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as well justified as such soubriquets usually are.

He improved on the style of his father, and his
pictures have less of the spotted chalky character
which, from its having been followed by several
other members of this clever family, is considered
as a chief feature of " the Nasmyth school." In
1809 he first exhibited at the Royal Academy, and
in 1824 he became one of the original members of
the Society of British Artists. He often painted
Scottish scenes, but the character of his landscapes
is entirely English. His style was not sufficiently
massive to represent properly the wild mountain-
ous character and striking atmospheric peculiar-
ities of Scotland. Light clouds, sunshine, smooth
water, or small pattering brooks, meadows, gently
rising grounds, and green trees, are the objects
which his pencil was best qualified to represent.
Nasmyth died at Lambeth, on the 17th of August,
1831, during a thunder-storm, which, at his own
desire, he was raised in his bed to behold. His
pictures are signed Pat*. Nasmyth. Among
Nasmyth's better works we may name:

London. Nat. Gall. Cottage in Hyde Park.

>, The Angler's Nook.

Landscape with a furzy


,, A Cascade.

A Country Eoad.

Landscape with River.

Lake Scene.

South Kensinytm. Sir Philip Sydney's Oak, Pens-

,, Cottage by a Brook.

,, ,, Rick-yard.

View of St. Albans.
Distant View of Edinburgh.
View of Windsor Castle.
A Hampshire Landscape.

NASOCCHIO, GIUSEPPE, a native of Bassano,
who painted in the style of the quattrocentisti,
but, according to Lanzi, left a picture dated 1529.
Two more artists of this name, FRANCESCO and
BARTOLOMMEO NASOCCHIO, were active in Bassano
in the 16th century.

NASON, PIETER, painter, was born early in the
17th century at Amsterdam, or The Hague. He
was a member of the Guild of Painters of the
latter place, and in 1656 was one of the forty-
seven members who established the 'Pictura'
Society. Frum a MS. by Pieter Terwesten, it
appears not improbable that Nason was a pupil of
Jan van Ravensteyn ; and it is believed that his
name has been effaced from pictures since at-
tributed to Mierevelt, Moreelse, and above all to
Ravensteyn. It is certain that he painted the
portrait of Prince Mauritz, Governor of the
Brazils, engraved by Houbraken, and those of
Charles the Second of England, engraved by C.
Van Dalen and Sandrart, and of the Grand
Elector. At Berlin there is a full-length portrait,
dated 1667, of the latter, by Nason ; also a fine
picture of still life, representing gold, silver,
and glass vessels, &c. ; likewise a portrait by him
signed and dated 1670. There are others at
Copenhagen and at Rotterdam. The date of his
death is not known, but his life was long. Redgrave
gives the initial of his Christian name wrongly as R.

NAST, THOMAS, American caricaturist and
black-and-white artist, was born at Landau in
Bavaria on Sept. 27, 1840. He went to America
with his parents at the age of six, and after very
little instruction began his artistic career by
supplying illustrations and caricatures to ' Frank
Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper,' 'Harper's Weekly,'



and other periodicals. In 1860 he was sent to
England by the ' New York Illustrated News 'to
illustrate the prize-fight between Heenan and
Sayers. He then joined General Medici as artist-
correspondent in the campaign conducted by
Garibaldi in 1860, furnishing sketches for various
English, French, and American papera. On his
return to America he gained a high reputation as
an artist during; the Civil War, and became a
cartoonist to ' Harper's Weekly.' As a political
cartoonist he had wide influence, his work having an
ingenious distortion and a subtlety that made him
a dreaded opponent. His most trenchant campaign
was his attack on Tammany Hall in New York.
He illustrated a number of books, made designs
for panoramas, and travelled on several lecturing
tours. He also executed a number of oil-paintings,
one of which, representing the departure of the
7th Regiment of New York for the war in 1861,
is in the armoury of the regiment, of which at the
time of his death Nast was a veteran member.
In 1871 he supplied thirty-three illustrations to
'The Fight at Dame Europa's School,' published
in London in 1871 ; and in 1873 illustrated a New
York edition of the ' Pickwick Papers.' For some
years before his death he was American Consul
at Guayaquil in Ecuador. He died in January
1903. M.H.


born at Cremona about the year 1590. He was
first a disciple of Andrea Mainardi, but afterwards
studied at Bologna, under Guido Reni. There are
several of his works at Genoa and Cremona, where
he also distinguished himself as an architect. One
of his best works, as a painter, is a picture of
'St. Francesca Romagna,' in the church of San
Gismondo at Cremona. He lived to above the
age of ninety-three, for he was still alive in 1683.

