to as being published in 1567 and 1574. Brulliot
has given his monogram thus fp which agrees with
Nagler, who calls him (7. Jakob. When he en-
graved conjointly with Tortorel the monogram is
See also TORTOREL.
PERRONEAU, JEAN BAPTISTS, a French en-
graver, was born in 1731, and died in 1796. He
was instructed by L. Cars. He engraved also after
Boucher, Van Loo, and Bouchardon. He was a
painter in crayons, and was for a short time in
England, where he exhibited some portraits in that
medium. Among other prints, he has left two of
the elements, ' Air ' and ' Earth,' after Natoire ;
the companions, ' Fire ' and ' Water,' are engraved
by P. Aveline. Perroneau is said by Siret to have
died at Amsterdam in 1783.
PERROT, ANTOINE MARIE, a French landscape
and architectural painter, born in Paris in 1787.
He was a pupil of Watelet and Michallon. Among
his landscapes are views of Clisson and Messina.
PERROT, CATHERINE, a French miniature, flower,
and animal painter, who flourished in the 17th
century. She was a pupil of Nicolas Robert, and
was received into the Academy in 1682. She
published some works on painting in miniature.
She married one Claude Horry, a notary.
PERROT, FERDINAND VICTOR, a French painter,
born at Paimboeuf in 1808. At the age of nineteen
he painted for the small church of Ploudaniel an
' Assumption,' which attracted a great deal of at-
tention. He then went to Paris to study, and there
executed for M. Gudin a large number of litho-
graphs. He painted several sea-pieces, and in
1836 went to Italy, where he produced a picture of
' Susannah and the Elders ' which made some sens-
ation. In 1840 he went to St. Petersburg, and
was just about to be admitted into the Academy,
when, yielding to the severity of the climate, he
died in 1841.
PERRY, FRANCIS, an English engraver, was born
at Abingdon in Berkshire, and was a pupil of one
of the Vanderbanks. He was for some time under
Richardson, but made little progress as a painter.
He afterwards set up as an engraver, and for
some time worked for the magazines. He died in
London in 1765. His best plates are coins and
medals, which he copied with neatness and pre-
cision. He also engraved some portraits, among
which we have the following :
Dr. Ducarrel, affixed to his Anglo-Norman Antiquities.
Matthew Hutton, -Bishop of Durham.
Alexander Pope, Poet.
He also etched a series of drawings, by himself,
of Lichfield Cathedral.
PERSECOUTER (or PERSECOTEUR). See SER-
PERSEUS, an ancient Greek painter, who flour-
ished more than three hundred years before Christ.
He was a disciple of Apelles, and though greatly
inferior to his master, he may be presumed to have
possessed considerable talents, as he was favoured
with the particular esteem of that painter, who
addressed a treatise on art to him.
PERSEUS, EDVARD, Swedish painter ; born
December 23, 1841, at Lund; became a pupil of the
local Academy ; studied at Diisseldorf, and subse-
quently under Piloty at Munich. Travelled in Italy
in 1872, and then returned to his native city in
1875; painted historical subjects, such as 'Katherine
Mansclotter and Erich XIV.,' ' Judith,' and also
portraits. He died at Stockholm, October 8, 1890.
PERSEVAL, , a French portrait painter, born
at Chamery in 1745. He was a Professor of Draw-
ing at the Royal College of Pont-le-Voy. In the
Museum at Rheims there is an old woman's portrait
by him. He died in 1837.
PERS1JN, RENIER DE, (PERSEYN, PERZTN, &c.,)
called NARCISSUS, was a painter and engraver, born
at Amsterdam about the year 1600. He went to
Rome, where, in conjunction with Cornelis Bloe-
maert, Theodor Matham, and M. Natalia, he en-
graved the statues in the Palazzo Giustiniani. He
married the daughter of the glass-painter, Theodor
Crabeth, who brought him a fortune which enabled
him to drop the profession. He worked with the
'JEAN BAPTISTE PERRONNEAU
LA JEUNE FILLE AU CHAT
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
burin in a neat, clear style. We have also the
following plates by him :
The Portrait of Ariosto ; after Titian.
