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PETERS, FRANS LUCAS, was born at Mechlin in
1606. He was the son of an obscure painter, from
whom he learned the elements of design, but he
afterwards entered the school of Gerard Segers.
He did not, however, follow the style of that
master, but abandoned historical painting to devote
himself to landscapes. He was taken into the
service of the Archduke Leopold, in whose employ-
ment he passed the greater part of his life. He
died at Brussels in 1654.

PETERS, GKRRIT. See PIETEP.SZEN.

PETERS, MATTHIAS, flourished at Amsterdam
about the year 1660, and, in conjunction with his
brother NICOLAAS PETERS, engraved the plates for
the ' Atlas Major,' published by Blaeu, in that city,
from drawings by the publisher.

PETERS, the Reverend MATTHEW WILLIAM,
was born in the Isle of Wight in the first half of
the 18th century. His parents very early removed
to Ireland, where his father held a post in the Cus-
toms at Dublin. The son became pupil of Robert
West, the master of the school of design there, and
in 1759 he obtained a premium from the Society of
Arts. He was brought up, however, for the Church,
and came to hold the appointments of Prebendary
of Lincoln and chaplain to the Prince Regent. In
the pursuit of art as an amateur he travelled in Italy,
and when at Parma he copied the 'St. Jerome,'
and his copy is now in the church at Saffron Walden.
In 1782 he also copied, for the Duke of Rutland,
a picture by Le Brun in the Carmelite church at
Paris. In 1771 he was elected an Associate of the
Royal Academy, and in 1777 a full Academician.
He resigned in 1790, and died in 1814, at Brasted
Place, in Kent. He is better known by the prints
engraved for Boydell and Macklin than by his
paintings, though some of his pictures have al-
most the impasto of Sir Joshua Reynolds. His
' Resurrection of a Pious Family,' the 'Guardian

102



Angel,' ' Cherubs,' and the ' Spirit of a Child ;'
his scenes from the ' Merry Wives of Windsor,'
and from ' Much Ado about Nothing,' and other
theatrical subjects, were very popular. He painted
many fancy subjects and also portraits with much
taste and elegance. He was patronized by some
of the nobility of his day, for whom he painted
subjects very different from his ' Resurrection of a
Pious Family.' There are engravings of several
of his fancy pieces and portraits by Bartolozzi,
Marcuard, Simon, Thew, Dickinson, and J.R.Smith.
He was severely satirized by " Peter Pindar."

PETERS, PIETER FRANCIS, the younger, German
painter; born at Nijmegen in 1818; a pupil of
his father. After travel in Germany, Switzerland,
France and Italy, in 1845 he settled at Stuttgart,
where with Herdtle he founded a permanent Art
Exhibition ; painted landscapes, such as ' An
Autumn Evening, near Stuttgart,' 'A Mill, near
Monaco ' ; also various water-colours. In 1872 he
gained the grand medal in London, and the Order
of St. Michael in 1869. He died at Stuttgart,
Feb. 23, 1903.

PETERSEN, HEINRICH LUDWIG, a Danish en-
graver, was born at Altona in 1806. In 1824 he
entered the Academy of Dresden, and in 1827 the
atelier of Rossmasstsr. In the two following years
he engraved some landscapes and portraits at
Heidelberg for the Ehrenhalle, and in 1835 several
plates for the Bibliographical Institute at Hild-
burghausen, and for the Austrian Lloyd's Company
some small landscapes after Rothbart and David.
In 1838 he settled at Nuremberg, where he executed
his principal plates the ' Madonna della Sedia,'
after Raphael ; ' The Tribute Money,' after Titian ;
' The Children in the Wood,' after Von der Embde,
and ' Charles IX. on the Night of St. Bartholomew.'
From 1840 to the end of his life he etched
extensively for Hefner's work on costumes, and
produced numerous facsimiles from drawings by
the old masters. He became conservator of the
art collections at Nuremberg, and died there in
1874. He was also a restorer of engravings and
pictures.

