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are those of Bret Harte (1885) ; Sir Walter
Besant (1887) ; Charles Wyndham as David Gar-
rick (18K8) ; the Rev. Oswald Dykes, D.D. (1889 ;
now at Westminster College, Cambridge) ; and Sir
August Manns (1892). In 1894-5 a selection of
his works was included in the Winter Exhibition
of the Royal Academy. if. H.

PETTIT, JOSEPH PAUL, a landscape painter, who
died at Balsall Heath near Birmingham in 1882.
He was a member of the Society of British Artists,
and an exhibitor at the Academy, British Institu-
tion, and Suffolk Street Exhibitions from 1845 to
1880.

105



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



PETTY, ROBERT, painter, was born in London
about 1740. He resided mostly at Hamburg, where
lie painted birds, fruits, and flowers in water-colours.
He died in Holland in 1789.

PETZHOLDT, ERNST CHRISTIAN FREDERIK,
landscape painter, was born at Copenhagen in
1805, and studied from 1825 at the Academy and
under Eckersberg. He won medals in 1827 and
1828, and in the following year travelled in the
Harz mountains. From 1830 to 1835 he was
occupied in a visit to Italy and Sicily, and went in
1836 to Munich, and thence to Italy a second time,
and to Greece, where he died suddenly at Patras in
1839. Among his best paintings are :

Sketch at Capri.

Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli. (Copenhagen Gallery.)

View from the Villa Pamfili.

View on the Pontine Marshes.

PETZL, JOSEPH, genre painter, was born at
Munich in 1803. After studying under Langer in
the Munich Academy, he placed himself under
Begas in Berlin, and afterwards set off on a journey
through Bohemia, Saxony, Hanover, Schleswig,
and Sweden. In 1832-4 he went to Rome, and, in
the suite of the King of Greece, to Constantinople.
He afterwards spent two years at Venice. He died
at Munich in 1871. His principal pictures are :

Greek Chieftains. (Inpossessioa of H.Jdnisch, Hamburg.)

Greek Wedding.

The Division of au Inheritance.

The runaway Daughter among Actors.

Slave-dealer and Eunuchs bringing Female Slaves be-
fore the Pacha. (Rosenstein, Stuttyart.)

The Novice (engraved by Jiahl).

Scene in an Inn (lithographed by Letter).

Tyrolese Fugitives (lithographed by Zimmermann),

The Invalid (lithographtd ly Hohe).

The Crack Shot (lithographed by Utrymann).

PEUTEMAN, PIETEK, (or NICOLAAS,) was born
at Rotterdam in 1650 or 1657. He excelled in
painting objects of still-life, such as musical instru-
ments, books, vases, &c. Balkema attributes his-
torical works also to him. His death is said to
have been occasioned by terror. One day in 1692
Peuteman fell asleep in the dissecting room of the
Rotterdam Hospital, where he was studying
anatomy. He was awakened by a movement a-
mong the bones and skeletons in the room, which
had been set in motion by a sudden earthquake.
From the fright thus caused lie never recovered.
Peuteman engraved many of his own works.

PEYNAUD, JACQUES FKANQOIS, was born at
La Ferte St. Aubin in 1771. He was a pupil of the
Academy of Orleans, and of Girodet and Aubry,
and for eighteen years was director of the free
school of design at St. Malo. His principal works
are, the ' Martyrdom of St. Clement,' at Caucales ;
' Souls in Purgatory,' at Pleustuis ; and a portrait of
Maupertuis, now at St. Malo. He died at St. Malo
in 1829.

PEYRANNE, PHILIPPE, a French painter who
flourished at Toulouse about 1780. He was a
pupil of Sua.u,pere, and of David, and painted his-
torical and still-life pictures. Works :

Young Girls studying Art.

Martyrdom of St. Stephen. (Jfouchy.)

PEYRE, ANTOINE FRANCOIS, an architect, and
brother of Mathieu Joseph Peyre ; he painted a few
pictures. He was born in 1739 ; died in 1823.

PEYROL, JULIETTE BONHEUR, French painter ;
born July 19, 1831, in Paris ; she was a sister of the
famous Rosa Bonheur ; studied with her father,
Raymond Bonheur; made her debut with pictures of

106



Btill-life, but soon devoted her attention to animals,
her studies of sheep being specially noteworthy.
Her work was often shown at London Exhibitions
of French art, as, for instance, at the French Gallery,
Pall Mall. She married the French artist Peyrol,
and became the Directress of an Art School in
Paris. Here she died in 1891.

