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and many flower paintings, of which there are
four ; good examples in the Madrid Museum.

PEREZ, FLORIAN JUAN, a Spanish nobleman, and
amateur painter of genre subjects, was born in
the neighbourhood of Madrid in the first half of
the 16th century. He was a knight of a religious
order ; in 1566 was appointed valet to Philip II.
He died at the commencement of the 17th century.

PEREZ, JOAQDIN, a Spanish historical painter,
was born at Alcoy. In 1773 he gained the prize
from the Academy of San Carlos at Valencia. He
died in 1779.


Spanish painter, born at Madrid about 1810. He
studied at the Madrid Academy, and painted land-
scape, genre, and notably architectural interiors
with figures. His best known picture is an ' Interior
of Seville Cathedral on Corpus Christ! Day.' He
published a work on Spanish Architecture, illus-
trated by lithographs. He died at Madrid in 1853.

of Murillo. His son, who bore the same name,
went at his father's death to the school of Luca de
Valde's, and died at Seville in 1732. Bermudez
says that his pictures were as bad as the doggerel
verse in which he wrote the life of Fernando de

PERFETTI, ANTONIO, an engraver, was born at
Florence in 1792, and from 1818 onwards was a pupil
of Rafael Morghen. In 1828 he obtained the prize
at the Florence Academy with his ' Sibyl of Cumae,'
after Guercino, but obtained wider renown through
his ' Presentation in the Temple,' after Fra Barto-
lommeo. He and his pupils completed the engraved
collection of the Gallery of Florence. He died in
that city in 1872. Other plates by him are:

The Madonnas ' della Sedia ' and ' del Grauduca ' ; after


Birth of the Virgin ; after Andrea del Sarto.
Portrait of Dante ; after Giotto.

PERGER, ANTON VON, German painter; born
December 20, 1809, at Vienna ; was first taught
by his father and afterwards at the Vienna Academy.
He then travelled in Italy, becoming Professor at
the Vienna Academy in 1845. He painted land-
scapes and genre scenes. He had also considerable
literary talent. He died at Vienna, April 14,

painter and engraver, was born at Vienna in 1778,
and studied at the Academy there. In 1816 he be-
came Court painter, and in 1825 assistant custodian
of the Belvedere Gallery. He died in the same
city in 1841. As a painter on porcelain he showed
himself especially skilful, working eleven years at'
the Imperial factory. Among his works we may
name :

Horse-race at Kopcsan (aftericanls enyrared by himself).

The Herald bringing the News of the Victory of Mara-
thon to Athens.


The Kape of Ganymede.

Komulus and Kemus with the She-wolf. (Etching.)

and etcher, was born at Siena about 1600, and after
receiving some instruction from bis uncle Fran-
cesco, an ecclesiastic and calligraphist, completed
his studies in Rome and Venice. He subsequently
visited Constantinople, Egypt, Malta, Sicily, and
Spain, where Philip III. appointed him drawing-
master to the prince, his son. He next went to
Holland, and was similarly employed on behalf of
the Princess Louise ; then to England, where he
painted Charles I. ; and finally returned to his own
country, where he entered the service of the Grand
Duke of Tuscany. He died after 1660. He pro-
duced numerous pen-and-ink drawings, several of
which he etched. Two plates by him after Vanni
represent a ' King writing,' and a ' Warrior on

PERIER, FRANCOIS, an obscure French painter
and engraver, who died about 1655. He was a
native of Saint-Jean-de-Laure. He was a member
of the maitrise.

