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' The Complete Gentleman,' published in 1633.
He was bom at South Minims in Hertfordshire,
and took the degree of M.A. at Trinity College,
Cambridge. He was tutor for a time to the children
of Lord Arundel, whom he accompanied to the
Low Countries. In the course of his life he also
visited Italy. He was an amateur rather than a
professed artist, and was skilled in music as well
as painting and engraving. In his book entitled
' The Complete Gentleman,' and another entitled

'The Gentleman's Exercise,' he lays down rules
for drawing and painting in oil ; for making of
colours, blazoning coats of arms, &c. He died about

PEACKE, EDWARD, was an English engraver,
who flourished in the middle of the 17th century.
In conjunction with ROBERT PEACKE, who was
probably his brother, he executed some plates of
friezes, and other architectural ornaments, pub-
lished in 1640.

PEACKE, WILLIAM, was an engraver and painter
of the time of James I. Strutt mentions him as the
engraver of two portraits of the Earl of Holland
and the Earl of Warwick.

PEAK, JAMES, an English engraver. We hare
several plates of landscapes by him, some of which
were engraved for Boydell ; he also etched a few
plates from his own designs. Among others the
following are by him:

A View of Waltham Abbey.

Two Landscapes ; after Pillement.

Two Views of Warwick Hall in Cumberland, and Ferry

Bridge, in Yorkshire ; after Belters.
A Landscape, with figures ; after Claude.
Morning, a Landscape ; after the same.
A Landscape, with Ruins ; after G. Smith.
A Landscape, with a Waterfall ; the companion ; after

the same.

Four Views ; after R. Wilson.
Banditti in a rocky Landscape ; after Boryoynone.
The Beggars, the companion ; after the same.

PEAKE, ROBERT, serjeant painter to James I.
in conjunction with John de Critz. He painted
many portraits of James I. and Charles I., especially
a notable one of the latter king, which still hangs
in the University Library at Cambridge. Fait-
horne the elder was one of his pupils. He was
born about 1580, and died in 1626.

PEAKE, Sir ROBERT, son of the above Robert
Peake, a print-seller "on Snow Hill near Holborn
Conduit," who had some skill himself as an en-
graver, and who assisted both Faithorne and
Hollar, who were his personal friends, in the
production of their plates. He took up arms
on the Royalist side at the time of the Civil
War, and was Lieutenant-Governor under the
Marquis of Winchester at the siege of Basing House.
He was knighted at Oxford in 1645. On the
surrender of Basing House he was taken prisoner,
but later on was released, but was exiled for refus-
ing to take the oath of allegiance to the Protector.
After the Restoration he became Vice-President of
the Hon. Artillery Company, and died in 1667,
aged about 75.

PEALE, CHARLES WILSON, an American portrait
painter, was born at Chesterton in Pennsylvania,
in 1741. He was apprenticed to a saddler, and
after being successively saddler, harness-maker,
watchmaker, carver, naturalist, and taxidermist,
at the age of twenty-six he took lessons in painting
from Copley, in Boston. In 1770-1 he studied in
London under West, and in 1772 painted the first
picture of Washington, as a Colonel. He painted
the portraits of many distinguished revolutionary
officers. He opened a picture-gallery in Phila-
delphia, and was instrumental in establishing an
Academy of the Fine Arts in Pennsylvania. He
died at Philadelphia in 1827. His eldest son
RAPHAEL, also a painter, died at Philadelphia in

PEALE, REMBRANDT, painter, son of Charles
Wilson Peale, was born in Bucks county, Penn-



sylvania, in 1778. He showed talent as a draughts-
man in early life, and in 1796 he established
himself as a portrait painter at Charleston, South
Carolina. From 1801 to 1804 he studied in London
under West, and then went to Paris, where he
painted the portraits of several eminent men. In
1809 he returned to Philadelphia. He there
painted two subject pictures, ' The Roman Daugh-
ter,' and ' The Court of Death,' and many portraits,
among which we may specify those of President
Jefferson, Mrs. Madison, Commodore Bainbridge,
Perry, Decatur, General Armstrong, and the sculptor
Houdon. Peale died in 1860.

