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Crimea,' 'The Good Shepherd,' 'Thomas the
Rhymer and the Queen of Fairyland,' ' Dante
meditating the Episode of Francesca' (1852),
'The Dead Lady,' 'The Pursuit of Pleasure' (1855),
'Home' (1856), 'In Memoviam' (1858), 'Dawn,'
' Luther at Erfurt,' ' The Dowie Dens of Yarrow,'
illustrated in six pictures (1860), ' Mors Janua
Vitie,' ' Faith and Reason,' ' Caliban listening to
the Music,' 'Nickes the Soulless,' 'The Bluidy
Tryste,' 'Oskold and the Elle Maids' (1874),
'The Entombment,' 'Gethsemane,' 'The Man of
Sorrows,' ' Thy Will be done ! ' ' In Die Malo,'
' Ezekiel's Vision' (1893), 'Puck," By Still Waters,'
' Queen Margaret reading the Gospel,' ' Satan
watching the Sleep of Christ,' and 'The Spirit of
Twilight.' His paintings were elaborate and full
of detail, but distinguished by a hardness of
texture and an over-strained pathos and sentiment
in their subject. With a certain class of religious
thought they were the only pictures which
appealed strongly, and in Presbyterian circles
their vogue was immense. Sir Noel was a most
courteous, kind-hearted, and sympathetic man, dis-
tinguished by a considerable amount of religious
fervour. He was an ardent collector of armour,
books and medals, an archaeologist of no mean
attainments, and a scholar of polished and refined
manner. He published two volumes of verses, and
wrote several archaeological papers. He died at
Edinburgh in 1902, aged 81.

PATON, RICHARD, an English painter of marines
and combats by sea, was born in London in 1717.
He was found in the streets as a poor boy by
Admiral Knowles, and by him sent to sea. He
exhibited largely at the Royal Academy from 1776
to 1780. He held an appointment in the Excise
for a great part of his life. He died in London in
1791. His works were very popular, as he painted
most of the great sea-fights that occurred during
his time. Many of them have been engraved by
Woollet, Fittler, Lerpeniere, and Canot. Among
his paintings we may name :

Engagement of the Monmouth and Foudroyant by

Moonlight (etched by himself). 1758.
Attack upon Gibraltar. 1782.
The Lord Mayor's Show by Water (Guildhall; Jigures

by Wheat ley).
Four pictures of Dockyards, at Hampton Court.

We have also a few etchings by him. Among
others, the following:
The Victory gained by the English over the French

21st September, 1757.
The Engagement of the Monmouth and Foudroyant

(as above).

The Engagement between the Buckingham and the
Florissant, supported by two Frigates, 3rd Nov. 1758.

79



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



PA TON, WALLER HUGH, the brother of Sir Noel
Paton, was born at Dunfermline in 1828. For a
few years lie assisted his father in his work of
pattern designing, but in 1848 he resolved to
become a landscape painter, and got lessons from
John A. Houston, R.S.A. His first exhibited
picture was a water-colour, 'Antique Room, Wooers'
Alley, by firelight.' He had a landscape, ' Glen
Massen,'in the Royal Scottish Academy Exhibition
of 1851, and afterwards was a regular exhibitor.
His pictures became popular, and in 1857 he was
elected Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy,
becoming an Academician in 1868. In 1858 he
collaborated with his brother Sir Noel in illustrat-
ing Aytoun's 'Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers'
(published five years later). He settled at Edin-
burgh in 1859, occasionally going abroad, and to
tours made in 1861 and 1868 drawings of French,
Swiss, German and Italian scenery are due. In
1862 he first exhibited at the Royal Academy of
London, and in that year received a royal com-
mission for a drawing of Holyrood. For the last
ten years of his life he had poor health, and in
1895 he died. He was a Fellow of the Society of
Antiquaries of Scotland, an honorary member of
the Liverpool Society of Water-Colour Painters,
and a member of the Scottish Water-Colour Society.
He was an industrious painter, both in oil and
water-colour, the Highlands of Perthshire and
Aberdeenshire, Arran, Wales and the Lake country
furnishing the subjects of most of his landscapes.
'The Mouth of the Wild Waters, Inveruglas,' won
the warm commendation of Mr. Ruskin, and all
were characterized by the loving accuracy with
which he rendered natural detail. His diploma
picture, ' Lamlash Bay, Isle of Arran,' hangs in the
Scottish National Gallery. At one time he made
a careful study of Turner's water-colours at South
Kensington. He kept a careful catalogue, with
dates and miniature sketches, of all his important
pictures. He is said to have been the first Scot-
tish artist who painted a picture entirely out of
doors, and his landscapes, with their carefully-
finished detail, were for long exceedingly popular
and widely known in chromo-lithographic repro-
ductions. He specially loved to depict the glowing-
colours of sunset, purple hills and saffron sky, and
repeated the theme so often as to become mannered
and monotonous.