PERIGAL, ARTHUR (Senior), an English his-
torical and portrait painter who gained the Royal
Academy Gold Medal in 1811 for his 'Themistocles
taking refuge with Admetus.' In early life Mr.
Perigal was in the Admiralty, where several of
his relatives have held appointments at various
times, but he resigned his post in order to devote
himself to Art. A fine example of his work is a
large canvas representing a scene from ' The
Talisman,' where Queen Berengaria and Edith
Plantagenet intercede with King Richard for the
life of the Knight of the Leopard. This picture is
now in the possession of his daughter-in-law
Mrs. Perigal, of 7 Oxford Terrace, Edinburgh.
Other examples of his work are ' Lo, at the
Couch where Infant Beauty Sleeps,' and 'The
Finding of Moses.' He also painted many portraits,
including a very fine one of his son Arthur
Perigal, R.S.A. now in 7 Oxford Terrace, Edin-
burgh. Mr. Perigal lived in London, Northampton,
and Manchester, and finally settled at Edinburgh,
where he died in 1847. A. O'R.

PERIGAL, ARTHUR, R.S.A., son of the above,
was born in London in 1816. He was a landscape
painter of considerable repute, his forte being
Highland scenery, but he also painted many Italian
and Norwegian scenes. He spent many winters in
Italy. A fine specimen of his work in that country
is a large oil-painting, ' The Grand Canal, Venice,'
which can hold its own among the many repre-
sentations of that famous waterway, and which
elicited the warm praise of his friend, T. Faed, R.A.
This fine picture is now in the possession of his
widow at 7 Oxford Terrace, Edinburgh. Another
large picture, 'Pompeii with Vesuvius in Eruption,'
was painted on the spot during the eruption
of 1872. This is now the property of his son-in-
law, Lt.-Col. J. O'Reilly, A.M.S., Belhaven, Guild-
ford. Mr. Perigal painted an immense number
of pictures of Highland scenery, a great many of
which are to be found in private collections in
Scotland. The large oil-painting, 'The Borderland,'
now in the possession of his widow was speci-
ally asked for, and hung in a conspicuous position
in the Glasgow Exhibition of 1889. A fine oil-
painting, 'Glen Nevis,' occupied a prominent
position in the Glasgow Exhibition of 1901, and
attracted much attention. It was lent by its
owner, L. Platt, Esq., Stirling. The fine picture,

' Romsdal' (Norway), was bought for a large sum
by the Academy of Fine Arts. Some others of
Mr. Perigal's many works are :

Molde (Norway).

Early Summer in Lowlands. (Bought by Academy of

Fine Arts.)
Loch Lee Glen Esk. (In the Collection of the Earl of

Spittal Sands and Eocks. (Exhibited in Royal Academy

and bmiyht bi/ Mr. Samuel Morlty, M.P.)
Dunrobin Castle.
On the Jed.
An Evening in Skye.
Loch Tromlie.
Moor near Kiulochewe, Rosshire. (Scottish National


The Matterhorn by Moonlight.
Loch Corruisk (Isle of Skye).

The two last-named pictures are now in the
possession of his son, Dr. Perigal, New Barnet.

In the house where Mr. Perigal lived and
worked (No. 7 Oxford Terrace, Edinburgh) there
are a great number of his paintings in oils and
water-colours, and many hundreds of his works
were dispersed by sale after his death. Mr. Perigal
was a regular exhibitor in the Scottish National
Academy, Edinburgh, and an occasional contributor
to the Royal Academy and the British Institution
from 1861 to 1876. He was elected an Associate
of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1841, an
Academician in 1868, and Treasurer in 1880. At
a later period many people hoped and expected
that he would have been elected President. Mr.
Perigal died somewhat suddenly in 1884, and is
buried in the Dean Cemetery, Edinburgh. A. O'E,

PERIGNON, ALEXIS JOSEPH, a French portrait
aud genre painter, born in Paris in 1806. He was
the son of A. N. Perignon, under whom, and Gros,
he studied. His works were awarded medals in
1836, 1838, and 1844, and he obtained the Legion
of Honour in 1850, becoming an officer of the order
in 1870. His latter years were spent at Dijon as
Director of the Academy there. He died in 1882.
Amongst his works are :


Museum. Portrait of Admiral Leray.
Museum. St. Cecilia.