Baldassare, Count Castiglione ; after Raphael.
S. Coster, Physician ; after Sandrart.
Admiral Meppel ; after Pierson.
Old Age ; after Rubtns.
PERSINUS. See PEKRISSIM.
PERSON, NICOLADS, a German engraver, flour-
ished about the year 1700. He executed a set of
indifferent prints after portraits of German Arch-
bishops ; these were published in 1696.
PERSYN, JAN, a Dutch portrait painter, born at
The Hague in 1708. He was a pupil of Constantine
Netscher. He afterwards entered the Artillery,
and became an engineer in the service of the Dutch
PERTUS, RAPHAEL, a Spanish painter of history
and landscape, who flourished at Saragossa about
1680. His landscapes were graceful in composition
and pleasant in colour.
PERUCCI, ORAZIO, an Italian historical painter,
born at Reggio in 1548. He was a pupil of Lelio
Orsi, and was also an architect. In the church of
S. Giovanni in Reggio there is a picture of S.
Albert by him. He died in 1624. His son
FRANCESCO was also an artist.
PERUGIA, BERNARDINO DA, was a painter living
in Perugia in the early part of the 16th century,
who has been often confounded with Pinturicchio.
He established himself in San Severino in 1509,
and in 1524 he painted an altar-piece, row in San
Domenico of that city, representing a ' Virgin and
Child, with four Saints.' Several paintings ascribed
to him are to be seen in Perugia. In London,
at Dudley House, is ' A Virgin holding a bird by
a string, with the Child in her grasp.' At the
Louvre, a ' Crucifixion,' with numerous figures, is
generally attributed to him.
PERUGIA, MARIANO DA, or MARIANO DI DER
EDSTERIO DA, an obscure scholar of Perugino, to
whom Vasari refers as the author of a picture ' of
slight interest ' inS. Agostino, at Ancona. Mariotti,
however, ascribes to him a better work in S. Do-
menico, at Perugia.
PERUGINI, a landscape painter of Milan, to
whose pictures figures were added by Alessandro
PERUGINO, ALOISI (or LDIGI). See SCARAMDCCIA.
PERUGINO, DOMENICO, an obscure painter, who
died in Rome about 1590, aged 70 years. He is
supposed to have been also the engraver mentioned
by Vasari as the author of certain excellent plates
after Roman antiques (see vol. v. p. 431 [Milanesi])
PERUGINO, IL. See SANTI, PIETRO.
PERUGINO, IL CAVALIERE. See CERRIKI.
PERUGINO, PAOLO. See GISMONDI.
PEKUGINO, PETRUCCIO. See MONTANINI.
PERUGINO, PIETRO. See VANUCCI.
PERUGINO, POLIDORO, a goldsmith, who was
living about 1550 at Perugia, and who may have
also engraved. It has been suggested that he may
be the Perugino alluded to by Vasari in the life of
Marc-Antonio (vol. v. p. 431 [MUanesiJ).
PERUZZI, BALDASSARE, in spite of Vasari's
elaborate arguments to the contrary, was, it has
been incontestably proved, a native of Siena, and
">K)t in any way related to the noble Florentine
family of the same name. His father's name was
not Antonio, but Giovanni di SalveBtro di Salva-
dore, a weaver from Volterra, who settled at Siena,
where, in 1481, Baldassare was born. He appears
to have been originally a pupil of Giacomo
Pacchiarotti, but came also markedly under the in-
fluence, first of Pinturicchio, and then of Sodoma:
and, although other influences subsequently inter-
vened, his work to the end abounds in traces of
the manner of both these earlier masters. In the
field of architecture, however, his individuality
had full scope for development, in which art few
before or since have excelled, or equalled him. No
trace can now be found of the chapel at Volterra
decorated by him, of which Vasari makes mention,
but documentary evidence proves that in 1501 he
was employed on certain paintings for the chapel of
S. Giovanni in the Cathedral at Siena. About 1503
he left his home for the Eternal City, and among his
earliest works there are the frescoes in the principal
chapel at S. Onofrio. In spite of traditionary ascrip-
tion of the more important part of these frescoes to
Pinturicchio, Signor Cavalcaselle has been able to
prove that the whole of the chapel is really the
work of the young Peruzzi. Two other works,
probably of about the same date and also exhibit-
ing the same affinities with the style of Pinturicchio,
are to be found in the Museum at Madrid : ' The
Rape of the Sabines' and the 'Continence of Scipio';
wliilst an interesting fragment of fresco represent-
ing the ' Three Graces ' in the Palazzo Chigi at
Rome recalls the celebrated marble group in the
Cathedral Library of his native city. In this latter
work the graceful pose and charming smile of the
three beautiful heads betray the influence of
Sodoma, as also does the peculiar treatment of the
tree-trunks and foliage in the background. Of the
two small chapels in the Church of S. Rocco a
Ripetta mentioned by Vasari, one is totally de-
stroyed, and the other so injured by restoration as
to leave little or no trace of the original work.