PEARCE, WILLIAM, portrait painter, was born
in London about the middle of the 18th century.
He painted rustic subjects, and Charles Turner
engraved his ' Milkmaid.' He exhibited at the
Academy in 1798-9.

PEARSON, Mrs. CHARLES, a portrait painter.
Her maiden name was DUTTON. She was born in
1799. Early in life she married a solicitor named
Pearson, who was afterwards a member of Parlia-
ment. She exhibited portraits at the Royal Academy
from 1821 to 1842, two of them being portraits of
Lord Mayors. Mrs. Pearson died in 1871.

PEARSON, CORNELIUS, was born at Boston, and
came to London at an early age, where he was
apprenticed to a copper-plate engraver. He soon
abandoned this for the practice of painting in
water-colours, to which he devoted himself,
becoming a regular exhibitor at the Suffolk Street
Galleries (1843-79). He was one of the oldest
members of the Langham Sketching Club, and
was constant to the older traditions of English
water-colour. He died in 1891 in his 83rd year.

Samuel Paterson, distinguished herself by her skill
in painting on glass. She was the wife of James
Pearson. She painted two sets of the Cartoons,
after Raphael, one of which was purchased by the
Marquis of Lansdowne, and the other by SirGregory
Page Turner. There is also another set, but whether
by the husband or wife, or by both, is not certain.
She died in 1823. Her works were various, but
mostly copied from pictures by other masters.

PEARSON, JAMES, a glass painter, was born at
Dublin about the middle of the 18th century. He
learnt his art at Bristol. There are windows by
him at Brasenose College, in Salisbury Cathedral,
and in Aldersgate Church, London. Pearson also
painted some designs after James Barry, R.A.
He married the above-named Eglington Margaret,
the daughter of Samuel Paterson, a well-known
book-auctioneer. He died in 1805.

water-colour artist of Durham, was born at Brus-
sels on July 5, 1817. At the age of fourteen he
was articled to Bonomi, a Durham architect, and
three years later left for London, where he worked
in the offices of Anthony Salvin and Philip Hard-
wick. He devoted himself mainly to ecclesiastical
architecture, and soon became one of the most
distinguished of the modern school of Gothic re-
vivalists. Holy Trinity Church, Vauxhall Bridge,
built in 1850, was his first work of importance,
and this was followed by St. Peter's, Vauxhall, and
the Art Schools in the same neighbourhood. St.
Augustine's, Kilburn, in 1871, and St. John's, Red
Lion Square, in 1875, are among other London
churches of his designing. His greatest achieve-
ment was the Cathedral of Truro, which was begun
from his designs in 1878, and completed, except


for the western towers, in 1903. Among his
domestic buildings may be named Lechlade Manor
House ; the reconstruction of Westwood, Syden-
ham ; Craigside, the seat of Lord Armstrong; St.
Peter's Convalescent Home, Woking ; and the
Astor Estate Office on the Embankment. Probably,
however, it is as a restorer that he is best known.
He was the official architect to many cathedrals,
Bristol, Rochester, and Chichester among them;
and his rather drastic restoration of Westminster
Abbey and Peterborough met with severe criticism. ''
Pearson was a clever painter in water-colours of
architectural views of cathedrals, &c., which he
naturally rendered with much sympathy, and from
1851 onwards the designs for his current work
were regularly exhibited at the Royal Academy.
In 1874 he was elected an Associate of the
Academy, in 1878 became a Knight of the Legion
of Honour, and in 1880 a Royal Academician.
He was also a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.
He died on Dec. 9, 1897, after a short illness, and
was buried in Westminster Abbey on Dec. 16.


PEART, (or PAERT,) HENRY, an English portrait
painter, born in the first half of the 17th century.
He studied under Francis Barlow and Old Stone,
and was much employed on copies of pictures in
the royal collections. He died about 1697.