PERIGNON, ALEXIS NICOLAS, the elder, a French
painter and engraver, also an architect and notary,
,vas born at Nancy in 1725. He travelled in Italy
and Switzerland, and died in Paris in 1782. He
painted landscapes in oil, and flowers in gouache ;
and has etched 43 plates from his own landscapes.

French painter of portraits, genre, and historical
subjects, was born in Paris in 1785. He was a
pupil of Girodet, and exhibited at the Salon from
1814 to 1850, obtaining a second class medal in
1824. He died in 1864. At Versailles there are
by him :

Davoust in 1792.

The Duke of Orleans and the Duke of Chartres.

Perignon's daughter, CAROLINE LODISE EMMA,
Mme. DEBAY, also won some repute as a painter.

PERIN, ALPHONSE HENRI, French painter, born
in Paris, March 12,1798; became a pupil of Guerin
at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. In 1827 he went to
Rome and made the acquaintance of Orsel. De-
corations by him are in Notre Dame, Paris ; lie
also painted portraits, landscapes and genre scenes.
His engraving of Madame Recamier is also re-



markable. In 1827 he obtained a second-class
medal, and the Legion of Honour in 1854. He
died in Paris in January 1875.

PERIN-SALBREUX, LIE Louis, a French minia-
ture painter, born at Rheims in 1753. He came to
Paris at the age of twenty-five, and took lessons
from an Italian painter called Sicardi. On the
outbreak of the Revolution he retired to Rheims,
where he died in 1817.

PERINI, GIUSEPPE SFOBZA, an Italian engraver,
was born at Rome about the year 1748, and was stili
living in 1795. He executed some of the plates
for the ' Scuola Italiana ' of Gavin Hamilton, and
engraved some of the statues in the Clementine
Gallery. The following, among others, are by
him :

The Frontispiece to the ' Scuola Italiaua,' with two figures

by Michetanyelo.

Jupiter and Antiope ; after Jacopo Pahna
Charity ; after Bartolommeo Schedone.
Christ bearing his Cross ; after Lanfranco.

PERINI, LODOVICO, an indifferent Italian en-
graver, has left some prints executed with the
graver, among which is one representing two men
playing at cards, and a woman overlooking them.


PERIS, HENRI, a Flemish landscape painter.
He was appointed Dean of the Corporation of St.
Luke at Antwerp in 1662. In the church of the
Augustins at Antwerp are two landscapes by him.
He died in 1670.



PERKINS, CHARLES C., an American painter,
draughtsman, and writer on art. He was born at
Boston in 1823. He studied painting under Ary
Scheffer, and etching under Bracquemond and
Lalanne, but most of his life was devoted to the
study of art history and to its teaching. In 1876
he was appointed honorary director of the Museum
of Fine Arts at Boston. In 1864 he published
' Tuscan Sculptors,' in two volumes ; in 1867,
' Italian Sculptors,' in one volume, and in 1878,
'Raphael and Michael Angelo.' The plates in
these books were etched by himself, mostly from
his own designs. He died in 1886.

PERLA, FRANCESCO, the reputed author of two
frescoes in the Cathedral of Mantua, dating from
the 16th century.

PERNA, PIETRO, according to Strutt, was an
engraver on wood, to whom some prints marked
P. P. are usually attributed. He lived to the latter
end of the 16th century.

FERNET, , is mentioned by Strutt as an

engraver who lived about the year 1620, and
executed a few indifferent portraits.

PERNICHARO, PABLO, a native of Zaragoza,
studied with Hovasse at Madrid. Philip V. granted
him a pension to enable him to study in Rome,
where he was elected to the Academy of St. Luke.
On his return he became painter-in-ordinary to the
king, and Director of the Academy of San Fer-
nando from 1753 till his death in 1760. He furnished
various sacred compositions to the palace, the
Academy, the church of San Isidro, and the
hospital of Monserrate, also a copy of Raphael's
' Assembly of the Gods ' to the palace of San


Wassy (Haute Marne) in 1793. He was a pupil

of Victor Bertin and Hersent. He travelled from

1818 to 1828, through Switzerland, the Vosges, the


Rhine Provinces, Belgium, England, and Scotland.
He worked to some small extent as a sculptor
also. He died in 1865. Among his pictures we
may name :

Eighty sketches of old Paris.