PETERSEN, JOHANN - ERIK CHRISTIAN, marine
painter, was born at Copenhagen in 1839. He
studied at the Academy of his birthplace, and then
under Melbye and Dahl. He was engaged in the
war as a Danish officer in 1864, and in the following
year went to America, where he died at Boston
in 1874.

PETERSON, FREDERIC, enamel painter, was a
pupil of Boit, and died in London in 1729.

PETERZANO, SIMONE, (PRETERZONO,) was a
native of Venice, and was brought up in the school
of Titian. He flourished about the year 1590. His
'Pieta, 1 in the church of San Fedele, at Milan, is
signed with his name, to which he has added
Titiani discipulus. In the church of San Bar-
naba, at Milan, he painted some frescoes from the
life of St. Paul. There is a fine ' Assumption,' in
the Chiesa di Brera, at Milan by him.

PETHER, ABRAHAM, was born at Chichester
in 1756. In the early part of his life he ap-
plied himself to the study of music, and at the
age of nine years, is said to have occasionally
performed as organist in his native city. He
afterwards turned his thoughts to painting, in
which lie was instructed by George Smith, and
attained a considerable rank in the art as a land-
scape painter, particularly by his moonlight effects,
whence he has obtained the sobriquet of 'Moon-



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



light Pether.' A ' Harvest Moon ' by him met
with special admiration. His moonlight pieces
are notable for their astronomical accuracy. He
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1784, his sub-
ject being ' Moonlight.' In 1789 he followed this
with ' A Ship on Fire at Night,' and at intervals
with others, till in 1811 he sent a second 'Erup-
tion of Vesuvius.' Pether not only distinguished
himself as painter and musician ; his philosophi-
cal and mathematical researches were of some
value. He also showed skill as a mechanic, and
constructed various optical instruments, such as
telescopes, miscroscopes, air-pumps, and electric
instruments. Pether died April 13th, 1812.

PETHER, SEBASTIAN, the eldest son of Abraham
Pether, was born about 1790, and was probably
instructed by his father, as he painted similar sub-
jects. His pictures consist of moonlights, con-
flagrations, and sunsets, and exhibit fine feeling ;
but the narrowness of his circumstances, and the
largeness of his family, reduced him to the necessity
of working for picture-dealers, and beyond them it
does not appear that he ever had a patron, except
in one instance. That patron was Sir John F.
Leicester, Bart. , who commissioned him to paint
' A Caravan overtaken by a Whirlwind,' which was
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1826, together
with 'The Destruction of a City by a Volcano.'
His first and almost his only previous contributions
had been in 1814, when his subjects were ' A View
from Chelsea Bridge,' and ' The Burning of Drury
Lane Theatre.' He had considerable knowledge
in the mechanical arts, and, it is said, was the
first that suggested the idea and construction of
the stomach-pump to Mr. Jukes, the surgeon
who introduced it to the medical profession. His
pictures are not numerous ; but they were a source
of great emolument to his friends the dealers, as
they could be readily copied, and the copies dis-
posed of to country gentlemen ; whence it is that
his name so frequently appears in catalogues. His
real works have considerable merit. He died at
Battersea in 1844.

PETHER, WILLIAM, painter and mezzotint en-
graver, was the cousin of Abraham Pether, and
was born at Carlisle in 1731. He painted por-
traits in oil and miniature, and studied engraving
under Thomas Frye. He was admitted into the
Royal Academy in 1778, and exhibited occasionally
between 1781 and 1794. He died in London about
1795. He engraved several fine plates after Rem-
brandt and other masters, as well as a few from
his own works. Among others, we have the
following prints by him :

PORTRAITS.

The three brothers Smith, Painters of Chichester ; TT.

Pether pinx.et fee. 1765.
Benjamin West ; after Lawranson.
Samuel Chandler, D.D. ; after Chamlterlin.
Fra^ois du Quesnoy, Sculptor ; after C. le Brun.
Carlo Tessarini, Musician ; after Palthe.
Rembrandt's Wife (the Jewish Bride) ; after Rembrandt.
Eubens's second Wife ; after Rubens.

SUBJECTS AFTEB VARIOUS MASTERS.