PATOUR, JEAN AUGUSTIN, a French enpraver,
was born in Paris about the year 1730, and
flourished till 1784. He was a pupil of Halle and
Flipart, and has engraved several plates in a neat
style, among which are the following ;

The L ttle Lyar ; ,ift?r Attrecht Diirer.
Le doux S mmeil ; after Halle.
Le doux Kepos ; after the same.
Hercules a d Omphale ; afttr the same.
Two Views of La Rochelle ; after LaUemand.

PATROIS, ISIDORE, French painter ; born in
1815 at Noyers (dep. Yonne) ; became a pupil of
L'Enfant and of Monvoisin. At first he chose to
paint scenes of Russian national life, then he dealt
with historical subjects, and finally genre. The
Luxembourg possesses his ' Procession des Saintes
images aux environs de St. Petersbourg," and the
Dijon Museum has his ' Frangois I. et Rosso.' He
occasionally used water-colour most effectively.
In 1861 he obtained a third-class nierial, and a
rappel in 1863, another medal in 1864, and the
Legion of Honour in 1872. He died in Paris in
1886.

80



PATTE, PIERRE, a French architect and en-
graver, was born in Paris in 1723. He is stated by
Basan to have engraved several plates of architec-
tural ornaments. He also engraved some of the
plates for Blondel's ' Architecture Franchise ; ' ' Per-
spective Views,' after Piranesi ; and the ' Temple
of Venus,' after Claude. He died in 1812, at
Mantes.

PATTEN, GEORGE, an English portrait and
historical painter, born in 1801. His first instruc-
tion in art was received from his father, a minia-
ture painter. In 1816, he entered the schools of
the Academy, where he first exhibited in 1819.
Up to 1830, he practised miniature painting, after
which he devoted himself to oil portraiture. He
made a tour in Italy in 1837, to study its art
treasures, and in the same year was elected an Asso-
ciate of the Academy. The Prince Consort, whose
portrait be painted in Germany in 1840, appointed
him his portrait painter, and he obtained a large
practice in presentation portraits. His art, how-
ever, did not fulfil its early promise, and he never
reached the front rank. In the latter part of his
life he lived at Ross, Herefordshire. He died in
London in 1865.

PATTON. See PATON.

PATZIG, OTTO, German painter; born near
Wiirzburg in 1822, and studied at the Dresden
Academy under E. Bendemann. For a time he
worked at Wiirzburg, where he held a post as
Professor; he painted portraits and historical
subjects in which prominence was given to costume-
details. He died at Klingenberg-am-Main in 1885.

PAU DE SAINT MARTIN, ALEXANDRE, a
French landscape painter, born at Mortagne in the
second half of the 18th century. He studied under
Le Prince and Vernet, and exhibited (chiefly views
in Normandy) at the Salon from 1791 to 1838.

PAD DE SAINT MARTIN, PIERRE ALEXANDRE,
a French landscape painter and son of the above,
was born in Paris towards the close of the 18th
century. He studied under his father, and ex-
hibited at the Salon from 1810 to 1834. His
' Entrance of the Elyse'e ' was awarded a gold medal
in 1824.