PEAT, T., an English portrait painter, in the
latter half of the 18th century. He was a follower
of Reynolds, and exhibited at the Academy from
1791 to 1805. Much of his work was in enamel.

PECHAM, GEORG, (or PEHAM), painter and en-
graver, was an artist of the Munich school. By
some he is supposed to have been a pupil of
Melchior Pocksberger. We have by him some
etchings, among which are :

Hercules and Antaeus.
Neptune and the Tritons.
Virgin and Child.

View of Gratz.
He died about 1604.

PECCHIO, DOMENICO, was born at Verona in
1712, or 1715. He was a pupil of Balestra, and
one of the most famous landscape painters of his
day. He died in 1759.

PECHEUX, BENOIT, son and pupil of Laurent
Pecheux, was born at Rome in 1769. In 1793 he
won the great prize at the Academy of Parma, and
became three years later professor at Turin. The
date of his death is unknown. He painted the
' Assumption ' and the ' Annunciation ' for the
churches of Rouen and Yvetot respectively. He
was the author of ' Iconographie Mythologique.'

PECHEUX, LAURENT, painter and designer, was
born at Lyons about 1740, and came when young to
Paris, whence he proceeded to Rome, and became
a pupil and friend of Rafael Mengs. He was dis-
tinguished by his frescoes in the Villa Borghese,
and was later on made chief painter to the King of
Sardinia, a member of the Academy, and a Knight
of the Order of St. Maurice and Lazarus. He died
at Turin in 1821.

PECHWELL, AUGUST JOSEF, a painter, was
bom at Dresden in 1757. He was instructed by
Flutin, and afterwards went to Rome, where he
remained till 1781. He painted altar-pieces and
portraits. He was Inspector of the Royal Gallery
at Dresden. He died in 1811.

PECHWELL, CARL VON, a German engraver,
flourished at Vienna in the latter half of the 18th
century. He engraved the portrait of the Emperor


Joseph II., after P. Batoni, and those of several
other German princes; also the following subjects:

La Tieille Amoureuse ; after J. Toornvliet.

The Judgment of Paris ; after A. van der Werff, with

a dedication to the Graces of Europe.
Venus uncovered by a Satyr.
The Reading Magdalene; after P. Batoni's picture at

The Angry Mother and her Daughter ; after P. della



PECKITT, WILLIAM, bora in 1731 at Hurs-
thwaite, Yorks, died in 1795, was one of the most
important of English glass-painters, and the last
of a school which had for above 500 years been
famous in York. He was of humble birth and
trained as a carver and gilder, but adopted the art
of glass-painting. Though almost self-taught he
may have worked for a time with William Price
the younger. He especially devoted himself to
the chemistry of coloured glass, in which he
attained great skill, producing probably a greater
variety in transparent colour, as distinct from
enamel-colours, than has ever been achieved by
any other artist ; the latest examples of old ruby
glass (before the manufacture was revived in the
19th century) were due to his skill. He married
Mary Motley, the daughter of a sculptor of York,
and he was buried in the churchyard of St. Martin-
cum-Gregory in that city. An inscription in his
honour, " designed and executed by his afflicted
widow," was added to a window in the church of
that parish in the year after his death. His earliest
and latest works are to be seen at York. In and
after 1757 he was engaged in repairing the ancient
windows in the Minster, but before that date he
had produced original works.

York, Justice-room of the Guildhall : A symbolical
presentment of ' Justice in a Triumphal Car.' Peckitt
made a gift of this work to the municipality, and in
return was admitted without payment to the freedom
of the city. It was executed in 1753 and put up in

York Minster, south transept, 1754 : A figure of ' St.
Peter,' with the arms of the See, for which he was
paid 11 15s. But in 1758, "having attained to
greater excellence in his art," he was dissatisfied with
the figure and presented another in its place.