The Rabbi; after Remlramdt.
An Officer in Armour ; after the same.
An old Man with a beard ; after the same.
The Lord of the Vineyard ; after the same.
A Village Festival ; after Teniers.
A Warrior ; half-length ; after Giori/wne.
The Descent from the Cross ; after the picture in King's
College, Cambridge, by Daniele da I'ol terra.



The Philosopher ; after Jos. Wriyht.

The Sculptor ; after the same.

The Academy ; after the same.

The Continence of the Chevalier Bayard ; after Ptnny.

The Hermit ; after the same.

The Alchemist ; after the same.

PETIT, GILES EDME, a French engraver, was
born in Paris in 1696, and died in 1760. He was
a pupil of J. Chereau, and engraved several plates
in the style of his instructor, the most esteemed
being his portraits. Among others, we have the
following prints by him :

PORTRAITS.

Francis I., King of France ; after Titian ; for the

Crozat Collection.

Louis Philip, Regent of France ; after Liotnnl.
Louis XV., King of France ; after C. Man Lao.
Charles Edward Stuart, the Pretender ; after Dupra.
Philibert Papillon, Canon of Dijon.
Rene, Charles de Maupeon, President of the Parliament.
Peter Bayle, Author of the Historical aud Critical

Dictionary.

Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary.
Armand Jules, Priuce of Rohan ; after Riyaiid .
Henri Charles de Pompone, Abbe of St. Medard.
Jean Frederic Philipeaux, Count of Maurepas.
Joachim Fraucjois Potier, Duke of Gesvres.

SUBJECTS.

The Disciples at Emmaus ; after J. Andre.
The Visitation ; after the same.
The Virgin of the Rosary ; after the same.
St. Catharine of Siena ; after the same.

PETIT, JEAN Louis, a French historical and
marine painter, was born in Paris in 1795. He
was a pupil of Maudevare and Regnault. He died
in 1876. Works :

Combat of Roland and Rodomont.
The Wreck. *

PETIT, the Rev. JOHN Louis, an English amateur
draughtsman, born in 1801. He was educated at
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated in
1823 as a senior optime, and afterwards took holy
orders. Antiquarian pursuits were his delight, and
he drew the illustrations for his works and papers.
He was a member of the Institute of British Archi-
tects, and of the Archaeological Institute. He also-
produced a few good etchings. He died at Lich-
field in 1868. Amongst his publications were :

'Remarks on Church Architecture, with Illustrations.'

1841-5.
' Principles of Gothic Architecture as applied to Parish

Churches.' 1845.

' The Abbey Church of Tewkesbury.' 1848.
' Architectural Studies in France.' 1854.

PETIT, LEONCE, a French draughtsman and
illustrator, was born in 1839. He was a constant
contributor to the Salons after 1869, and to the
'Journal Amusant' and 'Le Monde Illustre.' He
died in 1884.

PETIT, Louis, a designer and engraver, was
born in Paris in 1760, and was a scholar of N.
Ponce. He was much employed in designing
vignettes and other book illustrations, which he
etched with considerable ability. He died about
1812. Among his detached engravings the follow-
ing are most deserving of notice :

La Belle Jardiniere, jointly with Massard ; after Raphael.
The Infant Jesus asleep, finished by Bonnet ; after the

same.

Aurora ; after tht same.
A Holy Family ; after the same.
St Romualdus; after A.Sacchi ; finished by /Mm '-rune-



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



The dancing Nymphs ; after Van der Wetff.

And several plates for Ligni's ' History of the Life of
Christ ' ; among which are the ' Transfiguration,' after
Raphael ; and the ' Last Supper,' after Leonardo da
Vinci.

PETIT, Louis MARIE, a French water-colour
painter of still-life and miniatures, flourished at
Fontainebleau at the end of the 18th century. He
was a pupil of David and De Moitte. Works :

The School-boy and the Arts.

Landscape with Mill.