PAUDITZ, CHRISTOPH, (PAHDISS, PDDISS, PAU-
DIES, &c.,) was born in Lower Saxony about
he year 1582. After receiving some instruction
in design from an obscure German painter, he
visited Amsterdam, where he entered the school of
Rembrandt. On his return to Germany he was
taken under the protection of Albert Sigismund,
Duke of Bavaria, in whose employment he re-
mained several years. He was also favoured with
the patronage of the Duke of Ratisbon, and dis-
tinguished himself as a painter of history and
portraits. Sandrart reports that his death was
hastened by his failure in a contest he had ac-
cepted with a contemporary artist, who had chal-
lenged him to paint a picture in competition.
Although the production of Pauditz was greatly
superior to that of his rival, the decision was
against him, and he did not long survive it. This
occurred at Freising in 1666. Among his best
works may be mentioned :
Augsburg. Gallery. Diogenes and the Drunken Old

Woman.

Dresden. Gallery. Lady Conversing with a Gen-

tleman engaged in writing.

Freising. Cathedral. Christ clearing the Temple.

Munich. Pinakothek. Wolf Tearing a Lamb.
Nuremberg. f<*dau 1 A M , Portrait .
Brotherhood. )



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Vienna.



Gallery. St. Jerome.
Gsell Coll. Still-life subject.



PAUELSEN, ERIK, painter and engraver, was
born at Bygom, near Viborg, in 1749, and studied
in tbe Copenhagen Academy, where in 1777 he
won the large gold medal with a ' Judgment of
Solomon.' In 1780-83 he visited France and Italy,
and after his return was received into the Academy
with an ' Allegory of the Union of the three North-
ern Kingdoms ' (1784). After this he travelled in
Norway, and painted views, some of which were
preserved at Frederiksborg Castle. His death
occurred at Copenhagen in 1790, by his throwing
himself from a window in a fit of melancholy. He
painted a few good portraits, some of which he
engraved, together with a few vignettes ; he also
etched ' Canute's Reproof to his Courtiers.' The
following historical pictures were executed by him
in grisaille :

Murder of Canute the Holy in St. Alban's Church
(tit. Kimd's Church, Odense).

The Priest Madsen bringing news of the Enemy to
Bantzau (engraved try J. G. Preisler).

Anne Colbjornsen in the Parsonage Court of Norder-
houg (engraved by M. Haas).

Eolf Krage (engraved by the same).

The Royal Gallery of Copenhagen possesses two
genre pictures by Pauelsen.

PAUL, ANDRIAAN, (or DE PAULIS,) a Dutch or
Flemish engraver, flourished about the year 1640.
He engraved several plates, among which are the
following :

Peter denying Christ ; after Gerard Seyers.

Titian and his Mistress ; after the etching by Van Dyck.

The Tooth-drawer ; after Theodor Eoelants.

PAUL, J. S., an English mezzotint engraver,
flourished about the year 1760, and has left a few
portraits, among them that of Mrs. Barry, the
actress, after Kettle ; and Lady Georgiana Spenser
and her daughter, after Reynolds. He also en-
graved a ' Conversation ' piece after Jan Steen.
His plates show much ability.

PAUL, ROBERT, was probably a native of Scot-
ia-ad. He resided at Glasgow in the latter part of
the last century, and studied in the Academy
there. He engraved some views of that city, and
one representing the Cathedral is dated 1762.

PAULI, (or PAUL,) ANDREAS, also called DE
PAULIS, a Dutch engraver, was born about 1598.
No details of his life are known. The following
plates by him have much in common with those of
Johann Anton Pauli :

Portrait of the physician N. Bulius.

Titian and his Mistress ; copied on a reduced scale from

Van Dyck's plate.

The Denial of Peter ; after G. Zeghers.
Virgin and Child ; after Ruben*.
Bacchus and Ceres ; after Xprang/ier.
The Entry of Maria de' Medici into the towns of Mons,

Brussels, and Antwerp, in 1631 ; three plates.
A set of Fifty Plates of Emblems.

PAULINI, BERTO DI GIOVANNI, (or PAOLINI,) an
obscure painter of Citta della Pieve, who flourished
early in the 16th century.

PAULINI, GIACOMO, (or PAOLINI,) was an Italian
engraver, a native of Naples, who flourished about
1600, and apparently resided at Venice. We have
a few prints by him, among which are the following:

St. Peter ; probably from his own design.
A View of the Ponte di Rialto, Venice.
An Alphabet.

PAULINI, PIETBO. See PAOLINI.