PEYRON, JEAN FRANCOIS PIERRE, a French his-
torical painter and engraver, was born at Aix in
1744, and died in Paris ID 1820. He was a scholar
of Arnulfi and of the elder Lagrenee. His subjects
are from the ancient poets, and from Greek and
Roman history, occasionally also from events oc-
curring in his own time, such as the death of
General Walhubert at the battle of Austerlitz. In
1773 he obtained with his ' Death of Seneca ' the
Grand Prix de Rome, and accordingly went to that
city, where he studied from the antique and from
nature; painting also his picture of 'Cimon allowing
himself to be taken Prisoner in order to see after
his Father's Funeral.' In 1781 he returned to
Paris, and was in 1787 admitted a member of the
Academy, with a picture of ' Dentatus,' now at
Fontainebleau. The greater number of his pictures
were executed between 1780 and 1800, but he con-
tinued to exhibit till 1812. He engraved several
subjects after Raphael, Poussin, and after his own
designs. He was director of the Gobelins Manu-
factory in 1787, and executed many cartoons for
that establishment. The Revolution caused him
much privation and suffering, which he bore with
exemplary patience. Works :

The Funeral of Miltiades. (Paris.

Alcestis and Admetus.

Paul Emilius, the conqueror of Perseus.

PFANNSCHMIDT, KARL GOTTFRIED, German
painter; born September 15, 1819, at Muhlhausen,
and was a pupil of Cornelius and Dage at Berlin ;
he afterwards travelled much in Italy. He became
Professor at the Berlin Academy, his art being, as
it were, an echo of the classic school prevalent
in the first half of the 19th century. Of his
works we may mention ' Caritas,' ' Abendmahl,'
and 'Altar' (in St. Paul's Church, Schwerin). Many
of his drawings were published. He obtained the
Berlin gold 'medal in 1884, and also the Red
Eagle of the fourth class. He died July 5, 1887, at
Berlin.

PFANSTILL, LUDWIG, (PFANSTIL, or PFANNEN-
STIL,) a painter and engraver who was born at
Vienna at the beginning of the 17th century, and
died at Frankfort in 1665. He painted portraits
and allegories, and engraved a ' Pieta ' in mezzotint.

PFEFFEL, JOHANN ANDREAS, a German en-
graver, was born at Biachoffingen in 1674. He re-
sided at Vienna, where he produced among other
plates a portrait of the Emperor Leopold. He after-
wards removed to Augsburg, where he followed
the business of a printseller. His works, as an
engraver, were chiefly confined to architecture and
ornamental foliage, which he executed in a neat
style. In conjunction with C. Engelbrecht, he en-
graved a set of plates of jewellery ornaments, from
the designs of A. Morison ; and executed part of
the plates for the ' History of Architecture,' pub-
lished at Vienna in 1721 by John Henhard Fischers.
Scheuchzer's Bible was one of the works issued
from his establishment at Augsburg. Finally _he
became Court engraver at Vienna, where he died
in 1750. His son JOHANN ANDREAS PFEFFEL the
younger was born at Augsburg in 1715, and died



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



in 1768. He also worked upon the plates of
Scheuohzer's Bible.

PFEIFFER, FRANCOIS JOSEPH, a portrait painter
and engraver, born at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1741.
He practised for many years at Amsterdam, but
late in life he settled at Brussels, where he died in
1807.

PFEIFFER, FRAN-QMS JOSEPH, a designer, en-
graver, and lithographer, the son of the preceding,
was born at Liege in 1778. For several years he
was engaged as a scene-painter at Amsterdam.
He died at Terburg in 1835.

PFEIFFER, KARL HEP.MANN, an engraver, was
born at Frankfort in 1769. He studied at the
Royal Academy at Vienna, under the Professor Ch.
Brand. He worked with point and burin, in the
English manner, and was a very industrious artist.
He died at Vienna in 1829. His engravings are
numerous, particularly of portraits, which are
chiefly of German nobility, and persons of science
and letters, of his time. He also engraved after
some of the older Italian and other painters, such as
Raphael, Correggio, Fra Bartolommeo, Giuliano da
Parma, Sassoferrato, Rubens, Lampi, Oelenhainz,
and Ftiger. Among his plates we may mention :

Virgin with the Child and St. John ; after Raphael.
Venus and Cupid ; after Correggio.
Rubens's Portrait ; after Kuliens.