A series of picturesque Views in Scotland.

The Trenches of Vincennes. (J'ersailles Gallery.)

Marius in Carthage.

Tell's Chapel.

Ruins of the Chateau de Pierrefonds.

painter; born December 1833 at Tobolsk (Siberia).
He was the natural son of Baron Krudener, and
received the name of Peroff for his ability in writing
(pero signifying pen). He studied with Stupin at
Arsamass, and with Wassiliew at Moscow, and in
Paris. It was at Moscow that he settled, where he
became a professor. He began as one of Russia's
most realistic painters by his canvas ' Arrival of
the Police Officer,' exhibited in 1858, which gained
him the silver medal of the Petersburg Academy.
This was followed by a series of pictures depicting
tragic events in domestic life in some remote vil-
lages of the Caucasus. He was successful in
light genre subjects too ; and his fertility may be
imagined when we know that he signed upwards
of 200 oil-paintings. His health, and, in fact, his
mental powers, at last gave way, which put a
sudden stop to his career as an artist. He died at
Moscow, May 22, 1882.

painters, sculptors, and architects, were three
brothers, natives of Almagro, in La Mancha, who
are supposed to have studied in the school of,
Becerra. In 1586 they were employed by the
Marquis of Santa Cruz, with Cesare Arbasia, an
Italian, to paint in fresco the staircase, halls, and
court of his palace at El Viso. In the adjacent
conventual church of the Franciscans were some
oil pictures and various marble tombs attributed to
the Perolas; they also assisted Mohedano in paint-
ing frescoes for Cordova cathedral.


PERON, Louis ALEXANDRE, a French historical
painter, was born in Paris in 1776. He was a
pupil of David, and among his works are ' The
Capture of Toulon ' and ' The Murder of the Inno-

PERONI, GIUSEPPE, according to Abate Affo,
was born at Parma about the year 1700. He first
studied at Bologna, under Felice Torelli and Do-
nato Creti, and afterwards went to Rome, where he
became a scholar of Agostino Masucci. He was a
tolerably correct designer, and, in his best perform-
ances, imitates the style of Carlo Maratti. Such
are his pictures in the church of San Satire, at
Milan ; and the ' Conception,' at the Padri dell'
Oratorio, at Turin. In competition with Pompeo
Batoni, he painted in fresco for the church of Sant'
Antonio Abate, ' The Crucifixion,' which places him
among the most respectable artists of his time.
He died in 1776-

PEROTTI, PIETRO ANTONIO, portrait painter,
was born at Verona in 1712, and died there in
1793. He was a pupil of Balestra, and painted
pastel portraits at Venice, Rome, and London.
He married ANGELICA LEGRU (born 1719, died
1776), who executed works of a similar class.

PEROU, ANTOINE, an obscure painter, who was
appointed concierge to the Academic in Paris, in
the time of Louis Testelin, whose pupil he had been.



wigsburg in 1771, and after studying at Stuttgart,
became the first teacher of Overbeck, and came in
1806 to Frankfort, where he died in 1849. He
painted portraits in oil and miniature, an allegor-
ical Reformation picture, and a ' Christ as the
Children's Friend ' (now in the City Collection at

PEROXINO, GIOVANNI, a painter who was active
at Alba, in Piedmont, in the year 1517. He
painted an altar-piece for the conventuali, in that

PERRACINI, GIUSEPPE, an historical painter,
called II Mirandolese. He was born in 1672, and
died in 1754. His talent was very slight, and he
should not be confounded with Pietro Paltronieri,
who was also called II Mirandolese.

