frescoes, said to have been painted by Pietro in
1528, in which year he died. The following works
by him may also be mentioned :
Berlin. Museum. Christ in the Tomb, between two
Treviso. Cathedral. The Assumption of the Virgin.
. PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
PENNE, CHARLES OLIVIER DE, French painter ;
born in Paris, January 11, 1831 ; was a pupil of
Leon Cogniet and Charles Jacque ; in 1857 he
obtained the Second Grand Prix de Rome with his
picture entitled ' Jesus et la Samaritaine,' though
his debut at the Salon was in 1855 with ' Dans
deux mille ans,' inspired by Victor Hugo's 'Arc
de Triomphe.' He excelled as a painter of animals
and of hunting scenes, such as ' Retour de la
Chasse,' 'Chiens Bleus de Gascogne,' 'Sangliers
au Ferme,' ' Pendant la Chasse,' &c. He painted
a good deal in water-colour, and exhibited such
work at regular intervals. He gained a third-class
medal in 1875, a second-class one in 1883, and a
silver medal at the Exhibition of 1889. He died
at Marlotte, April 18, 1897.
PENNE, JAN VAN, a Dutch still-life painter, was
settled at Antwerp about 1680. He was born about
1652, and died after 1700. He was the teacher of
J. J. Horemans the elder. Perhaps identical with
J. van Pee.
PENNEMAKERS, THE RECOLLET, was, according
to Balkema, a scholar of Rubens. In the Museum
at Antwerp there is an ' Ascension of Christ ' at-
tributed to him.
PENNENSUS, F., who was prubably a painter,
and a native of Italy, has left a few slight etchings,
the following among them :
The Holy Family, with St, Catharine, and an Angel in
the air ; after Parmigiano.
The Marriage of St. Catharine ; from his own design.
PENNEVILLE, JAN, a Flemish historical painter,
was a native of Bruges. He was Master of the
Corporation of St. Luke in 1639, and died in 1681.
PENNEY, N., a French engraver, has left some
plates of devout subjects, executed with the graver.
Among others is 'The Virgin appearing to St.
Bartholomew,' which is apparently from his own
design, as he adds fecit to his name.
PENNI, BARTOLOMMEO, was an Italian portrait
and historical painter of the 16th century. He
was engaged in England by Henry VIII. at the
same time as Antonio Toto.
PENNI, GIANFRANCESCO, called IL FATTORE, was
a painter of Florence, born about 1488. He went
to Rome when he was very young, and was re-
ceived into the school of Raphael, of whom he
became a favourite disciple ; and being entrusted
by that artist with the management of his domestic
affairs, he acquired the appellation of ' II Futtore.'
Raphael employed him in many of his most im-
portant works, particularly in painting upon the
cartoons for Leo X., and in the Loggie of the Vati-
can. Taja informs us that the histories of Abra-
ham and Isaac were executed by Penni. In these
important undertakings, he acquitted himself so
much to the satisfaction of Raphael, that he was
appointed joint executor with Giulio Romano. He
was employed by Clement VII., in conjunction
with Giulio, to finish the frescoes of the ' History
of Constantine,' which had been begun in the
Saloon now called after them. ' Constantine's
Vision of the Cross,' and his ' Battle with Muxen-
tius,' were painted by Giulio ; his ' Baptism by St.
Silvester,' and his ' Donation of Rome to that
pontiff,' by Penni ; so in ' The Assumption of the
Virgin,' at Monte Luce, Perugia, Penni painted
the lower half. He had also a principal share
in the 'History of Cupid and Psyche,' in the
Farnesina. After this he fell into disagreement
with Giulio, and made a tour through Lombardy,
settling afterwards at Rome. The marriage of
his sister with Perino del Vaga led him to work-
ing in conjunction with this artist also. Of his
own compositions, those executed in fresco have
now almost entirely perished ; and he painted
so few pictures in oil, that they are rarely to be
met with. He particularly excelled in landscapes,
and was well acquainted with the beauties of
architecture. In 1525 he was invited to Naples
by the Marquis del Vasto, and took with him an
admirable copy he had made of the ' Transfigura-
tion,' by Raphael, which he sold to that nobleman,
for whom he executed some considerable works.
