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in 1837 one, by James Pelham, resident in London,
but it is uncertain whether this exhibitor was the
father or the son. Most probably it was the latter.
In or before 1846 he settled at Liverpool. In that
year he had six portraits at the Exhibition of the
Liverpool Academy,in 1847 three, and in 1848 four,
also eight miniatures. He was elected an Associate
of the Academy in 1847, a full member in 1851,
and in 1854 or 1855 Secretary, in which capacity
he for several years took a prominent part in
arranging the Academy's Exhibitions during a
period of great importance in its history. He
exhibited portraits yearly until 1854, but not after-
wards. The progress of photography so greatly
interfered about this time with the practice of
miniature and portrait painters that, like many
others, Pelham had to turn to another branch of
art in his case it was the painting of domestic
genre subjects, usually on a small scale. In 1855
his only contribution was entitled ' Fast Bind,
Fast Find,' priced 12 guineas. Thereafter he
appears to have exhibited only twice : in 1859
'A Cup of Tea,' 12 guineas, and in 1867 'The Old
Sempstress' and 'The Summer Tourist,' not for
sale. It is not well to speak with certainty, be-
cause of possible confusion with the artist's son,
James Pelham the third, who began to exhibit in
1858. Pelham's interest in the Academy did not
abate. He continued to act as Secretary until 1860
or 1861, and, after an interval, again, until suc-
ceeded by his son in 1867. He died at Liverpool,
April 17, 1874, and was survived by eight of a
family of nine children. JAMES, already mentioned,
is a well-known Liverpool artist in landscape and
genre, and Miss EMILY PELHAM in early life gave
considerable promise. She exhibited genre sub-
jects at the Liverpool Academy in 1867, and,
according to Graves, sent four pictures to Suffolk
Street from 1867 to 1879. A painter named HENRY
PELHAM, " at Mr. Copley's, Leicester Fields, " who

exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1777 and
1778, does not appear to have been related to
James Pelham. In addition to ten miniatures
(two in enamel) he showed 'The Finding of Moses."
The portrait of James Pelham, painted by John
Robertson, is in possession of his son. E. R ; D.

PELHAM, PETER, an English engraver, was born
in London in 1684, and died about 1738. He en-
graved several portraits in mezzotint; among which
are the following :

King George I.; after Kneller.

King George II. ; after the same.

Anne, Consort of the Prince of Orange ; after the same.

Oliver Cromwell ; after Walker.

Thomas Holies, Duie of Newcastle.

Robert, Viscount Molesworth ; after Gibson.

John, Lord Carteret ; after K-netler.

James Gibbs, Architect ; after Hysing.

Peter Paul Rubens ; after Rubens.

Edward Cooper ; after Van der I'aart.

Dr. Edmund, Bishop of London ; after Murray.

J. C. PELHAM, a painter chiefly of portraits, born in
1721, was his son.

PELICHY, GERTRUDE DE, a Flemish portrait,
landscape, and animal painter, born at Utrecht in
1743. In 1753 she followed her father to Bruges,
and afterwards resided in Paris, where she received
lessons from Suv6e. In 1777 she returned to Bruges,
and was made an honorary member of the Imperial
Academy of Vienna. She painted portraits of the
Emperor Joseph II., and of his mother, the Empress
Maria Theresa. In the Bruges Academy there are :
a landscape ; a head of Christ, after Guido ; and an
old man's head, by this lady. She died in 1825.

PELISSIER, THEODOR, a German painter of
French extraction, was a pupil of Wach, and
painted genre pictures towards the end of the 18th
century. He lived at Hanau, Hesse.

PELKIN, CORNELIS, an indifferent Dutch en-
graver, lived about the year 1663. He engraved
a frontispiece to a book entitled ' Spiegel der
Spaensche Tirannie,' published at Middleburg in

PELLEGRINI, ANDREA, an Italian painter,
flourished at Milan from 1560 to 1595. He painted
historical subjects, and several of his pictures are
to be found in the church of St. Jerome at Milan.