York Minster, 1793 : The figures of ' Abraham,"
''Moses,' and * Solomon' in the south transept, to
complete with the ' St. Peter ' a set of four. These
he bequeathed to the Dean and Chapter, who had
them put up in accordance with his will in 1795.

Lincoln Cathedral, 1762 : The east window ; geometrical
patterns of coloured glass (it has been removed).

Exeter Cathedral, 1766: The great west window,
probably Peckitt's finest work, was barbarously
removed in 1903.

Oxford, Oriel Chapel, 1767 : He painted the ' Present-
ation of Christ in the Temple' a window now on
the north side of the ante-chapel. It was designed
by Dr. Wall, a physician of Worcester.

Oxford, New College Chapel : The north windows,
executed between 1765 and 1774 from the designs of
Biagio Eebecca, R.A. Each of the five windows
contains eight figures, three of personages and
prophets from the Old Testament, and two from the
New ; the later windows show greater variety and
delicacy of colour than the earlier.

Cambridge, Trinity College Library, 1775: A large
window from a design by G. B. Cipriani ; among the
heads are portraits of Newton, Francis Bacon, and
George III. Little coloured glass or pot-metal is
used in this window.

Peckitt also executed a good deal of repairing
and ornamental glazing in various cathedrals, &c.,

throughout the country, such as may still be seen
in the clerestory at Peterborough and at Tewkes-
bury. He was employed by Horace Walpole to
paint some windows at Strawberry Hill in 1768 ;
and there were in the chapel at Bishopsthorpe,
Yorks, several coats-of-arms, recently removed,
not without mutilation, to the " business-room " of
the Archiepiscopal Palace. p. B.

PECORI, DOMENICO, was a pupil of Bartolommeo
della Gatta, and a partner of Niccol6 Soggi of
Arezzo. He lived in the 15th century, but no
certainty exists as to the dates of his birth or death.
An ' Adoration of the Virgin ' by him is still in the
Sacristy of the Pieve at Arezzo ; and other works
of his may be found in that city and its environs.
Vasari says he was more skilled in the use of
tempera than in that of oil.

PEDIUS, QUINTDS, a Roman artist, grandson of
C. Pedius, flourished about twenty years before
Christ. He was dumb, and died young.

PEDONE, BARTOLO. an Italian painter, who
worked in the first half of the 18th century. He
painted landscapes, sea-pieces, storms, and night-
pieces. He died in 1735.

PEDRALI, GIACOMO, an Italian perspective and
architectural painter, who flourished at Brescia
from 1630 to about 1660. He was a companion of
Domenico Bruni, and was already dead in the
latter year,


Bologna in 1694, and was a scholar of Marc An-
tonio Franceschini. He resided some time in Po-
land ; and on his return to Bologna painted a great
number of pictures and altar-pieces for the churches
and public edifices, of which the most esteemed are
the 'Martyrdom of St. Peter,' in San Petronio;
' Christ bearing his Cross,' in San Giuseppe ; and
1 St. Margarita,' in the Anunziata. He died in 1778.

PEDRIEL, SANTOS, a Spanish painter, who was
a pupil of Sanchez-Coello. He painted historical
subjects, and flourished about 1570. Siret gives
the date of his death as 1578.

PEDR1GNANI, GIROLAMO, a painter and en-
graver, who flourished at Forli about 1640 to 1650.
Among his plates are :

The Death of Abel.

Adaui and Eve in Paradise.

Adam bewailing the Death of Abel.

PEDRINI, GIOVANNI, of Milan, who flourished
in the 16th century, was one of those followers of
Leonardo da Vinci who exaggerated their master's
style. His works are to be seen at Milan, Berlin,
and elsewhere. Pedrini is supposed to be identical
with the Pietro Riccio, mentioned by Lomazzo as a
pupil of Leonardo.

PEDRO, El Licenciado. See GUTIERREZ.