PE RRANDEAU, CHARLES, French painter ; born
1865 at Sully-sur-Loire (Loiret) ; was a pupil of
Cabanel ; made his d^but at the Salon in 1880
with ' Extase' ; obtained an honourable mention in
1881 for ' Mort de Jesus ' and 'La Veuve ' ; also a
third-class medal in 1886 for 'Misere'; and a
silver medal at the Universal Exhibition of 1889 ;
painted genre pictures, and landscapes melancholy
in feeling and masterly in execution. He died
June 20, 1903. p.p.


court painter to Charles VIII., Louis XII., and
Francis I., from 1483 to 1528, and produced numer-
ous pictures of battles and sieges. His father,
CLAUDE DE PERREAL, painter and poet, in whose
honour Clement Marsh wrote some verses, was
valet to Louis XI. in 1474. Jean's name occurs for
the first time in 1483, as that of a valet-de-chambre
to Charlotte, the wife of Louis XI. He followed
the French army into Italy, and was commissioned
to paint some of its feats. Jean was employed by
the municipality of Lyons in 1489 and 1493 to
organize the fetes given by the town in honour
of the visit of Charles VIII. In 1496 he was the
first to sign the act of incorporation of the Lyons
artists. He was the friend and protector of the
poet, Jean Lemaire, whom he presented to Anne of
Brittany. After Anne's death Perreal was charged
to paint her portrait, which he did, from the corpse.
The miniatures in a manuscript relating to the
Queen's obsequies are also ascribed to him. Per-
real, who was en engineer and architect as well as
a painter, died in 1528 or 1529.

FERRET, MARIUS, French painter; born at
Moulins (Allier) ; studied under Cabanel ; for several
years exhibited regularly at the Salon ; gained an
honourable mention at the Exhibition of 1889 ; at
the Salon of 1890 won the Prix Raizecourt-Goyon ;
a medal in 1892 ; and a second-class medal in
1897. His later work dealt entirely with scenes of
Indo-China, to which he gave great vivacity and
colour. His Algerian picture, ' Douar d'Ouled
Nayli,' gained a silver medal. He died at Java in
September 1900.

gruver, was born about 1550 : it is uncertain
whether he was a native of France or of the Low
Countries. He studied at Rome under Cornelis
Cort, and was engraver to the Duke of Bavaria
and the Elector of Cologne. In 1589 he settled at
Antwerp, where he engraved some views of the
monastery of San Lorenzo in the Escurial, from
drawings by Juan de Herrera, which gave so
much satisfaction to Philip II. that he invited him
to Spain, and appointed him his engraver ; an


office which he retained under Philip III. and IV.
He was called to Madrid in 1595, and resided there
till his death in 1637. His chief performance was
a set of portraits of the Kings of Portugal, pub-
lished in 1603, which he inscribed Pedro Ferret
sculptor Regis fecit. He also engraved several
plates of historical subjects, among which are:

The Woman taken in Adultery ; after Brueghel.

The Chastity of Joseph ; after Speeckaert.

Four subjects from the Life of Ignatius Loyola, with
his portrait.

was a French painter and engraver, who was born
either at Saint Jean de Losne or at Macon, in Bur-
gundy, about the year 1584. He was the son of a
goldsmith, who had him instructed in the elements
of design ; but as he opposed his desire of becoming
a painter, the young Perrier secretly left his home,
and, without the means of subsistence, associated
himself with a blind mendicant, who was on his
way to Italy, and by this means arrived at Rome.
He accidentally became acquainted with Lanfranco,
who encouraged him in his pursuit, and admitted
him into his school. After a residence of several
years at Rome, he returned in 1630 to France, and
passed some time at Lyons, where he painted a
set of pictures for the cloister of the Carthusians.
He then visited Paris, where Simon Vouet, who
was then in possession of every commission of
importance, employed him in painting the chapel
of the chateau of Chilly, from his design. Finding
little employment in Paris, he returned to Rome in
1635, where he applied himself to engraving the
principal antique statues and bas-reliefs, and exe-
cuted several plates after the Italian masters, as
well as from his own designs. After the death of
Simon Vouet, he returned to Paris in 1645, when
he was employed to paint the gallery of the Hotel
de la Vrilliere, and was one of the twelve professors
who in 1648 founded the Academy. He died in
Paris in 1650. Some of his best paintings are the
frescoes in the above hotel, and his pictures of
'Apollo in the Chariot of the Sun,' 'The Tempta-
tion of St. Anthony,' and ' Acis and Galatea ' this
last in the Louvre. We have by him also a con-
siderable number of etchings, from his own designs,
and after other masters. He sometimes signed his
name Paria. The following are his principal
plates :