PELLEGRINI, CARLO, draughtsman and cari-
caturist, was born at Capua in 1838, and was, on
his father's side, the scion of an ancient family
long settled in the district, and known as the
Sedili Capuani; on his mother's a descendant
of the Medici. In his youth he became involved
in the Italian struggle for liberty, and enrolled
himself among the Garibaldians. In 1865 he
arrived in England in straitened circumstances,
and a chance having revealed his gifts as a satirical
draughtsman, he was engaged on the staff of
' Vanity Fair.' In 1869 his first political carica-
ture, a drawing of Lord Beaconsfield, appeared in
that journal. It was signed " Singe,' 1 a pseudonym
which he afterwards changed fnr " Ape." Hence-
forth he was a prolific contributor for many years
to ' Vanity Fair,' and has left behind him many
hundreds of portraits of notabilities in the English
political, artistic, and social world. One of the
most successful was a statuette in red plaster of
Mr. Lowe standing on a match-box, which the
artist modelled in Count Gleichen's studio. His
last published caricature was that of Sir William
Dolby, the famous aurist, and the last he drew a.
sketch of Mr Edison, the inventor of the phono-



?raph. During his long residence in London,
ellegrini's gay and genial temper endeared him
to all with whom he came in contact, and in his
last illness a fund was provided by his more intimate
friends for his support. He died in Mortimer Street,
Cavendish Square, January 22, 1889, and was
buried at Kensal Green.

at Padua in 1674 (or Venice in 1675). He was a
scholar of Genga ; and is said to have received some
instruction from Paolo Pagani. He distinguished
himself among the modern Venetians, by a ready
and ingenious invention, and an unusual facility
of execution, though the effect of his works is im-
poverished by a feeble and languid colouring, and
a total neglect of the principles of chiaroscuro.
The reputation he had acquired at Venice, and
afterwards in Paris, recommended him to the notice
of the Duke of Manchester, who invited him to
England, where he resided some years, until 1712,
in which year he entered the service of the Elector of
Saxony at Dresden, and finally returned to Venice.
He died in 1741. He executed several ornamental
works for the mansions of the English nobility.
He is noticed in the ' Guida di Venezia,' with this
addition, ' Fu pittore piu di fortuna che di merito'
(' he was a painter rather by favour than by merit ').
Some of his pictures have been engraved by V.
Green, J. B. Cathelin, P. Simon, and T. Park. The
following are preserved :

Augsburg. Gallery. Several portraits and allegories.

Genoa. Dttra:zo Pal. The Oath of Hamlet's Mother.

Paris. Louvre. Allegorical design Modesty

offers the Artist's Painting
to the Academy.

Rome. Academy of St. ~


S. Jlloise. The Brazen Serpent.

PELLEGRINI, DOMENICO, a painter, was born
at Venice about 1768. He studied chiefly at Rome,
and his first great works were the ' Death of Mes-
salina,' and 'The Marriage at Cana.' In 1792 lie
came to England, where he gained a considerable
reputation as a portrait painter. He returned to
his own country and painted several portraits in
Rome, Venice, and Naples. Schiavonetti engraved
after him.

PELLEGRINI, FELICE, was born at Perugia in
1567, and was a scholar of Federigo Baroccio. He
painted historical subjects, and became an artist of
sufficient celebrity to be invited to Rome by Pope
Clement VIII., who employed him in the Vatican.
After having exercised his talents at Rome with
some success, he returned to Perugia, where he
died in 1630.

PELLEGRINI, FRANCESCO, was, according to
Barotti, a native of Ferrara. He was a scholar of
Giovanni Battista Cozza, and flourished about the
year 1740. There are many of his works in the
churches at Ferrara. In the cathedral is a ' St.
Bernard ; ' and in San Paolo a ' Last Supper.'

PELLEGRINI. PELLEGRINO, an Italian historical
painter, was employed at the Escorial at Madrid,
and was appointed painter to the Court of Spain.
He died about 1634.