This copy is now in the Sciarra Colonna Palace,
at Rome. He died in 1528. Pictures by him are in
the Vatican, the Museum of Naples, and the galleries
of Dresden and Stuttgart. According to some
authorities the picture in the Bridgewater Gallery,
known as ' The Madonna del Passeggio,' is painted
PENNI, LUCA, called ROMANO, the brother of
Gianfrancesco Penni, was born about the year
1500. He is said to have frequented, for a short
time, the studio of Raphael ; and after the death of
that master to have attached himself to Perino del
Vaga. After painting some pictures for the churches
at Lucca and Genoa, he visited England, in the reign
of Henry VIII., by whom he was for some time
employed, and afterwards went to France, where
he painted at Fontainebleau, in conjunction with
II Rosso. On his return to Italy he applied himself
to engraving, and executed several plates, both
with the point and the graver. Among his designs
are ' Diana borne on the shoulders of Orion ' (en-
graved by Giorgio Ghisi) ; ' Apollo with the Muses
upon Parnassus ' (engraved by G. Mantovano) ; and
a ' Scourging of Christ ' (engraved by H. Wierix).
His prints are chiefly from the works of II Rosso
and Primaticcio ; the following are the best :
The Death of Lucretia.
Two Satyrs presenting Wine to Bacchus ; after 11 Rosso.
Leda drawing Arrows from Cupid's Quiver ; after the
Susanna and the Elders ; after the same.
The Sacrifice of Isaac ; after Primaticcio.
The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after the same.
Penelope at work, surrounded by her Women ; after
PENNING, NICOLAAS LODEWIJK, born at the
Hague in 1764, was a scholar of Dirk van der Aa,
and painted landscapes, interiors of stables, and
marine subjects. He died at the Hague in 1818.
His drawings are held in some esteem.
PENNINGTON, JOHN, a landscape painter, of
whose personal history little is known, was an
exhibitor at the Liverpool Academy in 1811 ; he
was then resident at Stockport. In the following
year he had removed to Liverpool, which may
have been his native place, the family of Penning-
ton being one well known in the town, where an
earlier John Pennington was a noted potter.
It is stated by one writer that this was his father.
Pennington's exhibits in 1812 show him to have
visited Wales, Galloway, and Birmingham in
quest of themes; they included 'A Winter piece,'
a class of subjects for which he was noted. In the
two following years he did not exhibit, and there
were no further Exhibitions until 1822. Penning-
ton was then a member of " the Academy of the
Liverpool Royal Institution," and showed four
pictures, the largest, a ' View on the Banks of
the Canal, near Bootle,' being priced 21. He
was then in Ranelagh Street, but before the next
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
Exhibition (1824) had removed to Everton Terrace.
He continued to reside there and to be a member
of the Academy until 1840, after which his name
disappeared from the catalogues. In the mean-
time he was a regular exhibitor, his total con-
tributions numbering nearly one hundred. His
subjects were chiefly local, but sometimes he
had scenes from North Wales, the Lake District,
Derbyshire, and Cheshire. Occasionally he at-
tempted such genre subjects as 'Peasants Re-
posing,' ' The Fisherman's Family,' and ' The
Fish Herds.' He used figures freely and skilfully
in his landscapes. He does not seem to have
attempted any high flights, or to have advanced
greatly in reputation. Towards the latter part of
his life the exhibition prices of his pictures were
little enhanced. In 1835 'View near Black Combe,
Cumberland,' was 22 guineas; in 1836 'View
near Hale' was 25 guineas; in 1839 'Near Speke,
Winter,' was 30 guineas ; and in 1840 ' View
near Northwich,' his last exhibit, was 20 guineas.
A newspaper critic in 1828 observed that " Mr.