Signor Cavalcaselle, however, discovered some
much more important evidences of his talent,
overlooked by Vasari, in the ' Stanza dell'Eliodoro '
in the Vatican work spared by Raphael from the
general destruction of his predecessor's labours in
those apartments. It is even suggested by Signor
Morelli that the portrait introduced into the fresco
of the ' Expulsion of Heliodorus,' generally sup-
posed to be a likeness of " Giulio Romano," is
really one of "Baldassare Peruzzi." In two of
the saloons of the Capitol are certain large
frescoes representing scenes from Roman history,
at present labelled ' Bonfigli,' but attributed at
different times to very varied authors which, in
spite of much destructive restoration, are clearly
the work of Penizzi. Here the influences of both
Pinturicchio and Sodoma are very marked, though
the taste of the artist himself for architectural
effects is also strongly apparent. It was at about
this period (1505-6) that he appears to have been
particularly attracted to this latter art, and, through
the influence of the wealthy Agostino Chigi, his
fellow-citizen, to have obtained much employment
at the Vatican from Pope Julius IL, in which he
even rivalled Bramante. To the year 1508-'J
belongs a fine work by him in mosaic, still existing
in the crypt of the Church of S. Croce in Gierusa-
lemrae ; but the most important works, both pictorial
and architectural, belonging to this period, were
those carried out by him for Agostino Chigi at the
celebrated Villa Farnesina in the Trastevere, the
entire plan of which villa tradition has till recently
assigned to Pernzzi. Whether this be so or not, he
undoubtedly executed important external decora-
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
tions, which have unfortunately perished. Those,
however, in the interior which still survive, though
from their situation placed in strong contrast with
masterpieces by his most celebrated contemporaries,
hold their own for graceful design and imagination,
and greatly redound to his credit. Throughout all
his later paintings the influences of the two greatest
masters of the time, Raphael and Michelangelo,
may be observed striving with his earlier Sodom-
esijue impressions, blended nevertheless by a talent
distinctly individual to himself. These tendencies
may again be noticed in the charming frescoes
painted by him in the Capella Ponzetti of the
Church of the Madonna della Pace. In 1522 he
was invited to Bologna, where he made designs
for the Church of S. Petronio, and also executed
certain works for Count Giovanni Battista Benti-
voglio. Among these last was a cartoon for the
' Adoration of the Magi,' subsequently copied by
Girolamo da Treviso, and engraved by Agostino
Carracci. This cartoon is now in the National
Gallery in London. In 1520 he had been ap-
pointed by Leo X. architect of St. Peter's, but in
1527, at the Sack of Rome, after suffering great
hardships and being plundered of all his posses-
sions, he escaped to Siena, where he was warmly
welcomed, appointed City Architect, and consulted
on a vast variety of sudjects, artistic and military.
To him is due the removal of the high altar and
choir of the Duomo from under the cupola to its
present position. During this time he decorated the
chapel and certain ceilings at the Villa Belcaro
outside the city. These frescoes, after cruel injury
and neglect, have been carefully restored, but, alas !
show little trace now of their original merit. The
Palazzo Pollini, formerly "del Celsi,"is a fine speci-
men of his architectural skill, of which examples
abound in his native city, aud it contains three
much-injured ceiling-paiutings by him. He also
painted the striking, but by no means faultless,
' Sibyl foretelling the Advent of Christ to the Em-
peror Augustus,' in the Church of the Fontegiusta.