PEDRO, FRANCESCO DEL, an engraver, was born
at Udine m 1736. He established himself at Venice,
and among his engravings we may name :

A Holy Family.

A sleeping Jesus.

Charity; after Alliani.

Judgment of Paris ; after Giordano.

The Card-player ; after Tenters.

Landscapes ; after Londonio and Maggiotto.

PEDRONI, PIETRO, an Italian historical painter,
was a native of Pontremoli. He studied at Parma
and Rome, and eventually settled at Florence,
where he became Director of the Academy. He
died in 1803


of Italian extraction, was born at Amsterdam in
1817. He was a pupil of J. Pieneman, and painted
effects of light and interiors. He died at Vienna
in 1861.

PEE, ENGELHARDT VAN, a Flemish painter, who
was born at Brussels. He resided chiefly in Ger-
many, and had much success at the Court of
Munich. He died in 1605.

PEE, JAN VAN, a Dutch figure painter, born at
Amsterdam about 1640. He was a son of Em-
manuel Van Pee, a Dutch picture-seller, and was
chiefly employed in copying the works of the Dutch

PEE, THEODOR VAN, a Dutch historical portrait
and interior painter, was born at Amsterdam in
1669. His painting not being sufficient to support
him, he became a picture-dealer. In this capacity
he came to England in 1715 and 1719, and on the
last occasion he remained seven years, and amassed
a considerable fortune. He then returned to his
own country, and died at the Hague in 1747 or 1750.
PEEL, PAUL, was born at London, Ontario, in
1861. He received his first art-training at the
College of Fine Arts, Pennsylvania, and studied
subsequently at the Royal Academy, London, and
in Paris under Gerome. He settled in Paris and
only returned to Canada for short visits, and his
art was French both in spirit and technique. In
1889 he gained an honourable mention for his
1 Life is Bitter,' and a gold medal in 1890 for
'After the Bath.' He specially loved to paint
children and baby-life, but he also painted land-
scapes with a fine sense of colour and light. He
died in 1892.

PEETERS, BONAVENTURA, a Flemish painter of
battles and sea-pieces, was born at Antwerp in 1614.
His favourite subject was a stormy sea with light-
ning flashing above, and a ship in danger. His
works are very unequal in merit. His strong point
was composition, and the arrangement of light and
shade. He died at Hoboken in 1652, and was
buried there. He usually signed his pictures P. B.
with the date. Works :






Petersburg. Hermitage,

Vienna. Liechtenstein C.


View at Flushing.
View of Middelburg.
View on a River-bank.
Dordrecht from the Maas.
A Storm at Sea.

Gallery. View of Corfu (?) (Signed
Bonaventura Peelers ; fecit in
Hoboken 1652.)

View of Scheveningen (with

figures by David Teniers the
A Seaport.

Three pictures of Storms at Sea.
A Sea-piece.
A Military Post.

PEETERS, CLARA, a Flemish still-life painter,
who flourished in the 17th century. Several pictures
by her are in the Madrid Museum, and one bears
the date 1611.


PEETERS, GILLES (or EGIDICS), who was born
in 1612, and died in 1653, was a brother of Bona-
ventura Peeters, and worked in the same atelier.
Nothing is known of his paintings, but he etched a
series of hunting-pieces after Snyders.

PEETERS, JACOB, a Flemish painter of church
interiors, who flourished in 1695. He was a pupil

of Pieter Vandevelde, at Antwerp, in 1672-3, and
Master of the Guild in 1688-9. He painted in the
style of Pieter Neefs. His brother JAN flourished
at Antwerp as a painter and engraver in 1680.

