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in the Villa Aldobrandini, in 1635, and was president
of the Academy of St. Luke, in 1641, when Domeni-
chino died. At the close of his life Passeri entered
into holy orders, and in 1675 obtained a benefice
in the college of Sta. Maria in Via Lata. He died
in 1679. In the church of San Giovanni della
Malva, at Rome, is a picture by him of the Cruci-
fixion ; but his works are more frequent in private
collections than in public edifices. He sometimes
painted pictures of dead game, birds, &c., of which
there are several in the Palazzo Mattei. In the
Academy of St. Luke there is a portrait of Domeni-
chino, painted by him, and placed there at the death
of his friend, whose funeral oratiou Passeri pro-
nounced. Passeri was one of the chief Italian
writers on art. His principal work is entitled
' Vite de' Pittori, Scultori, e Architetti, che hanno
lavorato in Roma, e che son morti dal 1641 al
1673.' It was published in full for the first time
in 1772, in Rome.

PASSERI, GIUSEPPE, the nephew of Giovanni
Battista Passeri, was born at Rome in 1654, and,
according to Pascoli, was a favourite disciple of
Carlo Maratti, of whose style he was one of the
most successful followers. His principal works at
Rome are his picture of the Conception, in the
church of San Tommaso in Parione ; and one of
the wings to the picture of the Baptism, by Maratti,
in the Vatican, in which he has represented St.
Peter baptizing the Centurion, which was executed
in mosaic, and the original placed in the church of
the Conventuali at Urbino. At Pesaro there is
one of his best works, representing St. Jerome
meditating on the Last Judgment. Passeri died in

was born at Bologna about the year 1520 or 1530.
He was first a scholar of Giacomo Baroccio da
Vignola, but afterwards he became the disciple
and coadjutor of Taddeo Zuccaro, at Rome, where he
resided in the early part of his life. For the public
buildings here he painted some pictures of which
the most esteemed is the Martyrdom of St. Paul, in
the church of San Paolo alle Tre Fontane. On his
return to Bologna he painted a great number of
altar-pieces for the churches, of which the most
celebrated are the Adoration of the Magi, in San
Pietro ; the Annunciation, in San Martino Mag-
giore ; and the Virgin on a throne, surrounded by
St. John the Baptist and other Saints, in Sao
Giacomo Maggiore. The last-named was painted


in competition with the Carracci, and excited their
admiration. He died at Bologna the 3rd June,
1592. Hie works are very unequal, as he frequently
sacrificed correctness and refinement to his desire
of gain and to the indulgence of an uncommon
facility of hand. He was the founder of a respect-
able academy at Bologna, and counted among his
disciples, Francesco Vanni, Agostino Carracci, and
other distinguished artists. He particularly ex-
celled in portrait painting. Among the personages
whom he portrayed were Popes Pius V., Gregory
XIII., and Sixtus V., and Cardinal Guastavillani.
Bartsch, who speaks highly of his ability as a
designer with the pen, and of the freedom and
boldness of his work with the burin, mentions the
first fifteen of the following etchings :

The Chastity of Joseph ; after Parmiij'uino.

The Visitation ; after F. Salviati,

The Virgin, with the Infant aud St. John, marked

A similar subject with the letters B. P.

The Virgin sitting on the ground, with the Infant
Jesus on her knees ; signed _Z?. Pasarot.

Jesus Christ holding a banner ; B. Pasarot. This and
the five following are supposed to be part of a suite
of thirteen, representing Christ and his Apostles.

St. Peter, with the letters . P.

St. Andrew. B. Pasarot.

St. John the Evangelist. B. Pasorot.

St. Bartholomew. 11. Pasarot.

St. Paul, with the letters B. P.

.Religion, represented by a woman seated in the sim ;
signed B.

Painting, represented by a young Female with Wings ;
with the letters B. P.

A young Woman in Bed. . Passaroto, written back-
wards, the letter B. reversed and joined to the P.