Natali, was born at Cremona about the year 1630,
and distinguished himself as a painter and en-
graver. After receiving some instruction from
his father, he went to Rome, where he entered the
school of Pietro da Cortona. On his return to
Cremona, he painted several pictures for the
churches, and established an academy in which he
cultivated the principles of Cortona, though with-
out many followers. In the church of the P. P.
Predicatori, is a large picture by him, embellished
with architecture, representing ' St. Patriarca burn-
ing the Books of the Heretics.' He died about
the year 1700.

NATALI, GIUSEPPE, was the head of a family
established at Casal Maggiore, in the Cremonese,
many members of which were employed in archi-
tectural and decorative painting. Giuseppe was
born in 1652, and died in 1722. His brothers
FRANCESCO, PIETRO, and LORENZO worked with him.
His son Giarnbattista died young, and Francesco's
son of the same name, after being appointed court
painter to the King of Naples, died before the
middle of the 18th century. Giovanni Battista
Zaist, who wrote the memoirs of the painters of
Cremona, was a pupil of Giuseppe Natali.


NATALIS, MICHAEL, was born at Liege in 1606
or 1609, and first instructed in engraving by his
father, who was medallist to the Bishop, and by
Carl de Mallery. He afterwards went to Paris and
Rome, where he was introduced by Sandrart to
Prince Giustiniani, for whom, in conjunction with

Theodor Metham, Regnier Persyn, and others, he
engraved the antique statues in his gallery. In
1653 he was court-engraver to the Elector Maxi-
milian Heinrich at Cologne, and engraved in 1658
the portrait of the Emperor Leopold. He was
still alive in 1670. He engraved a few portraits,
which are among the best of his prints. We have,
among others, the following by him :


Josephus Justinianus Benedict! Filius; Mich. Jfatalis

Jacob Catz, Pensionary of Holland, and Poet ; after du

Eugene d'Alamond, Bishop of Ghent.

Maximilian Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria ; after J. San-

Frit'drich, Count of Merode.

Ernestine, Princess de Ligne ; after Van 2)yck.

The Marquis del Guasto, with his Mistress represented
as Venus ; after Titian.


The Holy Family ; after Raphael.

The Virgin and Infant Jesus, with St. Joseph seated
behind ; after Andrea del Sarto.

The Holy Family; after N. Poussin. The first im-
pressions are before the child was draped.

The Holy Family, with angels presenting flowers ;
after S. Bourdon.

The Virgin holding the Infant Christ, who is sleeping,
with St. John by her side ; after the same. The first
impressions are before the bosom of the Virgin was

The Assembly of the Carthusians ; in four sheets ;
after Sertholet Flematl.

Mary washing the Feet of Christ ; after Rubens.

The Last Supper ; after Diepenleeck.

NATHE, CHRISTOPH, a landscape painter and
etcher, born at Niederberlau in Upper Lusatia in
1753. He studied under Oeser at Leipsic, and
travelled in Silesia and Switzerland. Of his
etchings may be. mentioned a collection of forty-
eight landscapes, heads, and portraits. He painted
in oils and water-colours, and made drawings in
sepia. Nathe died at Schadewalde, near Marklissa,
in 1808.

NATKER, (or NOTKER,) a monk of St. Gall, who
painted miniatures in the 10th century.