PELLEGRINI, VINCENZIO, the brother of Felice
Pellegrini, was born at Perugia in 1575, and was
also educated in the school of Baroccio. He painted
several pictures for Perugia, in the churches of
Sant' Antonio, in the Chiesa Nuova, and in other
places. He was called ' II Pittor Bello ' for the
beauty of his person. He died in 1612.




painter ; born February 28, 1819, at Nimes (Gard);
highly successful as a landscape painter in water-
colour ; contributed regularly to the Salons since
1848, his subjects being chiefly chosen from the
scenery of Southern France or in the Seine-et-
Marne and Cote d'Or departments, as, for instance,
' Environs d'Epernon ' (1848), 'Groupe de Chenes
a Marlotte' (1869), 'L'Automne a Reclose' (1881),
&c. He died in December 1894.

PELLET, DAVID, was a French engraver, whose
name is affixed to a plate representing Louis XIII.
when young, on horseback, with the portraits of
Henry IV. and Maria de' Medici in small ovals at
the top.

PELLETIER, JEAN, a French engraver, was
born in Paris about the year 1736. We have
several plates by him of various subjects, among
them the following :

The Watering-place ; after Berchem.

Ruins and Figures ; after the same.

The Fish-Market ; after Pierre.

The Green-Market ; after the same.

Diana reposing ; after Boucher.

The Rape of Kuropa ; after the same.

Two Pastoral subjects ; after the same.

The Union of Design and Painting; after yatoire.

Young Bacchus ; after C. van Loo.

The Travellers ; after Wouwerman,

Ladies going to the Chase ; after the same.

The Tipplers ; after Ostade.

Nagler mentions about twenty more, after Claude,
A. Van der Velde, Teniers, Bega, F. Millet, Metsu,
and others. Pelletier's wife also engraved two
plates after A. Ostade, and one after Wouwerman.
There is no account of the death of either.

PELLI, MARCO, an engraver, was born at Venice
about 1696. His principal engravings are heads
of saints ; a few portraits ; a ' Charge of Cavalry,'
after Borgognone ; and a ' Landscape,' after D. B.
Zilotti, signed M. Pelli exc. No particulars of
his life have been preserved.


PELLICOT, Louis ALEXIS DE, a French painter,
and native of Digne. He flourished in 1787. A
' Cromwell at Windsor ' and a set of views of old
French chateaux were among his most important

Besancon, was born in 1782, and has left a few
small landscapes engraved with the point from his
own designs. He died in 1804.

PELLIER, PIERRE EDM Louis, a French por-
trait and historical painter, who flourished about
1815. He was a pupil of Regnault. In the
Museum at Caen is a ' Telemachus ' by him.

PELLINI, ANDREA, a native of Cremona, who
flourished about 1595. He painted historical pic-
tures, and resided chiefly at Milan.

PELLINI, MARC ANTONIO, an historical painter,
was born at Pavia in 1659. He was a pupil of Th.
Gatti, and studied at Venice and Bologna. He
died in 1760.

PELOSI, FRANCESCO, an historical painter, who
flourished at Venice in the 15th century. At


Bologna are by this artist a ' St. Julian,' a ' St.
James," a ' Virgin and Child,' and a 'Dead Christ.'

PELOUSE, L&DST GERMAIN, French painter ;
born at Pierrelaye (Seine-et-Oise) in 1838 ; began
life as a commercial traveller, but in spite of the
opposition of his parents he determined to become
an artist. His whole career is an example of
indomitable energy. He made his debut in 1865
with a picture that, having no studio of his own,
he was obliged to paint in barracks, the colonel
permitting this. Success came slowly ; and it was
not till 1873 that he received a medal of the second
class. In 1878 he obtained a first-class medal and
the Legion of Honour. At the Universal Ex-
hibition of 1889 he received a gold medal. The
French School possessed in him one of its most
brilliant and prolific landscape artists. His charm-
ing ' Coin de Cernay en Janvier' is in the Luxem-
bourg ; other well-known pictures are his 'Environs
de Pr^cy,' ' Souvenir de Cernay, 1 ' Coupe de Bois a
Senlisse,' and 'Matin en Bretagne,' which are to
be seen in private and public collections. His
preference was for broad and simple motives,
which he delighted to express in low keys of
colour perfectly suited to the scenery he loved.
He died at Pierrelaye, July 31, 1891.