Pennington's prices are always moderate, which
shows that he is modest and void of pretence to
a high rank in his profession." He was a careful
craftsman, drew well, and had a tolerable if some-
what timid colour sense, but lacked perception of
atmospheric values. In water-colour he seems
to have been an experimenter. Another of his
critics writes : " He puts a queer oily varnish or
something we cannot better describe over his
drawings, which is extremely offensive to the eye.
If freed from that his scenes would be good."
Pennington was apparently content with his local
reputation, for he never exhibited in London. He
was a bachelor. E. R. D.
PENNY, EDWARD, was born at Knutsford, in
Cheshire, in 1714, and having, at an early period
of his life, discovered an inclination to painting, he
was sent to London, where he was placed under
the tuition of Hudson, who was at that time emi-
nent. He afterwards went to Rome, where he
studied some time under Marco Benefial. On his
return to England, some time before 1748, Penny
became a member of the Incorporated Society
of Artists of Great Britain, of which he wag for
some time vice-president. At the foundation of
the Royal Academy he was one of the original
members, and was appointed their first Professor
of Painting. He continued in that situation, and
read an annual course of lectures, which were well
received, until the year 1783, when, in consequence
of declining health, he was obliged to resign the
professorship, and was succeeded by Barry. About
this period he went to reside at Chiswick, and
having married a lady of property, lived in quiet
retirement until his death, which happened in 1791.
Penny was principally employed in painting
small portraits in oil, which were very generally
admired. He also painted sentimental and historical
subjects, many of which were publicly exhibited.
Among others, were the ' Death of General Wolfe,'
from which a mezzotint print was published by
Sayer, and met with a very extensive sale; the
portrait of the 'Marquis of Granby relieving a
sick Soldier,' from which there is a print; 'Virtue
rewarded,' and ' Profligacy punished,' two pictures
which are also engraved. In 1782 he exhibited
for the last time. The pictures then shown included
'The Benevolent Physician,' 'The Rapacious
Quack,' and ' The Distraint of the Widow's Cow.'
PENOZZI, B., is mentioned by Papillon as an
engraver on wood, but he has not specified any of
PENS. See PENCZ.
PENSABENE, Fra MARCO, and Fra MARCO
MARAVEIA, his assistant, both of the order of the
Dominicans at Venice, painted at Treviso in 1520
and 1521. The former was born at Venice about
1486, and entered his religious order in 1502. Lanzi,
enumerating the scholars, followers, and imitators
of Giovanni Bellini, mentions the altar-piece in
the Dominican church at Treviso, painted by
Marco Pensabene and his assistant, in which the
cupola, the columns, and the perspective, with the
throne of the Virgin seated with the infant Jesus,
and surrounded by saints standing, the steps orna-
mented with an angel playing on the guitar, are
all modelled on similar things by Bellini. Crowe
and Cavalcaselle conjecture that this altar-piece
may have been finished by Savoldo. In 1520
Pensabene began a painting of 'The Madonna
with Saints,' for San Niccol6, in Treviso, but for
some unknown reason fled secretly .from his con-
vent in 1521, before it was completed. It still,
however, evinces such merit that it has been
ascribed to Titian, Giorgione, and Sebastiano del
Piombo. In 1524 Pensabene was again a Dominican
friar in Venice, where he died in 1529. Two por-
traits by him are in the monastery at Treviso, and
a ' Madonna with Saints ' in possession of the C'onte
PENSEE, CHARLES FRANCOIS JOSEPH, French
painter and lithographer; born August 10, 1799,
at Epinal (Vosges). His drawings and paintings
of French and Swiss scenery gained him consider-
able reputation in Orleans, where he chose to
establish himself. Here he died, July 11, 1871.
PENSIERI, BATTISTA. See PARMENSIS.
PENTHER, DANIEL, Russian painter ; born at
Lemberg in 1837 ; studied at the Vienna Academy ;
also at Munich, Paris and Rome. In 1873 he was
appointed Court painter to the Grand Duke Michael
at Tiflis. He studied for a while with Lenbach.
He died at Vienna, February 11, 1887.