PEETEKS, JAN, a brother and pupil of Bona-
ventura Peeters, was born at Antwerp in 1624.
He painted similar subjects to those of his brother,
though in general his works are very inferior to
those of Bonaventura. He sometimes painted com-
bats at sea, and even attempted historical subjects.
He became a Master of the Guild in 1645, and
appears to have died in 1677. Paintings by him
are in the Antwerp Museum, the Munich Pinakothek,
and the Museum and Liechtenstein Collections at
Vienna ; and the Rijks-Museum of Amsterdam
possesses a good picture of the ' Destruction of
the English fleet at Chatham, in 1607,' by him.
He engraved a series of landscapes in the style of





PEIROLERI, PIETRO, an Italian engraver, was a
native of Turin, and flourished about the year 1760.
Zani gives 1741 for the date of his birth, and says
he was active in 1777. Nagler says he was born
in 1738, and gives a list of 20 prints by him.
Neither authority mentions the date of his death.
His chief prints appear to be :

Bacchus seated on a Tun ; after Rubens.
Portrait of the Foruarina; after Raphael.
Portrait of Raphael ; after the same.
Philippe de Champagne ; copied from Edelinck.
The Holy Family ; after ffcarsellino.
The Finding of Moses ; after La::arini.
A ' Boman Charity ; ' after the same.
Abraham's Offering ; after Beltncci.
Jupiter and Calisto ; after Amiconi.
Zephyrus and Flora ; after the same.


PELAIS, MICHEL, (or PALAIS ?,) supposed to have
flourished at Rome about 1625. He engraved the
portraits of Cardinal d'Ossat and J. de Gasteboig.
His mark is also found on prints after Palma the
younger, and Federigo Zuecaro, and his manner
approaches that of Cornells Cort. The signature
Palais fee. is to be found on a wretched print of
'St. John preaching in the Wilderness,' but the
author may have been a totally different person.

PELEE, PIERRE, a native of Courtedoux in the
Canton of Bern, and a scholar of von Schenker,
engraved from 1820 to 1838. The following prints
by him are noticed by Nagler :

The Evangelist St. John ; after Domenichino.
The President Durauti : after P. Delaroche.
Several Portraits and Vignettes for the works of Vol-
taire and Kousseau ; after Dcsenne and Deiicria.

PELEGRET, TOMAS, a Spanish historical painter
in fresco and en grisaille, was born at Toledo, where
he studied the elements of his art, but afterwards
went to Italy and placed himself under Baldassare
da Siena, and Polidoro da Caravaggio, from whom
he derived his knowledge of chiaroscuro ; and
whom he made his model. He returned to Spain,
in the time of Charles V., and established himself
at Saragossa, where he acquired considerable reput-
ation. His drawings were highly prized, not only
by amateurs, but by artists. They were purchased
with avidity by painters, sculptors, decorators, and
goldsmiths. Unfortunately few or none of his
works in fresco exist, and the only examples of his


ability that can be mentioned with certainty, are
some pictures in the manner of Polidoro Caravaggio
in the Monastery of Santa Eugracia, in Saragossa.
He died at the age of 84. He had many scholars ;
among them was Cuevas, who assisted him in
painting the sacristy of the cathedral of Huesca,
and some other works.

PELGROM, JAKOB, a Dutch landscape painter,
who flourished early in the 19th century. He was
a pupil of J. Pieneman.

PELHAM, HENRY, historical and miniature
painter, resided with Copley, R.A., and was most
probably his pupil. In 1777 he contributed to the
Academy ' The Finding of Moses,' which was en-
graved by W. Ward in 1787. In the following
year he exhibited some miniatures in enamel and

PELHAM, JAMES, miniaturist and portrait
painter, chiefly in water-colour, was born in
London, September 16, 1800, the son of James
Pelham (died circ. I860), also a miniaturist of some
note, but not equal to his son in ability ; he was a
great-nephew of the Prime Minister, Henry Pelham.
In early life the second James Pelham travelled
about the kingdom, painting portraits of notable
persons, especially in the eastern counties and in
Bath and Cheltenham. He was appointed painter
to the Princess Charlotte, and had many distin-
guished sitters. Pelham was resident at Bath in
1832, when he made his first appearance at the Royal
Academy with portraits of Viscount and Viscountess
Weymouth. In 1836 there were five portraits, and

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