VOL. IV. Q



PAULSEN, FRITZ, German painter ; born May
31, 1838, at Schwerin ; became a pupil of the
Diisseldorf Academy, and subsequently studied at
Munich under Piloty, and, later, in Paris. Settled
in Berlin, where his portraits were much appreci-
ated. His works in genre include ' Bauerfanger'
(1874), ' Der Augenblick zur Rache ' (1867), in the
Schwerin Gallery, and ' Bericht von Ball ' (1886).
He died at Berlin, February 22, 1898.

PAULUTY, ZACHARIE, portrait painter, was born
at Amsterdam in 1600, and died in 1657.

PAULUS, JACOBDS. This name is found on part
of an altar-piece in the Santa Croce chapel of San
Giacomo, Bologna. It is of no great merit.

PAULUZZI, STEFANO, a Venetian painter who
enjoyed some repute about the middle of the 17th
century. Lanzi says his pictures had greatly
deteriorated in his time owing to the badness of
his grounds.

PAULY, NICOLAS, a miniature painter, was born
at Antwerp in 1660, and died at Brussels in 1748.
Very little is known of his life.

PAULYN, HORATIDS, is introduced by M. Des-
camps among the artists born about the year 1643.
He was a native of Amsterdam, but it is not said
under whom he studied. According to Balkema
he died in 1686. Some of his pictures are in the
manner of Rembrandt. He excelled in painting
conversations and ' gallant ' subjects, but too often
outraged decorum. He affected piety and ex-
hibited all the outward signs of devotion, while
he painted subjects which caused libertines to
blush. At one time he set out for the Holy Land
with a number of companions, but they broke up
en, route. In the UfEzi, Florence, there is a picture
by him, ' The Miser.'

PAULYN, IZAAK, called by LordOrford, PALING,
was born at Amsterdam about the year 1630, and
was a pupil of Abraham van den Temple. He was
an eminent portrait painter, and in that capacity
he visited England in the reign of Charles II.,
and there resided many years. In 1682 he returned
to Holland, and established himself at the Hague,
where he met with great encouragement, and where
he died. He also painted conversation pieces in
the style of his master.

PAUPELIER, PIERRE, a French miniature
painter, was born at Troyes in 1621. He became
a member of the Academy in Paris in 1664, and
died in 1665 (?).

PAUQUET, JEAN Louis CHARLES, engraver, was
born in Paris in 1759. He was instructed by
Gauchet, and engraved after Van Dyck, Le Sueur,
Teniers, Barbier, Moreau, and others. He died
about 1820.

PAUSIAS, one of the ancient Greek painters,
was a native of Sicyon, and was first instructed in
the art by his father, Brietes, but afterwards became
a disciple of Pamphilus. He was the first artist of
antiquity who painted ceilings. He also painted
small pictures, and was particularly successful in
the representation of children. Some of his rival
artists pretended that he made use of those subjects
as best suited to the slow and laboured style of his
execution. To contradict the calumny, and to
prove that he was capable of more spirited exer-
tions, he finished in one day a large picture repre-
senting the infant Hercules, which picture obtained
from this circumstance the title of riftipijaws, " the
day's work." In his youth he became enamoured
of Glycera, the beautiful garland-maker ; and one
of his most admired works was a portrait of his

81



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



mistress holding a garland. A copy of this picture
was purchased at Athens, by Lucius Lucullus, for
two talents. Pausias also excelled in painting
animals.

PAUSON, another Greek painter, lived at ahout
the same time as Polygnotus and Micon. He is
mentioned by Aristotle. " Polygnotus," says that
philosopher, " drew men more perfect than they
were, Pauson worse than they were, and Dionysius
such as they were." Whence we may infer that
Polygnotus improved upon ordinary nature, that
Pauson degraded her by a selection of her more
vulgar forms, and that Dionysius contented him-
self with representing her as she usually appears.

PAUTRE. See LE PAULTRE.