PENZEL, JOHANN GEOEG, a painter and en-
graver, was born at Hersbruck, near Nuremberg,
in 1764, according to Brulliot (Zani and Nagler
say in 1754), and died at Leipsic in 1809. He
commenced with Schellenberg at Winterthur, and
afterwards studied at Dresden, where he entirely
devoted himself to engraving. He worked much
for the publishers there, and engraved many of
PEPIJN, MARTIN, (PEPIN, or PEPYN,) was born
at Antwerp in 1575. It is not known under whom he
studied, but he went when young to Italy, where
he remained several years. Such was the reputation
he acquired at Rome, that when Rubens, who
was then in the zenith of his fame at Antwerp,
heard of Pepijn's intention to return to his native
country, it occasioned him some uneasiness. Pepijn
became a member of the Guild at Antwerp about
1600, and died in 1642 or 1643. In the church
of the hospital at Antwerp there are two ad-
mirable works by him ; they are both triptychs.
In the centre picture of one he has represented
the Baptism of St. Augustine ; on one of the
wings, that Saint giving alms to the poor ; on
the other, St. Augustine curing the Sick. The
centre picture of the other triptych represents
St. Elisabeth giving charity to a group of miserable
objects, who are struggling to approach her. OB
one of the wings is the death of that Saint, and on
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
the other her Ascension to heaven, with a choir of
angels. The Museum of the same city possesses a
' Preaching of St. Luke,' and ' The Passage of the
Red Sea' (1626), by him ; the Cathedral a 'St.
Norbert,' and the Arenberg Gallery at Brussels a
' Female Head.' Most of the works of Pepijn
are, however, in Italy. His daughter, KATHARINA
PEPIJN, also a painter, was born in 1619, and be-
came a member of the Guild in 1653.
PEQUEGNOT, AUGUSTE, French painter and
engraver; born Oct. 5, 1819, at Versailles ; became
a pupil of the elder Ciceri ; painted landscapes
and completed several remarkable engravings.
He died in Paris in 1878.
PEQDIGNOT, an obscure French landscape
painter of the 18th century. He is chiefly re-
membered as the friend of Girodet Trioson, with
whom he travelled.
PERAC. See DUP^RAC.
PERAIRE, PAUL EMMANUEL, French landscape
painter ; born in 1830 at Bordeaux ; a pupil of
Isabey and of Luminais ; since 1866 exhibited
regularly at the Salons, his subjects being mainly
suggested by the scenery of the environs of Paris.
His picture, ' Le Marais, environs de Corbeil '
(1890), was bought by the State, as also his large
canvas exhibited at the Salon in 1892, entitled
' Un coup de vent ; bles verse's.' Other pictures
by him are : lie de Croissy a Bougival ' (1866),
'La Saison Dore, bords de la Seine' (1882), and
'Couchee du Soleil, Ballancourt ' (1886). In 1880
he received a medal of the third class, and an
honourable mention at the Universal Exhibition
of 1889. He died in Paris, January 21, 1893.
PERANDA. See SANTO PERANDA.
PERCELLES (or PERCELLIS). See PARCELLES.
PERCY, SIDNEY RICHARD, was a son of
Edward Williams the landscape artist, who as-
sumed the name of Percy. He was born about
1821, and died at Sutton'in Surrey in 1886. He
was a clever landscape painter, and the founder of
the so-called School of Barnes. He constantly
exhibited at the Royal Academy and various other
Picture Exhibitions, and was a prolific painter,
contributing over 300 pictures to various Exhibi-
PERDANUS, ABRAHAM, a Dutch painter of still-
life, born at Haarlem in 1673. He was a pupil of
Brakenburg, and died at Maarsen in 1744.
PERE, ANT. VAN DE. See VANDEPERE.
PEREA, . A Spanish painter mentioned by
Espinosadelos Monterosamongthe artists employed
at Seville in the decoration of the funeral monument
of Philip IL Perhaps identical with Pereira (<?. v.).
PEREA, BLAS DE, was a Portuguese painter, who
settled in Castile about 1550. He was a friend of
the painter Francisco de Holanda.