PFENNINGER, ELIZABETH, the niece of Hein-
rich Pfenninger, was born at Zurich in 1772, and
died after 1836. She was a miniature painter, and
studied in Geneva under Boileau and Bouvier, and
in Paris under Renault and Augustin. Her minia-
tures are well-handled.

PFENNINGER, HEINRICH, a Swiss painter and
engraver, born at Zurich in 1749. He was a scholar
of Jan Balthasar Bullinger, under whom he spent
five years, and afterwards went to Dresden, where
he worked under Zingg and Graf, and by virtue of
his access to the Electoral Gallery, devoted himself
to a study of the best masters, particularly Van
Dyck and Rembrandt. On his return to Switzer-
land, he was engaged by Lavater to make the
designs and engrave some of the plates for his work
on Physiognomy. In 1795 he visited Paris, and
in 1808 Hungary. He died in 1815. He was
much employed as a portrait painter, and has
etched a great number of plates of portraits and
views in Switzerland. He engraved some of the
portraits for Flissli's ' Supplement to the Lives of
the Swiss Painters.' We have also the following
by him :

A set of seventy-five Portraits of Illustrious Personages
of Switzerland, accompanied with an abridged history
of their lives by Leonard Meister. 1781.

Thirty-four Portraits of the most celebrated German
Poets, with their characters, by L. Meister. 1785.

A set of six Views in Switzerland.

He signed his work H.Pf.; H. Pf. fecit ; Eeinr.
Pf.; and Pf en. fee.

PFENNINGER, JOHANNES, painter and engraver,
was born at Stafa, by Lake Zurich, in 1765. He
learnt engraving under H. von Mechel in Basle,
and painting in Rome (1794-9). After this he re-
turned to Zurich and occupied himself on portraits,
principally miniatures in water-colour. He died
at Zurich in 1825. Among his works are :

The first Navigator (engraved by Hegi).

The Laocoon Group, in sepia.

The Dismissal of Hagar ; the same.

The Crucifixion ; after Michelangelo ; in Indian ink.



PFLUG, JOHAKN BAPTIST, genre painter, waa
born at Biberach in 1785, and studied at the Munich
Academy in 1805-9. After this he became a
teacher of drawing in his native town, and devoted
himself to painting humorous scenes from the
popular life of Upper Swabia, and also military
pictures and a few portraits. He died at Biberach
in 1865. Several of his works are at the Rosenstein,
near Stuttgart. Noticeable among his productions
are :

A Peasants' Wedding.

The Gipsy Family.

The Gamesters.

The Village Alehouse.

"Washing Day.

The Battle of Stockach. 1842.

Distribution of Medals to Veterans. 1843.

Austrian Hussars. 1844.

March of the Russians from the Waldsee.

PFORR, FRANZ, historical painter, was born at
Frankfort-on-the-Maine in 1788. He was the son
of the better known Johann Georg Pforr. His
first master was bis uncle, Tischbein, the in-
spector of the Cassel Gallery. In 1805 he went
to the Academy of Vienna, and studied under
Fiiger, and it was there that he made the acquaint-
ance of Overbeck. In 1810 lie went to Rome.
Cornelius, too, entered into friendship with Over-
beck and Pforr, and both of these artists, who
outlived Pforr, spoke in high terms of his talent,
and confessed themselves indebted to the taste
which he always displayed in his works. Pforr
died at Albano in 1812. His subjects were taken
from Scripture, from German legends, or from
his own fancy. The Stadel Institute has a picture
by him entitled ' Rudolf of Hapsburg presenting
his Horse to an Ecclesiastic.'