PELTRO, JOHN, engraver, was born in 1760. In
1779 he exhibited some engravings after Taverner
and others, but his chief work was engraving after
Repton the miniature views of gentlemen's seats
for the ' Polite Repository.' He died at Hendon
in 1808.

PEMBROKE. THOMAS, an English historical
painter, born in 1702. He was a pupil and follower
of the younger Laroon, and was patronized by the
Earl of Bath. His best known work is a ' Hagar
and Ishmael,' which was mezzotinted by J. R.
Smith and published by Boydell. He died in 1730.

PEN, HISPEL, (or PENN). Strutt has fallen into
error with respect to a supposed artist of this
name ; it is now satisfactorily ascertained, that the
prints assigned to him ought to be included in the
works of Beham.

PEN, JACOB, was a Dutch painter, mentioned by
Balkema as being particularly employed by Charles
II. He says that he composed with intelligence,
and added beautiful colour to correct drawing ; but
he says nothing of his subjects, and adds, "All his
pictures are in England." Pen died in 1678.



PENALOSA, JDAN DE, an historical painter of
the school of Seville, was born at Baeza in 1581.
He was one of the best scholars of Pablo de Ces-
pedes, whose works he assiduously imitated, as is
evinced in the magnificent picture in the cathedral
of Cordova, representing St. Barbe. He also
painted a ' St. Jago ' for the convent of Arizafa ;
several pictures for the Minimes, and many others
for private collections in Cordova, where he died
in 1636.

PENCHARD, J., was a Dutch engraver, who
resided at Leyden about the year 1678. His plates
are chiefly confined to frontispieces, and other book
ornaments ; but he engraved the anatomical plates
for the works of Reg. de Graaf, with the portrait
of the author, published at Leyden in 1678.

PENCZ, GEOBG, a native of Nuremberg, was
born at or before the beginning of the 16th century.
He was admitted into the Guild of Painters in
1523, after he had been, if not under the instruc-
tion, at least under the influence, of Albrecht Diirer

He was associated with the Behams, and with
them in 1524 underwent the sentence of banish-
ment for heresy. His sentence, however, seems
to have been allowed to drop, as we find frequent
notices of his presence in Nuremberg, though he
was deprived of his citizen-right, and in 1525 he
was permitted to settle in Windsheim, a place
within the city's jurisdiction. About 1532 he
probably returned to Nuremberg altogether. Be-
tore his trial we find him engaged on the work of
restoring pictures, but he was afterwards appointed
painter to the Rath. There is no proof that he
paid much attention to engraving till 1535, the first
date on any of his plates. He seems to have
visited Italy on several occasions, and the dates of
those visits have unusual importance from the fact
that Passavant confidently ascribes to him one of
the finest of the plates, which the world has been
in the habit of giving to Marc-Antonio. In the
fourth volume of the ' Peintre-Graveur,' Passavant
says : " Pencz left his home to frequent the school
of Marc-Antonio. This is put beyond a doubt by
the style of his words at the time. The influence
of the Italian school is clearly present. . . . Above
all is it visible in the ' Massacre of the Innocents
(au Chicot), Bartsch, 18,' hitherto considered the
original plate by Raimondi himself. 1 ' Passavant
goes on to say that this Massacre au Chicot is finer
and firmer in drawing than the one by Marc- An-
tonio, but rather less graceful and life-like. To
quote his works ; " On carefully comparing these
two masterpieces of engraving on copper, No. 18
appears neater and firmer in drawing, but differs
not only in the burin line, which is slightly thinner
and stiller than that of so consummate an artist as
Marc-Antonio, but the expression of the heads has
less life, and the hatchings sometimes have that
horizontal direction which is never found among
the Italian engravers. No. 20 (Bartsch), which
undoubtedly belongs to Marc- Antonio, is of freer
line, and fuller outline, and of greater vivacity in
the heads. Everything considered, we are fully
convinced that the print, No. 18, ' Au Chicot,' was
executed by George Pencz after the original draw-
ing of Raphael" (vol. iv. p. 101). To all this
the champions of Raimondi oppose an alibi, assert-
ing that Pencz did not practise engraving until
after the deaths both of Raphael and Raimondi.
It is difficult to see how this can be conclusive,
and there certainly is much in common between
the work in the disputed plate and that in the
' Triumphs of Petrarch,' which are without doubt
by Pencz. In 1539 Pencz was certainly in Rome,
and at this time executed a large print after Giulio
Romano, called ' The Taking of Carthage,' and to
this period is also assigned by Passavant, 'The
Prisoners,' a print generally ascribed to Ghisi.
Pencz executed several plates in miniature from
the Old and New Testaments; also many scenes
from ancient history and mythology, In 1544 he
was commissioned to paint a ' S. Jerome ' at Nurem-
berg, where he was also successful in portrait paint-
ing. He died at Breslau in 1550. Most of the
pictures ascribed to Pencz are merely copies from
his plates, but the following may be considered
authentic :