PEREDA, ANTONIO, (or PEREA,) a Spanish his-
torical painter, was born at Valladolid in 1599.
He was a scholar of Pedro de las Cuevas, and gave
early proofs of his ability in art. After making
considerable progress in the school of Cuevas he
was placed by his patron, Don Francisco de Texada,
with Juan Bautista Crescenzi, Marquis de la Torre,
who had been a pupil of Pomerancio. At the age
of eighteen he produced and exhibited to the public
a picture of the ' Immaculate Conception,' in which
the Virgin appeared on a throne of clouds supported
by angels. The reputation he acquired by this per-
formance induced the 'Conde-Duque,' Olivarez, who
was then occupied in filling the palace of the Buen
Retiro with the works of the best Spanish painters,
to place Pereda among those of the highest rank.
He performed his part to the satisfaction of his
patron, and was munificently rewarded. Pereda's
works were much in request, and he exercised his
talent on a great variety of subjects. History,
social scenes, still-life, vases, tapestry, musical
instruments ; all were within the compass of his
versatile brush. He died at Madrid in 1669. His
works were formerly to be found in all the palaces
and churches of Madrid, Toledo, Alcala, Cuenca,
Valladolid, and in many private collections. At
present there are two in the Madrid Gallery, one of
which is a 'St. Jerome meditating on the last
Judgment ; ' in the church of San Tornas is a ' St.
Domingo and God the Father' (1640), and in the
Academy of San Fernando ' The Dream of Life ; '
in Marshal Soult's collection there was a 'Christ
asleep on the Cross,' with flowers and skulls about
Him; in the Esterhazy Gallery, at Pesth, there
is a ' St. Anthony and the Infant Christ ' (the
same subject is among the Suermondt pictures at
Berlin) ; a still-life subject (1621) is at St. Peters-
burg ; and three or four in the Gallery at Munich.
Formerly it was considered that no Spanish col-
lection was complete without an example of
PEREDA Y DUARTE, TOMAS DE, a Spanish
artist, who became a member of the Academy of
San Fernando in 1757. He died in 1770.
PEREGRINI DA CESENA, an Italian engraver
of the 15th century. Duchesne enumerates sixty-
six plates by his hand, which he calls nielli. More
recent critics, however, see in these not proofs of
goldsmith's work, but impressions from plates ex-
pressly engraved for printing. The facts in favour
of this view are, in the first place, the number of
these so-called nielli, and, secondly, the occurrence
of the artist's signature upon the prints with the
letters the right way. Peregrini's most important
plate is a ' Resurrection,' which is signed De Opus
Peregrini Ce'. The rest of the plates ascribed to
him are signed either P or O.P.D.C.
PEREIRA, VASCO, (PEREYRA, or PREIRA), was a
Portuguese painter, who resided at Seville, in great
credit, at the end of the 16th century. He was
employed in 1594 to repair the fine fresco of ' Christ
of the Criminals,' painted only thirty years pre-
viously by Luis de Vargas. He was one of tin'
artists employed in the cathedral of Seville in
1598, to prepare the magnificent decorations for
the funeral service of Philip II. He painted the
' Decollation of St. Paul ' for the convent of that
order, in competition with Mohedano and Vazquez.
He executed many other works which have ceased
to exist in Spain, though some are to be found in
Portugal. He was reckoned n skilful draughtsman.
but dry and hard as a colourist, as maybe noted in
the ' Four Doctors of the Church ' painted by him
for the library of the Carthusians of Santa Maria de
las Cuevas, and an 'Annunciation ' in the college of
San Hermenegildo. He died at the commencement
of the 17th century. The Dresden Gallery possesses
a ' St. Onofrius ' by him. In the case of the ' Cruci-
fixion ' in the Misericordia of Oporto, it is undecided
whether it was the work of Pereira, or of Vasco
Fernandez. The Museum of Seville possesses a
'Nativity' dated 1579.