In March 1535 he returned to Rome to continue
work at St. Peter's, but died not, according to
Yasari, without suspicion of poison on the 7th of
January, 1536, and was buried in the Pantheon
beside Raphael. As an architect he takes rank
among the greatest, and is scarcely surpassed by
any, but as a painter, although he had much
imagination, grace, and skill in draughtsmanship,
his work shows rather too much trace of the pre-
vailing influences with which he successively came
in contact, and scarcely excite enthusiasm. His
taste for decorative ornament was fine, and full of
charming and fanciful conceits. His principal
existing works with pencil and brush are as
Berlin. Magazine, 98. Annunciation. E. (?).
< Uriusi. DUQHIO, Sacristy. Madonna and Saints.
Dresden. Galleri/, 99. Adoration of the Magi.
London. fiat. Gallery. Adoration of the Magi.
BriJgev-ater J Adoration of the Magi .
Mr. Mond. Portrait of Alberti Pio da
Rape of Sabines. E.
Continence of Scipio. E.
Bust of young Man.
Dido and JEneas.
Bust of young Man.
Portrait of " Bindo Altoviti. "
(According to Mr. Bereii-
son, Cent. Italian Painters.)
Madrid. Gallery, 573.
Milan. Jfarckcse Firssati.
Montpellier. Gallery, 577.
Munich. Gallery, 1052.
JT " Case's! XIIl'.
S. Croce in Gierusa-
& M. della Pace,
1st Chapel, L.
Madonna and Infant St. John.
Madonna with SS. Lawrence,
Sebastian, James, and
Frescoes : Sala IV. Judith ;
Roman Triumph. E. Sala
VII. Hannibal in Italy.
Flight into Egypt.
Frescoes : Sala di Galatea,
the entire ceiling, and in a
lunette a gigantic Head in
Room off Sala di Psiche.
Frieze. All about 1511.
Saloon (upper floor). Decora-
Stanza dell' Eliodoro, Fresco
decoration of ceiling. (De-
corative work only.)
Marria S e of St - Catherine. E.
Fresco : The Three Graces.
Mosaics (after design) not
later than 1508.
Frescoes: Madonna with
Saints and Pouzetti as
Donor ; (above) Biblical
S. Onofrio, Choir. Frescoes : Assumption and
other sacred subjects. E
tr!ll";5lF-scoes: Coronation, and
Pietro in Mont- ) Frescoes .
o, over 2nd and V y; t ' '
3rd Chapels, R.) N lrtues '
Sala IX. 29.
,, Arcade lie due Porte.
Belcaro (near Siena).
Duomo, Chapel of S.
Madonna and Infant St. John.
Fresco: Madonna, Infant St.
John, and Catherine. L.
Frescoes : Ceiling, Ground
Floor. Judgment of Paris.
Madonna and Saints.
Ceiling Frescoes : Continence
of Scipio ; Epiphany ;
Stoning of Elders. L.
Frescoes: Youthful Baptist
in Desert ; St. John Preach-
., Fonteaiusta, ) . j *.i ^.-i ,
1st Altar, L f Au g ustus ""d the Sibyl. L.
R. H. H. C.
PERUZZINI, DOIIENICO, an engraver, born at
Pesaro, supposed to have been the elder brother of
Giovanni Peruzzini. He appears to have lived
mostly at Ancona, and flourished from 1640 to
1661, according to the dates on the prints attri-
buted to him by Bartsch. These prints had been
previously ascribed to Domenico Piola, but the
style is entirely different, both in design and
execution. It is supposed that, like his brother
Giovanni, he was a scholar of Simone Cantarini da
Pesaro, and his etchings resemble those of that
master, and of Guido Keni. Subjoined is a list of
their titles :
The Holy Virgin, half-leugth, with the infant Jesus.
I). P. 1661.
The Virgin seated, with the Infant on her knees. I).