PFORR, JOHANN GEOP.G, animal painter and
etcher, was born at Upfen, near Eisenach, in 1745.
He was working at the mine at Richelsdorf, when
the Hessian minister, Waitz, discovered his talent,
and placed him in his own porcelain factory. In
1777 he entered the Academy at Cassel, where in
the following year he obtained the first prize, and
in the next year was admitted a member. In 1781
he settled in Frankfort, where he died in 1798.
He had a passionate fondness for horses, which led
him to paint them with a success hardly sur-
passed. He worked well in sepia and Indian
ink, and was a good etcher ; but he could not
render the human figure with freedom. The Stadel
Institute at Frankfort possesses eight of his pictures.

PFRUNDT, GEOP.G, (or PFRDND,) was born at
Flachslanden, in Bavaria, in 1603, and died at
Durlach in 1663. According to Sandrart, he en-
graved a considerable number of architectural and
geographical subjects. He was an engineer,
sculptor, modeller in was, and steel engraver, and
served the Duke of Weimar in the first of these
capacities.

PHEIDIAS, the celebrated sculptor, who was
born at Athens about 500 B.C., and died about 430,
is said by Pliny to have painted at Athens a picture
of Pericles as the Olympian Jupiter.

PHELPS, RICHARD, a portrait painter who prac-
tised in England in the first half of the 18th century.
J. Faber engraved after him a portrait of Bamptield
Moore Carew.

PHILESIUS, RIQMANN, a German engraver on
wood, resided, according to Papillon, at Strasburg
in the beginning of the 16th century. He executed
a set of twenty-five cuts of the Life and Passion of

107



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



our Saviour, published at Strasbmg, by John
Knoblauch, in 1508. He was also a carver of wood.
Zani notices him under the names Rigman, Phi-
lesius, and Philery, or Phillery.

PHILIP IV. of Spain (1605-1665) was an
amateur painter. He produced among other pic-
tures a 'St. James with the Lamb,' 'Jesus with St.
John,' and a ' Magdalen in the Desert.' PHILIP V.
(1683-1746), according to Palomino, was also an
amateur artist, drawing in pen and ink with skill
and facility.

PHILIPPE, JEAN B. C. See CHATELAIN.

PHILIPPE, PIETER, was a Dutch engraver, who
flourished at the Hague about the year 1660. We
have by him a few plates of portraits and festivals,
among which are the following:

PORTRAITS.

Louis Henri, Prince of Nassau ; P. Philippe fee,
Henri Charles de la Tremouille, Prince ds Tarente ;
ajttt' Van del' Bank.

SUBJECTS.
The Assembly of the States-General of Holland ; after

Tornvliet.

A grand Festival ; after the same.
A set of Merry-makings ; after Tan der Venne. 1600.

PHILIPPI, IlEiN'RicH, was born at Cleves in
1838, and studied in Diisseldorf, Munich, and
Rome. He joined the German forces in 1866 and
1870-1 as a Landwehr officer, and at Koniggratz
was wounded in the foot. After leaving the army
ho devoted himself entirely to art, and produced
historical, genre, and animal pictures. An early
death at Diisseldorf in 1874 interrupted his success-
ful career. Among his best compositions are :

Thusnelda in the Triumph of Germanicus.
Scenes from the Peasant War.

Scenes from the Life of the Romans and Pompeians.
Soldiers of the Landwehr returning home.
Choice Ewes.

PHILIPPOTEAUX, HENRI EMMANUEL FELIX, a
French battle painter, was born in Paris in 1815.
He studied art under Leon Cogniet. He painted
military scenes with great success, though some-
times with a curious dryness. Late in life he pro-
duced one or two excellent panoramas. He died in
Paris in 1885. Works :

Chasseurs d'Afrique at Balaclava.

Rivoli.

Moutebello.

The Death of Turenne.

The Retreat from Moscow.

Surrender of Antwerp.

Henry IV. and Sully at Ivry.

The English Cavalry at Balaclava.

The English squares at Waterloo receiving the French
Cuirassiers. (South Kensington.)

Battle of Foutenoy. (South Kensington.)

PHILIPS, CHARLES, an English portrait painter,
the son of Richard Philips, was born in 1708. His
practice was among the nobility, and he had a
large clientele at an early age. He married in
1738, and lived in Great Queen Street, St. Giles's.
His portraits are generally of a small size, and
though well painted and good likenesses, do not
show him to have been possessed of any high art
qualities. This is especially evident in his portrait
groups. Several of his portraits have been en-
graved. He died in 1747. Works:

Knole Park. Lady Betty Germaine. 1731.

