, of which lie was
master so long that it became known by his name.
He died in 1806.
PARS, WILLIAM, was born in London in 1742,
and was educated in the rudiments of art in Ship-
ley's drawing-school. He afterwards frequented
the St. Martin's Lane school, and the Duke of
Richmond's Gallery. He exhibited at the Society
of Arts in 1761, and in 1764 obtained from them
the third premium of twenty guineas, for historic
painting. Shortly afterwards he went as draughts-
man with the expedition sent into Ionia by the Dilet-
tanti Society, with Dr. Chandler and W. Revett
as his colleagues. On this expedition he was ab-
sent over two years, and some time after his return
he was engaged by the second Lord Palmerston,
to accompany him in a tour through Switzerland
and Italy, to make drawings of the most remark-
able views and antiquities. In 1770 he was elected
an Associate of the Royal Academy ; and in 1774
the Dilettanti Society having determined to send
an artist to Rome, for a certain number of years,
upon a pension, to complete his studies as a painter,
Pars was made choice of, and arrived at Rome in
1775. He continued his studies in Italy until the
autumn of the year 1782, when he died of a fever.
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
He had exhibited at the Royal Academy constantly
from its establishment until 1776, producing both
small and life-size portraits, as well as drawings
and stained views of temples in Asia Minor and
Greece. Several of the views he made in Greece
have been engraved by Byrne ; and some of
those in Switzerland and Italy were reproduced in
aquatint by Paul Sandby. Woollet also engraved
five Swiss views after Pars.
PARSON, WILLIAM, an amateur architectural,
landscape, and fruit painter, was born in London
in 1736. His father was a builder, and at fourteen
he was apprenticed to an architect. He afterwards
went on the stage, and became a popular comic
actor, but never relinquished his art. He died in
PARSONS, FRANCIS, an English portrait painter,
in the second half of the 18th century. He was
taught in the St. Martin's Lane school, and became
a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists.
In his later years he became a picture-dealer.
Portrait group of Indian Chiefs who visited London in
1763. Engraved by SIcArdell.
Portrait of Miss Davis as ' Madge,' in ' Love in a Village.'
Portrait of Erindley, the Engineer. Engraved by Dun-
PARTRIDGE, JOHN, a portrait painter, was born
in 1790. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from
1815 to 1846. In 1843 he exhibited portraits of
the Queen and Prince Albert, which were engraved
and became very popular. Two years later he
was appointed portrait painter extraordinary to the
Queen. For thirty years he held a good position
in the second rank as a portrait painter, exhibiting
for the last time in 1846. On two occasions only,
in 1830 and 1836, did he send a subject picture to
the Academy ; these were respectively, ' Titania,
Puck, and Bottom,' and ' A Sketching Society, the
Critical Moment.' Partridge died November 25,
1872. The National Portrait Gallery possesses a
large picture by him of a meeting of the Fine Arts
Commission of 1841 at Gwydyr House, Whitehall ;
and the National Gallery of Ireland a portrait of
SirT. Wyse, K.C.B.
PAS, DE (PASS). See VAN DE PASS.
PASADOS, MIGUEL, a Spanish Dominican monk,
born at Valencia in 1711. He painted historical
pictures, aud died in 1753.
PASAROT. See PASSEROTTI.
PASCAL, ANTOINE, a painter of still-life, and
pupil of Redoute". He was at work at Macon in
the early years of the present century. His wife
followed the same profession.
PASCAL, JOSEPH ANDREAS, a miniature painter
of Munich, who flourished in 1729. He painted
portraits and other pictures in miniature for the
Bavarian court. He died in 1758.
PASCALINI. See PASQCALINI.
PASCH, LORENZ, a painter of Stockholm, was
born in 1733. He painted the Swedish king and
the members of his house and court, and decorated
the royal palace with pictures. He was a professor
and rector of the Academy, and inspector of the
Gallery. He died in 1805. Works :
Stockholm. Gallery. Portrait of the Engineer Daniel
Tlmnberg. [Pasch jiiuxit,
Half-length portrait of Gus-
tavus Adolphus IV.
His sister, FRIEDERICA ULRICA PASCH, who was at
Stockholm in 1735, and died in 1796, was also
portrait painter and member of the Academy.
PASENA, ROG. DE. See VAN DER WEYDEN.
PASINELLI, LORENZO, was born at Bologna in
1629, and was first a scholar of A. Baroni and
Simone Cantarini, but afterwards studied under
Flaminio Torre, whose school he left at an early
age. He then visited Turin, Mantua, and Rome,
and spent some time at Venice, where the style of
Paolo Veronese exercised great influence over him.
On leaving Venice he returned to Bologna, where
he died in 1700. Among his best paintings are :
Christ's Entry into Jerusalem,' and ' The Return
of Christ from Limbus,' in the Certosa of Bologna ;
St. Francis raising a Dead Man to Life,' at San
Francesco in the same city ; and the ' History of
Coriolanus,' in the Palazzo Ranuzzi. We have
the following etchings by Pasinelli from his own
St. John preaching in the Wilderness.
The Martyrdom of several Saints.
The Murder of the Innocents ; after Guido Rent.
PASINI, ALBERTO, an Italian painter, born
September 3, 1826, at Busseto (Parma) ; was a pupil
of Ciceri at the Parma Academy ; then he studied
in Paris under Isabey and Rousseau ; travelled in
Turkey, Arabia, and Persia, which served to develop
and confirm his taste for Oriental subjects, as a
painter of which he attained excellence. For a
time he worked in Paris, and afterwards at Mon-
calieri, near Turin. He also painted Venetian
scenes, though his Eastern subjects show him at
his best. He obtained a third-class medal at the
Salon in 1859 ; a second-class one in 1863 ; a
medal in 1854 ; a medaille d'honneur in 1878 ; the
Legion of Honour in 1868 ; being nominated Officer
in 1878. He died at Cavoretto, near Turin,
December 14, 1899.