PERELLE, GABRIEL, an eminent French de-
signer and engraver, was born at Vernon-sur-Seine
at the beginning of the 17th century, and died in
Paris in 1675. He was instructed by Daniel Rabel,
whom he soon surpassed. He excelled in drawing
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
and engraving landscapes and views, of which he
left a prodigious number. He usually enriched
them with ruins and other objects, which give an
agreeable variety to his scenery. Although by far
the greater part of his plates are from his own coin-
positions, lie also engraved from the designs of
several other masters, particularly Paul Bril, Gas-
par Poussin, Asselyn, and above all, Silvestre.
His best works are comprised in the two collections,
' Delices de Paris,' and ' Delices de Versailles.' He
was assisted in his numerous works by his sons,
NICOLAS and ADAM PERELLE, who, after his death,
engraved a great number of plates of architectural
views, landscapes, &c. , which are inferior to those
of their father. Nicolas is stated to have engraved
' The Four Seasons,' and 'The Four Elements,' and
to have died at Orleans ; Adam, to have been born
in 1638, and died in Paris in 1695. The Perelles
worked both with the point and the graver. Their
works from their own designs are multifarious, and
frequently to be met with. The following are the
principal plates they engraved after other artists :
A set of four Views, the Church of St. Michel at Dijon,
the Palace in that City, the Bridge of Grenoble, and
the Porte Royale at Marseilles ; after Silvestre.
Four Views in Paris, the Arsenal du Mail, the Pontneuf ,
the Louvre, the Mail, and surrounding country ; after
A set of four Views, the Baths of Bourbon d'Archam-
baud, the Castle of Bourbon Lancy, with the Baths
of Julius Caesar; and the great Chartreuse near Gre-
noble ; after the same.
Six Views of the Jardiu de Euel ; after Israel Silvestre.
Two Mountainous Landscapes, with biblical subjects ;
after P. Bril.
Six Views in Rome and its Environs ; after J. Asselyn.
A View of Ruins, with the Adoration of the Magi ;
PEREPJETTE, , executed a coarse etching
after Paolo Veronese, representing the Holy Family
accompanied by two angels.
PERET. See FERRET.
PEREYRA. See PEREIRA.
PEREZ, ANDRES, a Spanish historical and flower
painter, was born at Seville in 1660 ; and was
instructed by his father, Francisco Perez de Pineda
one of the members of the Society of Professors
who established the Academy in that city, and
who was himself a scholar of Murillo. In the
sanctuary of Santa Lucia, at Seville, there were
three Scriptural subjects relating to the holy sacra-
ment, signed Andres Perez, 1707 ; and in the
sacristy of the Capuchins of the same city another
with the date 1713, representing the ' Last Judg-
ment,' taken in part from that of Michelangelo.
Perez was, however, most successful in painting
flowers and other objects after nature. His his-
torical works show a great falling off from the
good rules Murillo had endeavoured to establish.
Andres Perez died in 1727.
PEREZ, ANTONIO, a Spanish historical painter,
born in a village of Andalusia. In 1548 he was
employed to paint chosen subjects for the old
sanctuary of Seville cathedral. In 1550 he finished
three pictures for the church of Nuestra Seiiora ;
in 1553 he painted the altar of San Ibo, and in 1555
restored that of the church of San Francisco. He
died about 1580. His son Antonio worked with him.
PEREZ, ANTONIO and NICOLAS, painters, were
two brothers living at Seville from 1654 to 1668,
who devoted considerable time and money to the
foundation of the Academy in that city.
PEREZ, BARTOLOME, was a Spanish painter, born
.it Madrid in 1634, and appointed painter to the
king in 1689. He was the scholar and son-in-law
of the flower-painter Arellano, whom he excelled
as a draughtsman, and sometimes assisted by paint-
iug the figures in his works. He was particularly
successful in rendering curtains and drapery, on
which he was much employed for the theatre at
Buen Retire. His flower-pieces too were much
esteemed. He died in 1693 from a fall from some
scaffolding whilst painting a ceiling in the palace
of the Duke of Monteleon. He painted a 'St.
Rosa of Lima,' a ' Virgin praying to the Child,'