A Sacrifice, in which there are eight figures. The
letters B. P. on the left at bottom.

A Charity, mentioned by Gori.

The Marriage of Isaac and Rebecca ; after Pentyitio ;

mentioned by Host.
A Holy Family, doubtful.
St. Peter delivered from Prison by an Angel, marked

. P. ; mentioned by Znni.

PASSEROTTI, TIBDEZIO, the eldest son and the
disciple of Bartolommeo Passerotti, was born at
Bologna in 1575. He painted history and por-
traits, in the style of his father. Of his works in
the public edifices at Bologna, the following are
the most deserving of notice. In the church of
Santa Maria Mascarella, a picture of the ' Assump-
tion ;' in Santa Cecilia, ' St. Francis and St. Jerome
kneeling before the Virgin ; ' in Santa Cristina, the
' Annunciation ; ' and in San Giacomo Maggiore, the
* Martyrdom of St. Catharine,' his best performance.
He died at Bologna, in the prime of life, in 1612.
Zani calls him an amateur.

PASSEROTTI, VENTURA, the fourth son of Bar-
tolommeo Passerotti, was born at Bologna about
1586. He was instructed by his father, and assisted
by his brother Tiburzio. He, however, chiefly
delighted in making pen drawings. His practice
as a professed painter was confined to portraiture,
in which he won much success. There is no account
of any public -work by him. He died in 1630.


PASSINI, JOHANN, engraver and painter, was
born at Vienna in 1798 or 1799, and studied at the
Academy there under Seipp, and afterwards under
J. G. Mansfeld. He was a member of the Academy
of Vienna, and professor in the Ober Realschule
at Gratz. His death occurred at Gratz, on January
14th, 1874. He painted landscapes in oil and


aquarelle, but was best known by his engravings,
many of which are in Pezzel' s ' Sketches of
Vienna, 1 and Lichnowsky's 'Memorials of Old Ger-
man Architecture.' Besides these we may name
the following :

* La Notte ' ; after Corregyio.

The Imperial Family ; after Fendi.

The Two Foscaris ; after Hayez.

The Crucifixion ; after Tintoretto.

The Guardian Angel ; after Kadlik.

Croatian Peasants ; after Klein.

Returning Home in the Storm ; after Gauermann.

Charles V. ; after Titian.

The Repose of the Holy Family ; after Guide Reni.

Rio Janeiro, two plates ; after Ender.

PASSINI, Louis, son of the engraver Jean
Passini, was born at Vienna in 1832, aud educated
in the same city. He lived much in Italy, chiefly
at Rome and Venice, and his pictures obtained
great repute in Germany, where he settled, becom-
ing Professor in the Berlin Academy of Fine Arts.
He was awarded a medal at the Salon of 1870, and
became Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1878.
His water-colours are notable for their luminous
quality, and he also painted genre pictures and
many portraits. His ' Choristers in Church,' a
water-colour painted at Rome in 1870, hangs in
the National Gallery of Berlin. He died at Venice
in November 1903.

PASSOT, GABRIEL ARISTIDE, miniature painter,
was born at Nevers about 1798. He was taught
successively by Madame de Mirbel, Dubufe the elder,
and Fr6deric Millet. He died in 1875. Among
his works we may name the following :

Portrait of Rossini.
., Lamartiue.


Giulia Grisi.
Le Due de Bassano.

Prince Napoleon.
Napoleon III. aud the Empress Eugenie ;

after Winterhalter.
Napoleon I.

Queen Hortense ; after Gerard.
Lady playing the Harp.
Woman bathing.
After the Bath.

or DE PKATIS,) an Italian artist. He was a native
of Verona, and flourished from 1446. He was
a wood-engraver, a painter in miniature, a sculptor
in bronze and marble, a medallist, and a gem
engraver. Neither the year of his birth nor of his
death is correctly ascertained. He worked in the
above year upon the Breviary of the Marchese
Leonardo da Ferrara, and executed a set of prints
for a folio volume, entitled ' De Re Militare,' by
R. Valturius, which was published at Verona in
1472. In that he signed his work : M D P V
(Opus Mattha-i de Fastis Vtronensis).