PETITOT, JEAN, the elder, enameller and minia-
ture painter, was born at Geneva in 1607. He was
the son of a sculptor and architect, who designed
him for a jeweller, and having frequent occasion to
make use of enamel in that trade, he attained such
skill in colour, that he was advised to apply him-
self to portrait painting. He was patronized by
Charles I. and Louis XIV., and his extraordinary
ability was deserving of their protection. In com-
pany with Pierre Bordier, who afterwards became
his brother-in-law, he visited Italy, where they both
resided some years. Petitot painted the heads and
hands, and Bordier the draperies and backgrounds.
In this division of labour they visited England,
and had the good fortune to form the acquaint-
ance of Sir Theodore Turquet de Mayerne,
physician to the king, who had, by experiment,
discovered how to get super-excellent colour in
enamel. Mayerne introduced Petitot to King
Charles I., who retained him in his service, and
gave him apartments at Whitehall. He painted
the portraits of that monarch and of his family,
several times. He copied several pictures after Van
Dyck, who assisted him with his advice. King
Charles often went to see him at work, as he took
great pleasure both in painting and chemical experi-
ments. The death of his royal protected was a misfor-
tune for Petitot, who did not quit the exiled family,
but followed them in their flight to Paris, where
he was looked upon as one of their most faithful
adherents. Charles II., during his abode in France,
took great notice of Petitot, and introduced him to
Louis XIV., who appointed him his painter in
enamel, and gave him apartments in the Louvre.
He painted that monarch several times, Anne of
Austria, his mother, and Maria Theresa, his queen.
Being a zealous Protestant, and dreading the con-
sequences of the revocation of the edict of Nantes
in 1685, Petitot begged the king's permission to
retire to Geneva. Louis, unwilling to part with so
favourite an artist, for some time evaded the de-
mand, and employed the celebrated Bossuet, bishop
of Meaux, to endeavour to convert him. This not
succeeding, Petitot was at length allowed to leave
France, after a residence of thirty-six years, and lie
returned to Switzerland. He settled at Geneva,
but the crowd of admirers who came to see him
-was so great, that he was obliged to quit Geneva
and retire to Vevay, where he continued to exercise
his art till he had reached the age of 84. He died
in 1691.

Petitot was the first artist to bring enamel paint-
ing to complete technical perfection. In the South
Kensington Museum (Jones Collection) there are
fifty-two enamel portraits which are certainly by
Petitot, while some eight or ten more are ascribed
to him with more or less justice. Among the
former several are scarcely to be equalled, certainly
not to be excelled, elsewhere. Among them we
may name six portraits of Louis XIV., and por-
traits of Sully, La Valliere, Vendome, Olympia

104



and Hortense Mancini, Richelieu, Mazarin, Mme.
de Se'vigne', Moliere, ' La Grande Mademoiselle,'
Mme. de Montespan, the Duke of Orleans, Arrnand
de Meilleraye, Turenne, and Ninon de 1'Enclos. In
the Apollo Gallery of the Louvre are about sixty
of Jean Petitot 's finest enamels, consisting of por-
traits of Louis XIV., of his family, of ladies of the
Court, and of the statesmen and military com-
manders of France.

PETITOT, JEAN Louis, the younger, the son of
Jean Petitot the elder, was born in or about 1650.
He was instructed in enamelling by his father.
He settled in London, where he exercised his art
with considerable success, and painted for Charles
II. up to 1682, when he removed to Paris. In
1695 he returned to London, where eventually
he died. His works are inferior to those of his
father, though they possess great merit. A few
of the best are at South Kensington, and others
are in the Dartrey Collection. Among others he
painted :

Charles II.

Peter the Great.

Qneen Catherine.

The Due de Berry.

The Due d'Anjou.

PETRAZZI, ASTOLFO, was a native of Siena, and
flourished about the year 1635. He was a scholar
of Ventura Salimbeni and Pietro Sorri, and, accord-
ing to Baldinucci, painted some pictures for the
public edifices and private collections at Siena.
One of his principal works is the ' Communion of St.
Jerome,' at the Agostiniani at Siena, in which he
exhibits something of the style of the Carracci. He
excelled in painting children, whom he introduced
very happily into his emblematical subjects. Such
are his ' Four Seasons ' in the Villa Chigi, at Volte,
which are admired for the playfulness and ingenuity
of the groups. He died in 1665.