PAUWELS, WILHELM FERDINAND, Belgian
painter ; born April 13, 1830, at Eckeren, near
Antwerp ; at first he studied with Wappers and
Dujardin at the Antwerp Academy ; a subsequent
residence in Italy served to develop his powers.
From 1862 to 1872 he was a professor at the
Weimar School of Art, and this post lie held at the
Dresden Academy from 1876 onwards, becoming
eventually Hofrath. His canvas, ' Graf Philipp
von Elsass,' is in the Dresden Gallery. ' Die
witwe Jakobs van Artevelde' is in the Brussels
Museum. Other pictures of his are at Munich,
Leipzig, Eisenach, and Washington. He obtained
gold medals in 1857, 1864, and 1868, and the
Leopold Order in 1861. He died at Brussels in
1898.

PAVESE, EL. See SACCHI, FRANCESCO.

PAVIA, GIACOMO, was born at Bologna the
18th February 1655, and is said to have been a
scholar of Antonio Crespi. He painted histori-
cal subjects, and was employed in several works
for the churches in his native city; the most
esteemed being his picture of 'St. Anne teach-
ing the Virgin to read,' in San Silvestro ; and the
' Nativity ' in San Giuseppe. Lanzi states that he
visited Spain. He died in 1750.

PAVIA, GIOVANNI DA. Lanzi ascribes several
pictures in the churches at Pavia to au artist of
this name. He was a pupil of Lorenzo Costa.

PAVIA, LORENZO DA. There is a picture in the
church at Savona signed Laurentius Papiensis.
Its apparent date is about 1550.

PA VON, IGNATIUS, was a scholar of Raphael
Morghen. He imitated the manner and copied
several of the fine engravings of his master. The
>lates of his birth and death are not known. The
following are his principal works :

Mater Amabilis ; after Sassoferrato.

The Virgin and Infant Christ, with St. John, in a land-
scape ; after Raphael ; but copied from the engraving
by R. Morghen.

La Madonna del Trono ; after Raphael.

La Madonna di Foligno ; after the same.

La Vierge a 1'Oiseau ; after the same ; copied after R.
Moryhen.

The Transfiguration ; after the same ; copied after R.
Monjhen.

The Communion of St. Jerome ; after Domemchmo.

3t. John 'Writing ; after the same.

The Magdalene ; after Schidonc.

Leda; after Correggio: and several others after Car-
racci, JV. Foussin, #c.

PAVONA, FRANCESCO, a painter, was bom at
Udine in 1682. He was instructed by A. Carnio
and G. dal Sole, and painted portraits and historical
subjects. He travelled through Italy, Germany,
Spain, and Portugal, painting for the different

82



courts, but settling eventually at Bologna. He died
at Venice in 1773 or 1777.

PAXINO. See NOVA, PECINO DE.

PAXTON, JOHN, a Scotch portrait and historical
painter, born in the first half of the 18th century.
He was taught at Foulis's Academy, Glasgow, and
coming to London, became in 1766 a member of the
Incorporated Society of Artists, where he exhibited
as well as at the Royal Academy. He spent some
time at Rome, and finally went to India, dying at
Bombay in 1780.

PAY, JAN VAN, (or PEY,) a painter of history and
portraits, was born at Reidlingen in 1589. He was
painter to the Elector of Bavaria, and portraits by
him are to be found in Munich and the neighbour-
hood. He died in 1660 (?).

PA YE, Miss, an English miniature painter, who
was probably the daughter of R. M. Paye. She
exhibited at the Academy from 1798 to 1807, and
appears to have had a fair practice. Among other
people, Mrs. Siddons sat to her.

PAYE, RICHARD MORTON, an English subject
painter, born at Botley, Kent, about the middle of
the 18th century. He was brought up as a chaser,
but his art tastes induced him to become a painter,
and he produced some works which rapidly brought
him into repute. For some time he was on terms
of intimacy with ' Peter Pindar,' but the connection
did not last long, and ended in a quarrel. Paye
was an unfortunate genius. Two pictures of his
are said to have been sold respectively as works of
Velasquez and of Wright of Derby. But his work
did not find a market, and he suffered much from
ill-health. Poverty overtook him, and he sunk into
obscurity. He is believed to have died in 1821.
Many of Paye's pictures were engraved by J.
Young, who was a friend of his ; Valentine Green
engraved his ' Child of Sorrow,' and three others,
while he himself engraved ' Puss in Durance,' and
' No Dance, No Supper.'