Christ tempted by the Devil, in the form of an old man.
D. P. 1642.
Christ bearing his Cross, with other figures, half-lengths.
D. P. P. F. engraved on the cross (circular).
The Holy Family and Saints. J)om. Per"" 1 . Anconae,
St. Anthony of Padua praying, and the Infant Jesus
appearing to him on a cloud supported by three
cherubim. Dam P. F.
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
The Assassination. A mau in his shirt on a bed, assailed
by three soldiers, one of whom thrusts a lance into
his body. D. P. 1640.
Four landscapes. The first is signed D. P.f. Anconae ;
the others, D. P. only.
St. Jerome doing Penance in the Desert. The letters
D. P. F. are on a plant to the right. (Considered
PERDZZINI, GIOVANNI, was born at Ancona,
or at Pesaro, in 1629, and was a scholar of Simone
Cantarini. There are several of his pictures in the
churches of his native city, of which the most
esteemed are the ' Decollation of St. John,' at the
Spedale ; and a picture of ' St. Teresa,' at the
Carmelitani. He resided some time at Bologna,
where there are some of his works in the public
edifices, particularly the ' Descent of the Holy
Ghost,' in the church of SS. Vitale ed Agricola ;
and a picture of ' St. Cecilia,' in the church dedicated
to that Saint. He was invited to the court of
Turin, where he executed several works, both in
oil and in fresco, so much to the satisfaction of his
patron, that he was made a knight of the order of
St. Maurice. He died at Milan in 1694. He was
vain of his facility of execution, and inscribed on
one of the lunettes of the Portico de' Servi in Bo-
logna, "Opus 24 Hor. Eq. Jo. P." (the work of
twenty-four hours by Gio. Peruzzini, knight). Carlo
Cignani, on reading it, observed, " Le minchionerie si
fanno presto " (trifles are soon done). Giovanni's son
PAOLO, and his brother, DOMENICO, were also painters.
PERY, NICOLAS, an obscure historical painter of
the seventeenth century. He was received into
the Guild of St. Luke, at Brussels, in 1736.
PERZYN. See PERSIJN.
PESARESE, IL (or SIMONE DA PESARO). See
PESARI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, an Italian his-
torical painter, was a native of Modena. He lived
some time at Venice, where he died after 1650.
PESARO, NiccoLd. See TROMETTO.
PESCHEL, KARL GOTTLIEB, a German historical
painter, born at Dresden in 1798. He was a pupil
of Vogel, and studied in the Dresden Academy.
In 1825 he went to Rome, where he remained about
a year. On his return he assisted his master Vogel
on frescoes at Pilnitz. About 1830 he was ap-
pointed a Professor in the Dresden Academy.
Considerable attention was devoted by him to
mural decoration, and good examples of his work
are to be seen in the Roman House, Leipsic ; and
at the Royal Palace at Dresden. He died in 1879.
Amongst his chief pictures are :
Rebecca at the Well. (Leipsic Museum.)
' Come unto Me, all ye that labour.' 1851. (Dresden
The Crucifixion. (Leipsic Museum.)
Ezekiel in Babylon.
Angels appearing to Jacob. 1845. (Dresden Gallery. I
Holy Family. (Leipsic Museum.)
PESCI, GASFARO, a Bolognese painter of archi-
tectural perspectives who flourished about 1776.
No details of his life are known.
PESCIA, MARIANO DA, also called GRAZIADEI,
was an Italian painter the time of whose birth and
death is uncertain ; Zani says he died about 1520 ;
others, that he was born in 1525, and died in 1550.
It is also said that he was a scholar of Domenico
Ghirlandajo, and assisted him in his works ; but in
that case he must have been born much earlier, as
Ghirlandajo died in 1494. Perhaps it was Ridolfo
Ghirlandajo. In the chapel della Signoria, in the
Palazzo Vecchio at Florence, there is an altar-piece
by him; and, in the Gallery, the 'Virgin and
Infant Jesus, with Elizabeth and the young St.
John.' It is agreed by all that he died young, and
his known works are very few.
PESELLO and PESELLINO. See GIUOCHI.