PETKI. HEINRICH, was born at Gottingen in
1835. At the age of seventeen he entered the
Academy in Diisseldorf. In 1854 his first paid
work was a copy of a ' Madonna ' after Deger.
He was for a short time at Munich in 1857, and in
the following year proceeded to Rome, where he
studied the masters of the early Renaissance and
Overbeck. After his return he, in 1861-2, painted
in encaustic in the convent chapel of Nonnen-
werth, particularly a ' Descent from the Cross,'
which attracted general attention. In 1868 he
paid a second visit to Rome, in order to paint an
altar-piece for Lisbon. In 1870 we find him at
Diisseldorf producing a ' Virgin and St. John
weeping over the Body of Christ,' and in 1871 his
chef d'wuvre, 'The Virgin as the Protectress of
poor Children.' He died at Diisseldorf in February
1872.

PETRI, PIETRO DE, was born, according to
Orlandi, at Premia, in the Novarese state, in 1671 ;
Zani, however, says he was born in 1663, and died
in 1716. He studied at Rome, in the school of
Carlo Maratti. He painted history, and united
with the style of Maratti somewhat of the taste of
Pietro da Cortona. One of his principal works at
Rome is a picture of the ' Crucifixion,' in the church
of SS. Vincento ed Anastasio : he also painted
some frescoes in the tribune of San Clemente. We
have a few etchings by this artist from his own
designs, executed in the style of a painter, among
which are:

The Assumption of the Virgin.
San Lorenzo Giustiniano.



JEAN PETITOT




[ The L,>
ANNE OF AUSTRIA

AN ENAMEL



JEAN PETITOT




[ The Louvre
LOUIS XIV., ANNE OF AUSTRIA, AND A BROTHER OF THE KING

THREE ENAMELS IN AN ENAMELLED AND JEWELLED MOUNT



o




w

s
H



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Zani distinguishes him from PlETRO ANTONIO DB
PETBI, or PITRI, to whom Bartsch has assigned four
engravings in addition to the two above named.
Zani says the latter was born at Rome.

PETRIE, GEORGE, a landscape painter, the son
of James Petrie, was born at Dublin in 1789. His
art-training was gained in the school of the Dublin (
Society. He was much devoted to antiquarian
pursuits, and furnished many drawings for the
illustration of works on Ireland. In 1810 he visited
Wales, and in 1813 London, in company with
Danby and O'Connor. In 1816 he exhibited at the
Royal Academy. In 1826 he was elected an as-
sociate of the Hibernian Academy, becoming a
full member in 1828, and subsequently president.
From 1833 to 1839 he was entirely employed on
the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, and took charge
of the topographical and antiquarian branch of the
work. In 1845 he visited Scotland. In 1847 he
received the honorary degree of D.C.L. from the
University of Dublin, and in 1849, a pension on the
Civil List. He resigned the presidency of the
R.H.A. in 1859, and died at Dublin in 1866. He
published much relating to archeology ; his
maynum opus is ' On the Ecclesiastical Architec-
ture of Ireland ; ' but in early life he contributed
many papers to the ' Dublin E'xaminer,' and similar
publications.

PETRIE, JAMES, a Scotch portrait painter of the
18th century, born at Aberdeen. About 1780 he
settled in Dublin, and obtained a good practice
there. In the troubled times of the Irish Rebellion
he was a firm loyalist, but nevertheless he painted
several members of the 'patriot' party, among
them Emmet, Curran, and Lord Edward Fitzgerald.

PETRINI, CAV. GIUSEPPE, an Italian painter,
born at Carono, in the Luganese, about 1700. He
was a pupil of Strozzi, and painted historical
subjects. He died about 1780.

FETTER, ANTON, was born at Vienna in April,
1781. In 1808 he visited Rome, and in 1814
obtained admission to the Vienna Academy with
his ' Meleager murdered by his mother in his wife's
arms.' In 1820 he became professor to the Aca-
demy, and in 1828 director. He died at Vienna in
1858. His principal historical pictures are:

Maximilian's meeting with his Bride, Mary of Burgundy.
{In the Jokanneuin at Gratz.)

Meeting of the same Eoyal Couple, the Consort holding
their little sou Philip in her arms, after the Battle of
Guiuegate. (Belvedere.)