PAST1LL, J. DE, was a French engraver, who
appears to have been chiefly employed in copying
the prints of other artists. Among other plates
we have the ' Murder of the Innocents,' from the
engraving by Louis Audran. after Le Bran.

PASTORINI, BENEDETTO, was an Italian en-
graver, who resided in London in the latter part
of the 18th century, and was one of the governors
of the Society of Engravers, founded in 1803. He
engraved some plates in imitation of the style of'
Bartolozzi, and with his assistance. We have,
among others, the following by him


I/Allegro; Anyel. Kaufman pinx. B. Pastorinifec.
II Pensieroso ; the companion.
A View of London ; from his own design.
Guntherus and Griselda ; J. F, Eiyavd pinx. B. Pasto-
Griselda returning to her Family ; the companion.

PASTORINI, J., <i miniature painter, born in
1773. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from
1812 to 1826, and died in London in 1839.

and medallist of Siena, who worked frequently
from designs furnished by Pierino del Vaga. In
1549 he painted the ' Last Supper ' on glass in the
cathedral of Siena. In this art he is said to have
been taught by Claude of Marseilles.


PATANAZZI, a painter whose " vigorous brush
and consummate powers of invention " are extolled
in the ' Galleria de' Pittori Urbinati.' He was
probably a pupil of Claudio Ridolfi.

PATAROL, LAWRENCE, engraved some book
illustrations, among which was a frontispiece for a
book on coins, published at Venice in 1702.

PATAS, JEAN BAPTISTE, a French designer and
engraver, was born in Paris in 1744 or 1748, and
died in 1817. He engraved some of the plates for
the 'Galleries' of Florence and Orleans, the 'Musee
Francais,' the ' Cabinet Poullain,' ami other works
of the same class ; also several small plates after
various French painters, and from his own designs ;
among which are the following :

The Judgment of Paris ; after Queverdo.

The dangerous Model ; after the same.

Henry IV. permitting Provisions to enter Paris whilst

he was besieging it ; after Careme.
An allegorical subject on the Accession of Louis XVI.

to the Throne of France ; from his own design.


PATCH, COZENS. At Petworth there is a picture
by this artist, in the style and of the same period
as Hogarth.

PATCH, THOMAS, was an English engraver, who
flourished about 1770. In that year he engraved
a set of twenty-six plates, from the frescoes in the
Brancacci Chapel ; a series of caricatures and two
landscapes after Poussin were published in 1768-70.
He worked also after Giotto, Fra. Bartolommeo,
and other old Italian masters. He practised land-
scape and figure painting to some slight extent,
and two pictures by him are at Hampton Court,
a 'View of the Arno, Florence, by Day,' and a
view of the same place by Night. Patch went to
Italy with Sir Joshua Reynolds, and probably died
there after 1772.

PATEL, the name of two French landscape
painters, father and son, who flourished in the 17th
century. But little is known of them. Beyond
the fact that some of the earlier pictures which are
assigned to the father are signed ' P. Patel,' and
that some later works assigned to the son bear
a monogram before the surname, composed appar-
ently of the letters A. P. T., their Christian names
are unknown.