Berlin. Museum. Portrait of the painter Erhard

Schwetzer (signed with a
monogram and dated 1544).
Portrait of Schwetzer's wife.


Portrait of a Young Man. 1534.


Carlsruhe. Museum. Portrait of a Mathematician.
Dresden. Gallery. Three fragments from an

'Adoration of the Magi,'
signed G. P. in a monogram.
Two Male Portraits (?).

Glasgow. Gallery. Female Portrait (formerly as-

cribed to Holbein, whose name
appears vpon it).

Gotha. Gallery. A Portrait.

Hampton Court. Portrait of an Italian Gentle-

Vienna. Belvedere. A Portrait.

Copies of Holbein's Erasmus, at Windsor, Brunswick,
and in the Bruderhaus at Nuremberg.

His engravings of Bible subjects are notable for
their secular spirit, and his work as a whole for its
combination of Italian refinement in execution with
northern thoroughness. The following list includes
all his more important plates :
The six triumphs of Petrarch.
The Massacre of the Innocents (au Chicot).
The taking of Carthage (signed Georgino Penc: pictor,
Jfurnbery, Faciebat, Anno MDXXXIX); after
Giulio Romano.

The Prisoners. (Generally ascribed to G. Ghisi.)
Scenes from the Old Testament.


Thomiris, Medea, Paris, and Procris (four plates).
Triton carrying off Amymone.

The Legend of Virgil and the Scornful Lady (2 plates).
Death of Sophonisba.
The Conversion of St. Paul.
Portrait of Duke Frederick of Saxony.
(Penc: is the only one of The Little Masters ' who has
left no Madonnas.)

See Bartsch, ' Les Peintres G-raveurs,' vol. viii. p.
319, 1803 ; ' The Little Masters,' W. B. Scott, 1880;
and J. D. Passavant, ' Le Peintre Graveur,' vol. iv.

PENET, Louis FKANgols, a French painter and
engraver, born at Thiennes (Nord) in 1834 ; was a
pupil of Kusten ; painted portraits, genre pictures,
and still-life, doing a good deal of work in email,
notably a portrait of Sarah Bernhardt as Dona
Sol. He obtained a third-class medal in 1886.
He died in Paris, March 2, 1901.

painter and engraver ; born April 4, 1811, in
Paris ; became a pupil of Charlet ; served as an
officer of artillery ; a prolific illustrator, notably
of Stranger's works and of Scarron's ' Roman
Comique.' Among bis pictures are ' Vieux Trouba-
dour,' 'La Mort de Judas,' &c. In 1847 he
obtained a third-class medal, a second-class
medal in 1851, and the Legion of Honour in the
same year. He died November 3, 1872.