PESENTI, GALEAZZO, called IL SABBIONETA, a
painter and sculptor of Cremona, who flourished in
the 15th century. A MARTIRE PESENTI, also called
IL SABBIONETA, lived at Cremona at the end of the
PESNE, ANTOINE, the son of THOMAS PESNE, (a
portrait painter, and brother of Jean Pesne,) was
born in Paris in 1684 (?). He studied under his father
and under his uncle Charles de la Fosse, and after,
wards spent some time at Venice for further improve-
ment. After having heen received a member of the
Paris Academy he settled at Berlin, where he became
court painter to Frederick the Great, as well as
Director of the Academy. He died at Berlin in
1757. He painted history and portraits, and his
works were much admired by the connoisseurs of
the court. The Galleries of the Berlin ' Schloss,' and
of Potsdam and Sans-souci, contain many of his
works, and some elegant genre pictures are in the
Dresden Gallery. Pesne painted figures in the
pictures of his friends C. S. Dubois and P. C.
Leygebe. The following are among the best known
of his own pictures :
Portrait of Frederick the Great. (Enyraved iy Wille.)
His own Portrait. (Dresden Gallery. Engraved by G.
Himself and Wife. (Berlin Jfustum.)
Family picture of the Colonel of the Swiss Guard, Baron
Tapestry pictures with portraits of Prince Leopold and
his Family. (Dessau Castle.)
Portrait of the Chev. Vleughels.
,, Madame Dubuisson.
A Cook plucking a Turkey.
A Young Girl with Pigeons.
Portrait of the Engraver Scmidt and his Wife.
PESNE, JEAN, a French engraver, was born at
Rouen in 1623, and died in Paris in 1700. It is
not ascertained by whom he was instructed, but
he attained some success as an artist, particularly
as a designer. He produced 168 plates, of which
some are executed with the burin alone, and others
in combination with the point. His principal
plates are from the pictures of Nicolas Poussin,
with which he succeeded admirably ; others are
after Raphael, Titian, the Carracci, Guercino, Giulio
Romano, and others. The following are perhaps
the best :
Two of Nicolas Poussin ; after pictures ly that painter,
Louis le Comte, Sculptor to the King.
Francois Langlois ; after I'an Dyck.
SUBJECTS AFTER POUSSIN.
Assumption of the Virgin.
Esther before Ahasuerus.
The Adoration of the Shepherds.
The dead Christ, with the Virgin and St. John.
The Death of Sapphira.
The Holy Family attended by Angels, with a dedication
to Le Brun.
The Vision of St. Paul.
The Triumph of Galatea.
The Testament of Eudamidas ; one of his best prints.
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
The Seven Sacraments, in seven plates of two sheets
The Labours of Hercules, in nineteen plates; from the
paintings in the Louvre.
SUBJECTS AFTER ITALIAN MASTERS.
The Holy Family ; after Raphael.
A set of fifteeu landscapes ; after Guercino, and other
PESZKA, JOSEF, Polish painter ; born February
19, 1767, at Cracow; became a pupil of Estreicher,
and then of Lampis and Smuglewicz at Warsaw.
In 1797 lie went to Wilna ; in 1800 to St. Peters-
burg, and subsequently to Moscow. Became Court
painter to Prince Radziwill. He returned to Cracow
to fill the post of Professor at the University there.
Hie choice was mostly that of historical and genre
subjects. He died September 4, 1831.
PETE, SIMON, an obscure painter of Valladolid,
who flourished about 1661.
PETER, EMM., a German miniature painter,
born at Jagerndorf in Silesia, in 1799. He died at
Vienna in 1873.
PETER, WENCESLAUS, animal painter, was bora
at Carlsbad in Bohemia in 1742. He applied him-
self successively to metal working, chasing, and
sculpture before settling to the art which he at last
adopted. He became Professor at the Academy of
San Luca in Rome, and his best work is ' The
Terrestrial Paradise.' A ' Hen and Chickens ' by
him is in the Borghese Gallery. He died at Rome
PETERS, ANTON DE. See DE PETERS.
PETERS, BONAVENTURA and JAN. See PEETERS.