Knowsley Hall. Wilson, Bishop of Sodor and

Man.

108



London. National \ Warhurton, Bishop of Glou-

Portrait Gallery. J cester.

Thornton-le- Hall. Duke of Cumberland and Lord

Street. Cathcart.

The Family of Lord A. Hamil-

ton. 1731.

Woburn Abbey. The Second Duke of Marl-

borough. 1731.

PHILIPS, NATHANIEL GEORGE, was the youngest
son of John Leigh Philips, Esq., of Mayfield, Man-
chester, and was born on June 9, 1795. After
leaving school he went to Edinburgh University,
intending to adopt the medical profession, but the
favourable encouragement he received from Sir
William Allan and other artists caused him to
abandon this intention and devote his time to art.
Having a moderate competency derived from the
property of his father, whose collection of books
and works of art took nineteen days to dispose of
by auction in 1814, he spent three years travelling
ami studying in Italy. In Rome his work was so
highly appreciated that in 1825, on the death of
Fuseli, he was chosen to fill the vacancy in the
membership of the Academy of St. Luke. His
sketches also served on one occasion to ransom
him. from a more than ordinarily cultured band of
brigands. On his return he settled at Liverpool,
where he painted landscapes and exhibited as a
member of the Liverpool Academy. His most not-
able achievement, however, is a fine series of twenty-
eight plates, many of them engraved by himself,
from early drawings of old halls in Lancashire and
Cheshire. This work was originally published in
part between the years 1822 and 1824, before his
Italian tour ; but it was reissued in complete form
on a handsome scale in 1893 by Henry Gray, the
publisher, with contributory letterpress by twenty-
four authors, and a memoir of the artist's life.
Philips occasionally practised etching as well as en-
graving. His work is masterly and accurate. He
was famous personally for his conversational gifts,
and was an excellent musician. He died, un-
married, at Rodney Street, Liverpool, on August 1,
1831.

PHILIPS, RICHARD, an English portrait painter,
born in 1681, who enjoyed a large practice in the
early part of the 18th century. He died in 1741.
Amongst his works are:

London. Ironmongers' \ g; r j> <J e ff,y.
Halt. J



Woburn Abbey.



Unknown male Portrait. 1731.



PHILLERY, ANTON, an old engraver on wood,
lived at Antwerp about 1530, and has left a middle-
sized print representing two soldiers standing
before a woman, who is seated, holding a dog
upon her lap. It bears the following inscription
in old Flemish characters, fteprim t'amtnnpcn by




Genealogi
him.

PHILLIP, JOHN, was born at Aberdeen April
19th, 1817. His parents were of humble condition,
but from his youngest days he showed a strong
inclination for art. He was apprenticed early in life
to a house painter, where he made his first effort
in art by trying to copy a portrait of Wallace
from a sign-board which hung on the opposite side
of the street. He is said to have received some
instruction from Mr. Forbes, a local portrait painter,
but in 1834 he went to London as a stow-away on