PENICAUD. This was the name of a family of
artists of the 15th and 16th centuries. It com-
prised :

LEONARD or NARDON PNICAUD, an enameller of
Limoges (14951513).

JEAN PENICAUD, the elder, also an enameller of
Limoges (beginning of the 16th century).

JEAN PENICAUD, the younger, a painter (1531-47),
has left a portrait of Luther and several other
works in Paris, and in private collections.

JEAN PENICAUD, the youngest, called ' The Glory
of Limoges,' was a follower of Parmigiano in style.
The Louvre has a fine collection of his enamels.

PIERRE PENICAUD, probably a brother of the last
(born 1515), is the painter of some draped figures
in the Gatteaux Collection, and of a mythological
subject on porcelain at Berlin. For a more detailed
account of the Penicauds see Laborde, ' Notice des
Emaux du Louvre.'

PENLEY, AARON EDWIN, a water-colour painter,

born in 1806, first appears in 1835 as an exhibitor
at the Royal Academy, to which he continued to
contribute occasionally till 1857. In 1838 he was
elected a member of the Institute of Painters in
Water-colours, but withdrew- in 1856 on the
ground that justice was not done to his works
when sent for exhibition. In 1859 he was, at his
own solicitation, re-elected an Associate. From
1851 till its dissolution he was Professor of Drawing
at the Addiscombe East India College, and he held
a similar post at Woolwich till his death. He was
water-colour painter to William IV. and Queen
Adelaide. He was the author of 'Elements of
Perspective,' ' The English School of Painting in
Water-colours,' and ' Sketching from Nature in
Water-colours.' He died at Lewisham in 1870.
PENNA, BELLA. See Nuzzi.
GIROLAMO DA TREViso,) was the son of Pietro Maria
Pennacchi, and born in 1497 at Treviso, in which
city a house known as that of Pier Maria Pennacchi
still exists, its facade covered with a fresco by
Girolamo of the 'Judgment of Solomon,' together
with medallions, playing children, and similar
designs. In early life Girolamo went to Venice,
and from thence to Genoa, but nothing authentic
now remains of his labours in either city. In 1532
he was employed by Cardinal Gloss to paint several
frescoes in the Castello at Trent ; remains of these
still exist. In 1533 Sabba da Castiglione employed
him to paint at the church of the Commenda of
Faenza a votive fresco of the ' Virgin and Child, with
Saints,' and a kneeling portrait of himself, that still
remains over the high altar. At about this period
in his life he paid a visit to Bologna, where several
of the churches possess frescoes and paintings by
him. Between the years 1535 and 1538 he returned
to Venice, and became intimate with Titian, San-
sovino, and Aretino. During this visit he painted
many frescoes in different palaces of the nobility ;
those executed by him in the Palazzo Andrea Odone
still remain. In 1542 he came to England, and be-
came architect and engineer to Henry VIII., and was
employed by that monarch at the siege of Boulogne,
where he was killed by a cannon-ball in 1544. The
mode of his death is described in a letter from
Aretino to Sansovino, dated in July 1545. Works :
London. Nat. Gal. Virgin and Child,with SS. Joseph,
James, and Paul, and patron.
(The best example extant. It
came originally from the Boc-
caferri Chapel in San Do-
mentco t Boloana.)

Eome. Colonna Pal. Portrait of a Man holding a medal.
Treviso. Onigo Coll. Virgin and Child, with St. Joseph.
Two bust portraits of Men.

Giovanni di Daniele Pennacchi, and born in 1464.
He probably spent his early years in Treviso, and
went to Venice in after-life. In the church of San
Francesco della Vigna, Venice, there is an ' Annunci-
ation ' by him ; and Santa Maria della Salute, Santa
Maria della Misericordia, and La Madonna de"
Miracoli have each ceilings panelled in relief with
sacred subjects in the panels, which are ascribed to
this artist. On the front of a house in the Via
Ognissanti, Treviso, are various sacred and profane

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