A set of one hundred prints from antique statues,
published at Home.

A set of fifty, from ancient bas-reliefs.

Ten plates of Angels from the Faruesiua ; after Raphael.

Two plates of the Assembly of the Gods, aud the Mar-
riage of Cupid and Psyche ; after the paintings by
Raphael, in the Farnesina.

The Communion of St. Jerome ; after Agost. Carracci.

The Flight into Egypt ; after the same.

The Nativity ; after S. Vouet.

The portrait of Simon Vouet ; F. Perrier fecit. 1632.


The Holy Family, with St. John playing with a Lamb.

The Crucifixion ; inscribed Franciscus Perrier, Bur-
yutidius, pinx. et scul.

St. Roch curing the Plague-stricken.

The Body of St. Sebastian, supported by two Saints.

Venus and the Graces.

Time clipping the Wings of Love, engraved in chiar-

PERRIER, GUILLAUME, born at Macon about
1600, was the nephew and scholar of Fran9ois
Perrier, whose style he followed. Of his works as
a painter the most considerable are his pictures in



the sacristy of the Minimes at Lyons, where he
took refuge, having killed a man in a duel. We
have by this artist several etchings, executed in
the style of his uncle. He died in 1655. Among
his best plates we may name :

A Holy Family.

The Death of the Magdalene.

Portrait of Lazarus Meysonnier.

An allegorical subject.

PERRIN, EMILE, French painter, born at Rouen
in 1810; became a pupil of Delaroche and of
Gros. In later life he became Director of the Paris
Academy of Music, and also of the Paris Opera
Comique. His pictures include ' Malfilatre mourant '
(in the Caen Museum), ' Mort de Saint Meinrad,'
and ' Louis XIV. au Chateau de Cre'cy.' He died
September 15, 1884.

PERRIN, JEAN, was an obscure engraver on
wood, who, conjointly with Jean Munier, executed
a set of cuts for a work entitled ' La Morosophie
de Guillaume de la Perriere Tolsain, contenant cent
Emblemes,' published in 1553.

torical painter, was born in Paris in 1754. He was
a pupil of Doyen and Durameau. In 1787 he was
elected a member of the Academy of Painting.
Among his works are, ' Venus healing the Wound
of jEneas,' ' The Sacrifice of Cyanippus,' and an
1 Assumption.' He died in 1831.

born at Rostrenen in 1761. He first studied at the
Academy of Rennes, but afterwards, through the
kindness of the Duke of Charost, he entered the
studio of Doyen. He then worked with the en-
graver Massard, after which he went on two or
three campaigns. He then obtained a Government
post at Quimper, and painted several pictures illus-
trating Breton life. He died at Quimper in 1832.

PERRIN, THOMAS, a miniaturist, who flourished
at Dijon about 1400. He worked for the Duke of

was an old French engraver, who flourished about
the year 1570. In conjunction with J. Tortorel,
he designed and engraved, partly on wood and
partly on copper, a set of twenty-four large prints,
representing subjects from the Huguenot war, 1559
to 1570. His copper-plates are etched in a coarse,
incorrect style ; the woodcuts are executed with
more attention. He sometimes signed his prints
J. Perrissim fecit, or J. Persinus fecit, and some-
times marked them with the monogram ]3. Zani

thinks that he was a German by birth, an opinion
in which Nagler seems to concur. The latter says
he was born in 1530, and quotes the work referred

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