The elder painter, who is generally known as
' Patel le pere,' appears to have been born in
Picardy, shortly before the year 1620. It is sur-
mised that he, like many of the French artists of
his time, owed his training to Vouet, and that he
completed his art education by a visit to Italy.
The latter surmise is founded on the fact that
several of his works are evidently inspired by

scenes in the neighbourhood of Rome. It is also
stated that he painted the landscape backgrounds
in some of Le Sueur's pictures. With greater
certainty he is included amongst the illustrious
band of painters who in 1649 were engaged on the
decorations of the mansion of the President Lam-
bert de Thorigny on the Island of Notre Dame in
Paris. His brush was also employed in decorating
the apartments of Anne of Austria in the Louvre.
He was received into the Guild of Master Painters
in 1635, and became a director in 1650. In the
following year he was one of the elders who signed
the agreement amalgamating the Guild with the
newly-founded Academy. His death occurred in
Paris on the 5th August, 1676. The elder Patel
ranks amongst the most able imitators of Claude
Lorrain, whose aerial effects he imitates with con-
siderable success. Like his model he delights in
the ruins of ancient architecture, which form a
prominent feature in his compositions. Not many
pictures have survived under his name. This is
due to two causes. First, that he probably executed
but few easel works, owing to his having been
much employed on decorations. Second, that many
of his pictures have doubtless been passed off
under the greater name of Claude.

Concerning the younger painter, ' Patel le fils,'
even less is known than concerning his father,
with whom he is often confounded. He appears
to have been born shortly before the middle of
the 17th century, as it is expressly stated that he
assisted his parent in the decoration of the apart-
ments of Anne of Austria. He is also said to have
painted twelve pictures representing the months,
for the church of St. Louis-la-Culture, in Paris,
four of which are now in the Louvre. His career
was prolonged to the beginning of the 18th century,
as there are two pictures at Marseilles bearing his
monogram, which are dated 1705. He was killed
in a duel : hence he is by some writers called
' Patel le tue,' which cognomen is sometimes wrongly
applied to his father. Two etchings by him are
known, described by Dumesnil as ' Architectural
Ruins ' and ' View of a Forest.' His art is not
equal to that of his father, whose style he followed

The following is a list of pictures by the two
Patels. It is frequently doubtful whether a work
should be ascribed to the father or to the son. In
the cases in which some degree of certainty exists,
* is placed against the pictures of the elder, and t
against those of the younger painter.










Museum. The Finding of Moses, t

Landscapes (2).
Two Landscapes.
Landscape: Morning (1705). t
Landscape : Sunset (1705). t
Cephalus and Procris.


Two Landscapes.

Louvre. Jochabed exposing Moses

(1660). *
Moses burying the Egyptian

(1660). *
Two Landscapes. *

January, Snow scene (1699). t
April (1699). t
August, arvest (1699). t
September, Harvest (1699). t
Landscape, Harvest (170...). t


Petersburg. Hermitage.
Rennes. Museum.


Valenciennes. Museia.t.
Vienna. Archduke

Christ and the Centurion.*
Two Landscapes, t
Ruins by the Sea.
Two Landscapes.
Landscape with Water-mill.
Landscape with Castle.

A BENO!T NICOLAS PATEL, a painter of the 18th
century, was of the same family, but very little is
known about him.


painter of fetes galantes, was born at Valenciennes
on the 29th December, 1695. He early showed
artistic predilections, and bis father, a wood-carver,
having grounded him in the first principles of art,
took him, while still young, to continue his studies
in Paris. There he became a pupil of bis fellow-
townsman Watteau, but the irritable temperament
of the master caused a separation. When, how-
ever, Watteau felt his end approaching in 1721,
lie sent for Pater to come to him at Nogent-sur-
Marne. For a short time the pupil painted daily
under the eye of the master, receiving his latest
inspiration. This instruction thoroughly imbued
him with the spirit of the chief of his school, and
he ever gratefully acknowledged his obligation.
In 1728 he was received into the Academy as a
member of the new class of " peintres de sujets
modernes." There are but few incidents to record
in the short career of Pater. He did not cultivate
friendships, and rarely went out of his studio. His
time was entirely devoted to art: the whole day
was occupied in painting, and the evening brought
no relaxation to his labours. This feverish industry
was caused by an ever-haunting fear of poverty,
which led him to stint himself to provide for his
latter days. His health at length gave way under
such'a strain, and he died in Paris on the 25th July,
1736, before he could enjoy the provision which
he had laid up. Pater was a good colourist, but
his drawing is without the precision of Watteau,
and his touch is wanting in delicacy. He followed
Watteau not only in choice of subject, but also in
composition. The following are some of his more
accessible works :

Angers. Museum.