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



a brig belonging to a friend of his father. On
arriving in London he was kept bard at work, but
contrived to visit the exhibition of the Royal
Academy at Somerset House. He attracted the
notice of a Major Pryse Gordon, who recommended
him to Lord Panmure, by whose generosity he was
placed as a pupil with T. M. Joy. In 1837 he
entered the Academy as a student, and in 1839 he
exhibited two pictures, 'A Moor' and a portrait.
In 1840 he exhibited his first subject picture,
' Tasso in disguise, relating his persecutions to
his Sister,' and in the same year he returned to
Aberdeen, where he was principally employed in
painting portraits. In 1846 he again sought Lon-
don, where he continued to have his domicile till
his death. In 1847 he exhibited at the Academy
'A Presbyterian Catechising,' and at the British
Institution 'Courtship' and 'The Grandfather.'
In 1848 he exhibited a 'Scotch Fair'; in 1849,
' Drawing for the Militia ' ; in 1850, ' Baptism in
Scotland,' and in 1851, 'Scotch Washing,' 'The
Spae Wife,' and 'A Sunbeam.' In this year he
went to Spain and lived for a time at Seville,
where he made numerous sketches, and began
several pictures, one of which, ' The Spanish Gipsy
Mother,' was purchased by the Queen on the
recommendation of Sir E. Landseer. He also
painted for Her Majesty 'The Letter- Writer of
Seville.' In 1856-57', in company with his friend
Richard Ansdell, he made a tour through Spain,
and in 1857 sent home to the Academy 'Charity'
and 'The Prison Window'; and in the same year
he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy.
In the year 1858 he painted ' Spanish Contraban-
distas' for the Queen, a portrait of the Prince
Consort for the city of Aberdeen, ' El Cortejo,' and
'Youth in Seville.' In 1859 he became a full
Academician, and exhibited ' Huff,' and a portrait
of A. L. Egg, R.A. In 1860 was exhibited his
picture of ' the Marriage of the Princess Royal,'
ordered by the Queen, and ' Prayer,' his diploma
picture ; and in the autumn of the same year he
was again in Spain. In 1861 he exhibited ' Gossips
at a Well'; in 1862 'Doubtful Fortune,' or 'The
Fortune-Teller.' 'A Spanish Volunteer,' 'Water
Drinkers,' and ' Dolores.' In 1863 was exhibited
his ' House of Commons,' painted for the Speaker,
Mr. Denison, afterwards Viscount Ossington, repre-
senting a debate on the French Treaty, 1860 ; and
' Agua Bendita.' In 1864 appeared 'La Gloria a
Spanish Wake,' bought for the Scottish National
Gallery, Edinburgh, in 1897, for 5250/.,_ and a
portrait of the Earl of Dalhousie ; and in 1865
f The Early Career of Murillo, 1634.' In 1866 he
produced a portrait of Duncan McNeil], of Colonsay,
Lord Justice of Scotland, and ' A Chat round the
Brasiero.' In the spring of this year he went to
Rome, for the winter, but ill health brought him
back to London, where he was attacked by paralysis,
and died February 27, 1867. Phillip married a sister
of Mr. Richard Dadd. A large collection of his
works was exhibited at the London International
Exhibition in 1873. Besides those already men-
tioned we may name :

The Brig Manly. 1834.

Portrait of himself at the age of twenty-three. 1840.

Sketch portrait of Sir J. E. Millais, Bt., IUA. 1843.

(T. Oldham Sarlmv, Esq., R.A.)
The Miller's Daughter. 1847.
Girl tending Cattle. 1850.
The Gipsy Queen. 1853.
The Highlander's Home. 1855.



Richard Ansdell, R.A. 1356.

S. Bough, A.R.S.A. 1856.

The Evil Eye. 1858.

H.R.H. The Princess Beatrice. 1860.

The Toilet. 1860.

A Spanish Widow. 1861.

La Bomba, or the Wine-Drinkers.

The Grape-Seller. Seville. 1862.

La Loteria Nacional. 1862.

Breakfast in the Highlands. 1865.

A large number of his unfinished pictures were sold
after his death ; among them :

Spanish Boys playing at Bull-Fighting. (Scottish
National Gallery.)

PHILLIPS, CHARLES, a mezzotint engraver, was
born in 1737. He studied in London, and was in
1765 employed by Boydell. The latest date known
on his works is 1770. He worked also in the dot
manner. We have, among others, the following
prints by him :

Portrait of the Daughter of N. Hone, R.A.

A Boy holding a Pigeon ; after Mala.

A Woman plucking a Fowl ; after Rembrandt.

The Philosopher ; after the same.

The Holy Family ; after Parmit/iano.

Venus and Cupid ; after Salviati.

Isaac blessing Jacob ; after Spai/noletto.

And others, after Loutlierboury and Sir Joshua Reynolds.

PHILLIPS, GILES FIRMAN, an English landscape
painter, born in 1780. His practice was confined
io river scenes, and, living at Greenwich, these
were chiefly furnished by the Thames. He ex-
hibited at the Academy from 1836 to 1858, and
published 'Principles of Effect and Colour' (1838),
and 'Practical Treatise on Drawing' (1839). He
died March 31, 1867.

PHILLIPS, HENRY WYNDHAM, an English por-
trait painter, born in 1820. He received his art
instruction from his father, T. Phillips, R.A., and
exhibited at the Academy from 1839 to 1868.
Though his works were chiefly portraits and he
had a large circle of sitters, he painted a few
Scriptural subjects. For several years he was



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