NATOIHE, CHARLES JOSEPH, painter and en-
graver, was born at Nimes in 1700, He was
instructed by Louis Galloche and Lemoine. Having
obtained, in 1721, the first prize for painting, by
his picture of ' The mother of Samson offering
a sacrifice to God,' which is the oldest of the
competition pictures preserved in the Acad^mie
des Beaux Arts, he then went to Rome, where the
Academy of Saint Luke, having proposed the
subject of ' Moses delivering the Law to the
Israelites,' he gained the first prize. In 1751 he
became Director of the French Academy at Rome,
and, after he had painted the dome of the church
of Saint Louis des Francais, was, in 1756, made a
Knight of the Order of St. Michael. He retired in
1774, and died at Castel Gandolfo in 1777. His
best works as a painter are ' St. Sebastian, with an
Angel taking an Arrow from his body ; ' and the
fresco paintings (now much damaged) in the
chapel of Les Enfants trouvds, engraved by
Desplaces, Fessard, and others. His works are
signed C. N., or with his full name. The Louvre
possesses the three following works from his brush :

Venus demanding arms for jEneas from Vulcan.

The Three Graces.


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.'//TV// /-/ir jitiiiih't/i/ /// \iii'/n-t in /-/ir. VaiioneU/, ////.<<///// i '/to&hfotm .













He etched the following- plates, but most of the im-
pressions remaining of the ' Crucifixion ' and the
' Four Seasons ' have been finished with the burin :

The Crucifixion, with Mary Magdalene at the foot of

the Cross.

The Adoration of the Magi.
The Martyrdom of St. Fereol.
Two, of the Sports of Children.
Spring and "Winter; etched by Natoire, and finished

with the burin by P. Adeline.

His sister, Mademoiselle NATOIBE, who went to
Italy with him, worked in pastel.

NATTES, JOHN CLAUDE, an English water-
colour painter, of the early tinted school, was born
about 1765. He studied under Hugh Deane, and
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1782 to 1814.
This very clever topographical draughtsman was an
Irishman of vehement temper and wild enthusiasm.
He was one of the earliest topographical painters
whose works had any artistic merit beyond their
accuracy, and he was able to invest the scenes which
he represented with some distinct poetic charm.
His works appear in many volumes depicting Scot-
land, Ireland, the West of England, and the northern
parts of France, all of which were published by
himself; but occasionally his work was commis-
sioned by other writers to illustrate their pro-
ductions, and in the ' Beauties of England and
Wales' and the various volumes of the 'Keepsake'
there are many of his drawings to be found. He
was one of the founders of the Old Water-Colour
Society and exhibited constantly in its Galleries
and also at the Royal Academy, but in 1807 he
was expelled from the Society of Painters in
Water-Colours, having been convicted of attaching
his name to certain drawings which were not his
own work, and which it is said he had sent to the
Gallery because his own works were not ready in
time. He protested against the expulsion and
insisted that the greater part of these drawings
were his own work, and in this he was probably
correct, but the members refused to accept his
excuses. He continued, however, to exhibit at the
Royal Academy up to 1814. He died at South
Molton Street, London, in 1822. With his very
latest breath he condemned the action of the Old
Water-Colour Society, claiming that drawings done
by his pupils, but finished by himself, were
entitled to be called his work and to be shown in
his name. For the support of this argument he
was able to produce many famous examples from
the works of the old masters. Among the illus-
trated works which he published are :

Scotia Depicta. 1804.

Hiberuia Depicta. 1802.

Select views of Bath, Bristol, Malvern, &c. 1805.

Bath illustrated. 1S06.

NATTIER, JEAN BAPTISTE, elder son of Jean
Marc Nattier, the elder. He was a painter of
history of small merit. Received into the Academy
in 1712, he became involved in a disgraceful scan-
dal, was committed to the Bastille, and there put an
end to his own life in 1726.

NATTIER, JEAN MAEC, commonly called MARC
NATTIER, was born in Paris in 1642. He painted
some excellent portraits, and was the father and
first master of Jean Marc Nattier, the younger.

NATTIER, JEAN MARC, son of the last-named
and of Marie Courtois, a distinguished miniaturist,
was born in Paris in 1685. He was instructed by
his father, and afterwards studied at the Academy,
and in the Gallery of the Luxembourg. He dis-

tinguished himself as a portrait painter, in which
capacity he was much employed. The drawings for
the engravings from the pictures painted by Rubens
for Marie de' Medici were by Nattier. About 1716
he accompanied M. Le Fort, the minister of Peter
the Great, to Amsterdam, where the Czar then was.
There he painted the Czar, several members of
the Russian court, and a picture of the ' Battle of
Pultawa.' He afterwards began, at the Hague, a
portrait of the 'Empress Catherine,' which waa
never finished. In 1718, Nattier was received into
the Paris Academy on the strength of a ' Perseus
bringing the Medusa's head to the marriage feast
of Phineus." In 1720, having lost his accumu-
lations through the schemes of Law, he resolved
to confine himself to portraiture, which he prac-
tised with success for the rest of his life. He died
in Paris in 1766. His life, by Madame Torgal, his
daughter, has been published. Among his pictures
we may also name :

Dresden. Gallery. Portrait of Marshal Saxe.