Berlin. Alter Schloss.

1 V

,, Neues Palais.

Brunswick. GrandDucal


Edinburgh. Nut. Gal.

Fontainebleau. Palace.

Glasgow. Corporation


London. Victoria and

Albert Museum.

,, Wallace Coll.


Women Bathing.

Bal Charupetre.

Fete a la Champagne.

Les Pecheurs.

Le Jeu de Colin-Maillard.

Fete Champetre.

Les Comediens Italiens.

Les Baigneuses.

Un Pay sage.

Dause en plein air.

The Suite (14), ' Le Roman

Comique de Scarron.'
) Conversation musicale un
j Guitariste.

The Guitariste.

Fete Champetre.

Royal Cortege au Pare (1745).

Danse dans la Foret (1753).

Women Bathing.

Chinese Hunting Scene.
} Picnic.
| Fete Champetre.

1 Fete Champetre.

Fete Galante.


Les Baignenses.

FSte dans un Pare.

Le Bain.

London. Wallace Coll.



Le Boudoir.

Detachement faisaut halte.
Conversation Galante (three

,Le Jeu de Colin-Maillard.
J La Danse.

j L'Escarpolette.

I Fete Champetre.
Plaisirs pastorals.
Reunion dans un Jardin.
Fete Champetre (1728).

des Comediens


Stadt Schloss.

Stockholm. Nat. Gal.
Valenciennes. Museum.


Louvre, Coll. la ) Reunion

Caze. j Italiens.
La Toilette.

Conversation dans un Pare.

La Baigneuse.

Schloss Sans- ) j Soldats en marche.

Souci. ) I Soldats devant un Auberge.
Bain dans la Maison.

I/ Amour en plein air.
Le Sultan (two compositions).
La Gaiete Villageoise.

| Danse a la Campagne.
( Concert en plein air.

La Bohe'mienne Diseuse de

bonne Aventure.
Reunion de Mnsiciens.

Reunion en plein air.
Le Jeu de Colin-Maillard.
Young Girls Bathing.
Portrait of the Painter's Sister.
The Nest of Turtle-Doves.

La Soiree.

Grand \ The Bath.
Trianon. J Fishing.


PATIGNY, JEAN, a French engraver, flourished
from 1650 to about 1670. He executed a few
plates, in which he appears to have imitated the
style of Agostino Carracci, but with little success.
A print of the ' Virgin and Infant Christ, with St.
John,' after Annibale Carracci, may be named.

PATIN, JACQUES, was painter in ordinary to
Henry III. of France, and to his Queen, Louise de
Lorrain. He was employed by the Queen to
paint the scenes for a masque, or ballet, given by
her on the marriage of her sister Marguerite de
Vaudemont with the Duke de Joyeuse, in 1581,
on which occasion the king's valet-de-chambre,
Baltazarini Beaujoyeux, prepared the book. This
book is illustrated with twenty-seven etchings by

either at Dinant or at Bouvignes, on the opposite
bank of the Meuse, about 1490. He became a
member of the Antwerp Guild of Painters in 1515.
He contracted a first marriage with Franchise Buyst,
and a second, in 1521, with Jeanne Noyts. At this
second marriage Albrecht Diirer was present ; he
saw Patinir's work with admiration, and he drew
his portrait. Patinir must have died before the
5th October, 1524, because on that date his widow
and children sold the house he had bought on the
30th March, 1519. Patinir left a son, HEKKI
PATINIR, who also devoted himself to painting, but
with slight success. Patinir has been called the
inventor of landscape painting so far as the North
is concerned, but that is an exaggeration. It
would be truer to say that he was the first Fleming
to make his landscapes distinctly more important
than the figures with which they are peopled.
His style may be placed between those of Gerard
David and of Jerom Bosch. His pictures are not
numerous, out most of the important galleries have
good examples to show. Among these we may
name :



'^Junes' Bequest, South



Collection a/ A'. //. Hiei/iin, /:'/.