PASINI, BONIFAZIO, of Verona, son of Bartolo-
meo Pasini, born 1489, traceable as a painter at
Verona from 1515. In 1523 he became a member
of the Confraternity of SS. Siro e Libera, and
appears to have held the office of Sacristan to that
body until his deatli in 1540. This painter was
formerly designated in the history of Art, Bonifazio
I. of Verona, and was regarded as the oldest
member of a family of three, the others being
styled respectively, Bonifazio Veronese II. and
Bonifazio III. Veneziano. The important dis-
coveries of Dr. Gustav Ludwig in the archives of
Verona and Venice have, however, proved this to be
incorrect. In his exhaustive treatment of the sub-
ject ('Jahrbuch d. K. Preussischen Kunstsamm-
'lungen,' 1901, Heft II. and III., and 1902, Heft I.) he
has shown conclusively that the second Bonifazio
of Verona was named " Di Pitati " (see that painter),
and was no relation of Bonifazio Pasini, and that
a third painter of the name of Bonifazio never
existed. No works can be ascribed to Bonifazio
Pasini with any certainty. C. J. Ff.
PASQUALI FlLirro, was a native of Forli, and
a scholar of Carlo Cignani. He flourished about
the year 1680, and in conjunction with Marc
Antonio Fruncescliini, painted several fresco works
at Bologna and Rimini. There are some of his
paintings in the portico of the Serviti at Bologna :
and Lanzi makes honourable mention of his
pictures in the church of San Vittore, at Ravenna.
PASQUALINI, FELICE, a pupil of Sabbatini ;
some of his works are still extant at Bologna und
PASQUALINI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, (or PASCA-
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
LINI,) an Italian painter and engraver, was born
at Cento, near Bologna, about the year 1600. He
frequented for some time the school of Giro Ferri ;
but it does not appear that he arrived at great
eminence as a painter. We have several etchings
by him, principally after Guercino, his countryman,
in which he endeavoured, not very successfully,
to imitate with the point the masterly pen drawings
of that master. The earliest is dated 1619, and the
latest 1630. He frequently signed his plates J. B.
Cenlensis. We have, among others, the following
prints by him :
St. Felix kneeling before the Virgin and Infant ; after
St. Diego working a Miracle : after Ann. Carracci.
The Death of St. Cecilia ; after Domenichino.
The Aurora ; after Guido.
SUBJECTS AFTER GUEKCINO.
Christ dictating the Gospel to St. John.
The Resurrection of Lazarus.
Christ giving the Keys to St. Peter.
The Treachery of Judas.
Angels showing Mary Magdalene the Instruments of
Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus.
The Incredulity of Thomas.
The Virgin and Infant, with an Angel presenting Fruit.
The Virgin and Infant, to whom St. John presents an
S. Carlo Borromeo.
St. Felix resuscitating a Dead Child.
Tancred and Erminia.
Tithonus and Aurora.
PASQUALINO. See Rossi, PASQUALE.
PASQUALINO, an imitator of Bellini and Cinia,
who lived in the latter part of the 15th century.
In the Correr Museum, Venice, there is a 'Virgin
and Child, with St. Mary Magdalene,' dated and
signed by him in 1496. Nothing is known of his
birth or death.
PASQUALOTTO. See OTTINI.
PASQUETTI, FORTUNATO, portrait and historical
painter, was a pupil of N. Cassana. In 1741 he
was director of the Academy at Venice, and died
PASQUIER, JEAN JACQUES, a French engraver,
was born in the early part of the 17th century, and
was a pupil of Laurent Cars. He has engraved
several plates after French painters, and a variety
of vignettes and other illustrations for books. We
may name the following by him :
Arion upon the Dolphin ; after Boucher.
Two Pastoral Subjects ; after the same.
The Graces ; after C. van Loo.
A set of Twelve Academical Figures ; after Nate/ire.
PASS, DE (or PASS.EUS). See VAN DE PASS.
PASSANTE, BARTOLOMMEO, a Neapolitan painter
of little note, and a pupil of Spagnoletto.
PASSARI. See PASSERI.
PASSAROTC) (or PASSAROTTI). See PASSEROTTI.
PASSAVANT, JOHANN DAVID, a German his-
torical painter, born at Frankfort in 1787. His art
studies were carried on under David, Gros, and
Overbeck. But he chiefly devoted himself to the
literature and criticism of art, publishing works on
Raphael (by which he is best known), engraving,
art in England, &c. He died in 1861. At Frank-
fort there is a portrait of the Emperor Henry II.
by him, and a picture of St. Hubert. We give the
titles and dates of publication of his books :
' Kunstreise dureh England und Belgien.' 1833.
' Raphael von Urbino und sein Vater Giovanni Santi."
' Die Christliche Kuust in Spanien.' 1853.
' Le Peintre Graveur.' 18601864.
PASSE, DE (PASS). See VAN DE PASS.
PASSERI, ANDREA, was a native of Como, in
the Milanese. In the year 1505 he painted in the
cathedral of his native city a picture of the Virgin
surrounded by the Apostles.
PASSERI, BERNARDINO, (PASSARI, or PASSERO,)
an Italian engraver, flourished at Rome about the
year 1580. He is doubtfully stated to have been
also a painter, and to have adopted the style of
Taddeo Zuccaro. Among others we have the
following prints by him :
The Holy Family in which the Virgin is attired as a
A set of several plates of the Life of St. Bruno.
Several Madonnas, and other subjects.
PASSERI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, was born at
Rome about the year 1610, aud is reported by
Lanzi to have been a friend of Domenichino, and a
follower of his style. He was employed by Canini,