Nantes. Gallery. Portrait of the famous dan-

seuse, M. A. Cuppi, called La

i. A Lady of Louis XV.'s Court

Paris. Louvre. The Magdalen.

NAUDET, THOMAS CHARLES, a French landscape
draughtsman, and pupil of Hubert Robert. He
flourished between 1774 and 1810.

NAUDI, ANGELO, an obscure Italian of the 16th
century, who imitated the style of Paolo Veronese,
and was employed at the court of Philip IV.

NAUMANN, CARL GEORO, German painter;
born Sept. 13, 1827, at Konigsberg (Prussia) ;
studied at the Academy there under Rosenberger
and afterwards at Munich. He chose to establish
himself at Konigsberg ; he painted cheerful genre
pictures, many of which have been reproduced,
such as 'Fasting Time,' 'The Postman,' ' Haiti'
'Alpine Roses,' &c. He died in December 1902.

NAUMANN, FRIEDRICH, was born at Blasewitz,
near Dresden, in 1750, and studied five years
under Casanova at the Academy there. He then
went to Venice, and stayed seven years at Rome,
where he was a disciple of Mengs. He studied
principally the works of Raphael, Guido Reni,
and Titian. The Margrave of Anspach appointed
him his court-painter ; and he was also a member
of the Academy at Berlin. There is by him,
besides 'The Hermit,' and ' The portrait of Mengs '
(engraved by Cunego), an altar-piece in the Krerz-
kirche at Dresden. F. Naumann was alive in 1815.

NAUBORGO, MICHAEL, a Bolognese painter,
who, it is believed, was a pupil of Guido Reni.

NAUINX, or NAVINX, a landscape painter, who
lived at Hamburg in the 17th century, and who is
often confounded with Naeuwincx or Nauwinck.
He painted Alpine scenery in his larger works.
In the smaller, more tranquil scenes somewhat in
the style of Waterloo, but his colouring runs into a
bluish green, or into grey. J. M. Weyer painted
figures for him in good keeping with his landscapes.
He died in Hamburg, but the date is uncertain.

NAVA, Luis PE, a Spanish knight of Santiago,
who practised art as an amateur about 1753, and
was a member of the Seville Academy.

NAVARO, JOAN, a Spanish engraver, is stated
by Strutt to have resided at Seville about the
year 1598. He engraved several frontispieces for




NAVARRO, FRANCISCO, a Spanish engraver, who
executed the title-page and a large plate of arms,
for a descriptive account of an auto-da-fe held at
Madrid in 1632, and the title-page of a book
called 'The Church Militant,' published by Fray
Fernando Carmayo y Salgado in 1642. In the
same year he engraved an architectural title-page
with the effigies of Horace, Persius, and Juvenal
arranged like saints in a retablo, for Don Diego
Lopez's ' Dissertation ' on the two latter satirists.

NAVARRO, JUAN JOSE, a Spanish admiral who
practised painting and designing, was born in 1687.
He executed some very clever pen-and-ink draw-
ings in the style of Callot.

NAVARRO, J0AN SIMON, an historical and
flower paiuter, lived at Madrid about the middle
of the 17th century. A somewhat mediocre
historical picture by him bears the date 1654,
and represents the Virgin, of the size of life,
employed in the workshop of Joseph, who is
sawing a board, while the Infant Jesus is forming
a cross in the midst of a group of angels. As
a painter of flowers he holds a more respectable
rank. In the convent of the Shod Carmelites
at Madrid, are a 'Nativity' and an 'Epiphany'
by him, which were formerly in the convent
of the same order at Valdemoro.