Brussels. R. Museum.

Darmstadt. Museum.

Glasgow. Corp. Gall.

Haarlem. Museum.


London. Nat. Gall.

Antwerp. Museum. The Flight into Egypt (signed

in a cai'touch).

(This same gallery possesses two
pictures on which Patinir is
said to have collaborated u'ith
Bernard van Orley.)
Berlin. Museum. A ' Eiposo.'

Conversion of St. Hubert

(formerly ascribed to Herri de

A ' Mater Dolorosa ' (the land-
scape by Patinir ; the Jiyures
perhaps by another hand).
Virgin and Child in a landscape
(J'onnerly ascribed to Mostaert
and to Herri de Bles).
Virgin and Child in a landscape,

with rich architecture.
History of Tohias.
St. John the Baptist preaching.
The Crucifixion.
St. Christopher carrying Christ.
St. John on the Island of

The Visit of the Virgin to St.

The Flight into Egypt.

A Nun (?).

Madrid. Museum. A 'Eiposo ' (three versions).

Landscape with St. Jerome.

The Temptation of St. Anthony

(a masterpiece).

Paradise and Hell.

St. Francis of Assisi and another

monk of the order in the
Desert (? van Eyck).
Munich. Gallery. Christ on the Cross (with a

forged inscription).
Vienna. Gallery. The Baptism of Christ.

Landscape with the Martyrdom

of St. Catherine
The Flight into Egypt (two


St. Jerome.

The Battle of Pavia. (As the

battle was fought the year after
Patinir died, according to the
dates me have given, the picture
must either be wrongly named
or cannot be his work.)
Liechtenstein Col. Christ on the Cross.
St. Jerome in a landscape, with

his Lion (with the forged sig-
nature KTINTEN MASTS 1513).

PATON, (or PATTON,) DAVID, a Scottish portrait
and miniature painter, who worked with some
success about the middle of the 17th century. A
portrait of General Thomas Dalzell, still in the
possession of the Dalzell family, is ascribed to him.
PATON, Sir JOSEPH NOEL. This venerable artist
was born at Dunfermline in 1821, and was one of
the oldest survivors of what may be called the pre-
pre-Raphaelite epoch in art. Paton was ap-
penticed to his father's craft as a pattern designer,
but soon relinquished that branch of the profession
and went to study first at the Edinburgh Academy,
and then at the Royal Academy schools, London.
In 1844 he contributed to the Edinburgh Exhibi-
tion his first work, entitled ' Ruth Gleaning.' In
1845 he obtained one of the three premiums of
2002. for a cartoon called ' The Spirit of Religion '
for Westminster Hall. Armitage and Sir John
Tenniel won the other two. At a further com-
petition in 1847 he won the larger prize, 300Z.,
with pictures of ' Christ bearing the Cross ' and
' The Reconciliation of Oberon and Titania.' ' The
Quarrel of Oberon and Titania,' by him, was bought
for 7002. by the Scottish Academy in 1847, and is

now with its sequel in the Public Gallery at Edin-
burgh. In 1847 he was made an Associate of the
Scottish Academy. In 1856 the fuller honours of
that society fell to him. Ten years later he was
appointed Her Majesty's Limner for Scotland, and
accepted knighthood at Windsor. In 1878 the
University of Edinburgh made him an LL.D. His
paintings were of a very sentimental and religious
character, but attained to extraordinary popularity.
Many of them were engraved, and the reproductions
commanded a large and important sale, especially
amongst Nonconformists. Queen Victoria pur-
chased several of Paton's works, and the patronage
and approval of Her Majesty assisted very largely
in making the artist well known. Some of his
most important paintings were : ' Home from the

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