PAYEN, ANTOINE A. J., a Flemish landscape
painter, born at Tournai towards the close of the
18th century. He resided for a long time in the
East Indies. He obtained the prize for landscape
in 1815 at Brussels. Amongst his pictures are:

Brussels. Museum. Landscape : moonlight.

Haarlem. Museum. Views in Java.

PAYNE, JOHN, an English engraver, was born
about the year 1607. He was a disciple of Simon
van de Pass, and is considered the first artist of
this country who distinguished himself with the
burin. Had his application been equal to his
genius, he would have ranked among the first of
his profession ; but he was indolent and dissipated,
and though recommended to King Charles I.,
he neglected his fortune and his fame, and died
in indigence before he was forty, in 1647. He
engraved portraits, frontispieces, and other plates
for books, as well as a variety of other subjects,
such as landscapes, flowers, fruit, birds, beasts,
&c., but his portraits are the most esteemed of his
prints. They are executed entirely with the graver,
in a free, open style, and produce a very pleas-
ing effect. One is dated as early as 1620. In
Evelyn's 'Scultura,' he is commended for his
engraving of a ship, which Vertue informs us was
the ' Royal Sovereign,' built in 1637, by Phineas
Pett. It was engraved on two plates, and when
joined, was three feet long, by two feet two inches
high. The following are his most esteemed por-
traits :



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Henry VII., prefixed to his Life by Lord Bacoii
Henry VIII.

Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, with a hat and feather.
Sir Benjamin Kudyard ; after Jlft/tens.
Doctor Alabaster ; after Cornells Jansen.
Hugh Broughton.
Alderman Leate ; after C. Jansen.
Roger Bolton. 1632.
Arthur Lake, Bishop of Chichester.
Sir Edward Coke. 16:29.
Algernon Percy, Earl of Northumberland.
George Wither, the Poet, with a hat on, for his ' Em-
blems,' published in 1635.
William Shakespeare.
Ferdinand of Austria ; after Van Dyck.
Count Ernest de Mansfeld.
Elizabeth, Countess of Huntingdon.

PAYNE, WILLIAM, an English water-colour land-
scape painter, born about 1760. He was in early
life employed in Plymouth Dockyard, but having
a love of art, he devoted himself to it. His manner
of painting had originality, and he produced some
good effects of colour. In 1790 he removed to
1 London, and obtained a good practice as a drawing-
master. From 1809 to 1813 he was an Associate
of the Water-Colour Society, after which there is
BO trace of him. There are several specimens of
his art in the South Kensington Museum.

PAZ, Don JOSE, historical painter, was born at
Madrid late in the 17th century. He was of no
importance as an artist, but held an office under
the Spanish Court.

PAZZI, MARIA MAGDALENA DE, was born at
Florence in 1566. She became a Carmelite nun,
and painted sacred pictures. S. Maria in Cosmedin,
at Rome, possesses one of her works. She died
in 1607.

PAZZI, PIETRO ANTONIO, an Italian engraver,
was born at Florence about the year 1706, and
died in 1770. He was a pupil of G. Piamontini
and C. Mogalli, and engraved several portraits of
artists for the ' Museo Fiorentino,' Gori's ' Museo
Etrusco,' and the ' Museo Capitolino,' as well as
various plates after pictures in the Florentine
galleries. Among others we may name the follow-
ing :



Francesco Albani, Bolognese Painter ; sc ipse pinx.
Federigo Baroccio, Painter ; ditto.
Giacomo Bassano, Painter ; ditto.
Giovanni Bizelli, Painter ; ditto.
Andrea Boscoli, Painter ; ditto.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.

The Holy Family ; after L. Cainbiaso.

The Assumption of the Virgin ; after Raphael.

The Virgin and Christ ; after Van Dyck.

St. Zanobi resuscitating a dead Person ; after Belli.

St. Philip refusing the Popedom ; after the same.

A Sibyl ; after Crespi.

PEACHAM, HENRY. In Walpole's' Anecdotes,'
this man is said to have engraved a portrait of
Sir Thomas Cromwell, afterwards Earl of Essex,
after Holbein. He was the author of a book called



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