Joanna of Aragon by her husband's coffin.

Charles V.'s visit to Francis I.

Rudolf of Hapsburg by Ottokar's corpse ; with other
subjects from Pyrker's ' Rtidolphias.'

PETTER, FRANZ XAVER, flower painter, was
born at Vienna in 1791, and died in 1866. He was
a pupil of Drechsler in the Academy, and afterwards
became a professor there. The Belvedere possesses
a 'Vase of Flowers' by him (1833).

PETTIE, JOHN, the son of Alexander Pettie, a
tradesman, was born at Edinburgh on March 17,
1839, and a few years later removed with his parents
to East Linton, in Haddingtonshire. As a boy in
the village school he showed an early predilection
for figure subjects in preference to landscape, and
was continually drawing portraits of himself and
his relations, and sketching the local celebrities.
His resolve to become an artist was encouraged
by his parents, and he was sent to Edinburgh to
reside with his uncle, Robert Frier, a well-known
teacher of drawing. At the age of seventeen he
ntered the Trustees' Academy, then under the



care of Robert Scott Lauder, and among his
fellow-students were W. Q. Orchardson, J. Mac-
Whirter, Peter Graham, Tom Graham, G. Paul
Chalmers, and W. MucTaggart. Pettie's first ex-
hibited picture, 'The Prison Pet,' appeared at the
Royal Scottish Academy in 1858, and among his
other early paintings in Edinburgh were : ' False
Dice," Convent Hospitality,' 'Distressed Cavaliers,'
' Morning Prayer,' and ' Evening Prayer.' In 18GO
' The Armourers ' was hung on the line at the
Royal Academy, and in the following year he
was represented by 'What d'ye lack, Madam'? 1
Encouraged by this success he moved in 1862
to London, where he shared a studio with
Orchardson, and from that date contributed yearly
to the Academy, exhibiting 119 pictures in all.
Nearly the whole coterie of Scott Lander's pupils
had gathered about this time in London, and met
in one another's studios once a week to renew a
Sketch Club they had started iu Edinburgh. On
his marriage in 1865 Pettie went to live in St.
John's Wood Road, and later built "The Lothians "
in Fitzjohn's Avenue, where his kindly, genial and
hospitable nature drew round him a large circle of
friends. In 1866 he was elected A.R.A., and
became a full member of the Academy in succes-
sion to Sir Edwin Landseer in 1873, exhibiting
'Jacobites, 1745,' as his diploma picture. Towards
the end of his life he became a popular portrait
painter, but it was in historical and genre pictures
that he excelled. He was a keen, rapid and
enthusiastic worker. His strong vigorous nature
found its own expression in his pictures, which
were always dramatic, and always characterized
by a rich glow of colour. In his early years he
contributed to the book illustrations for which the
" sixties " are famous, making several drawings for
'Good Words' from 1861 to 1863. In 1868 and
1869 wood-engravings after his drawings appeared
in the ' Sunday Magazine.' He also illustrated 'The
Postman's Bag' (along with J. MacWhirter), and
Wordsworth's ' Poetry for the Young' in 1863. In
1891 Pettie began to suffer from an affection of
the ear, produced by an abscess on the brain, which
caused his death at Hastings on Feb. 21, 1893. He
was buried in Paddington Cemetery on Feb. 27.

Among his more important pictures besides
those mentioned were: 'Terms to the Besieged'
(1872); 'The Flag of Truce '(1873); 'The Step'
(1876) ; ' The Sword and Dagger Fight ' (1877) ;
'The Death Warrant' (1879) ; ' Before his Peers'
(1881) ; 'Monmouth and James II.' (1882); 'The
Vigil' (1884) (bought under the terms of the
Chantrey Bequest, and now in the Tate Gallery) ;
' Challenged ' and 'Sir Peter Teazle' (1885); 'The
Chieftain's Candlesticks' (1886) ; ' Two Strings to
her Bow 1 (1887); 'The Traitor' (1889); 'The
World went very well then ' (1890) ; and ' The
Ultimatum' (1892). Among his principal portraits



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