NAVEZ, FRANCOIS JOSEPH, a Belgian historical,
genre, and portrait painter, born at Charleroi in
1787. He first studied under Joseph Francois,
and obtained several prizes at the Brussels and
Ghent Academies. He was thus enabled to com-
plete his studies in Paris under David, with whom,
when exiled from France, he returned to Belgium.
From 1817 to 1822 Navez was at Rome, and subse-
quently settled at Brussels. There his fame was
already well established, and he was much em-
ployed. During many years he held a foremost
position among Belgian artists, and was Director
of the Brussels Academy. Many pupils passed
through his studio, and honours were freely be-
stowed on him. He died at Brussels in 1869.
Among his works are :

Amsterdam. Jesuits' Ch. Incredulity of St. Thomas.
The Holy Family.

The Marriage of the Virgin.

Brussels. Museum. Hagar and Ishmael in the


Athaliah and Joash.

The Judgment of Solomon.

,, The Kich Man before Christ.

St. Gudule. The Assumption of the Virgin.

The Raising of Lazarus.

Haarlem. Gallery. Raising the Shunamite's Son.

The Meeting of Isaac and He

Munich New PinaJcothek. ' Spinsters ' of Fondi.

NAVLET, JOSEPH, French historical painter, was
born at Chalons-sur-Marne, and studied under Abel
de Pujol. Since 1848 he has exhibited at the
Salon, his chief works being ' The Martyrdom of
Joan of Arc' and 'The Defeat of Attila.' The
war of 1870 supplied him with many subjects for
his brush. He was also well known as a water-
eolour painter. He died in 1889 at the age of

NAVLET, VICTOR, French painter and archae-
ologist, died in 1886.

NAVOIS, J. S., who lived in the second half of
the 17th century, was a painter of landscapes and
marines in the manner of Bakhuisen. His paint-
Ings have often been confounded with the works
of that master.


NAYS, , was a Flemish landscape painter who
lived towards the end of the 17th century. In
some of his pictures, which are very numerous in
Belgium but of small merit, the figures are painted
by Nicolay.

NAZON, FRANC.OIS HENRI, French painter;
born Dec. 25, 1821, at Realmont (Tarn); was a
pupil of Gleyre, and afterwards copied the
manner of Corot. In 1870 he settled at Montauban.
Among his best works are ' Lever de Soleil &
Penne,' now in the Luxembourg, and ' Moulins du
Tarn, 1 in the Montauban Museum. He died in
May 1902.

at or near Bergamo in 1699, and was first a scholar
of Vittore Ghislandi and Angelo Trevisano at
Venice. Afterwards he studied at Rome under
Francesco Trevisani, and then settled at Venice.
He was a painter of history and portraits, but
particularly excelled in the latter, in which he
was much employed at the different courts in
Germany. One of the most esteemed of his his-
torical pictures is a ' Holy Family, with St. Anne,'
at Pontremoli. He died at Venice or Milan in
1758. He etched the portrait of F. M. Molza, at
Modena. Bartolozzi and A. Faldoni have engraved
after him.

NEAGLE, JOHN, tin English line engraver, born
in London about 1760. Amongst his plates are :

The Royal Procession to St. Paul's. 1789.

Several plates for the Shakespeare Gallery; after
Whcatletj and Smtrke.

The illustrations to Murphy's 'Arabic Antiquities of
Spain.' 1816.

NEAGLE, JOHN, a self-taught American artist
who became a very clever portrait painter. He
was apprenticed to a coach-builder of Philadelphia
when quite a lad, having been born in that city in
1799. When nineteen years of age he was able to
relinquish the work to which he had been set,
and devote his time to training in the higher
branches of the profession, and eventually settled
down in New Orleans, where he speedily became
well known and very popular. He married a
daughter of the artist Sully, and from his father-
in-law received much assistance and tuition. When
he left New Orleans he returned to his native town,
and there he spent the rest of his life, and in that
city are to be found his most notable works, portraits
of Washington, Carey, and Clay. Other portraits
by Neagle can be found at Boston, New Orleans,
Pittsburg, and New York. He died in 1805.

NEAL, ELIZABETH, a still-life painter of the 18th
century. It is said that she lived in Holland, and
painted flowers which rivalled those by Seghers.
None of her works, however, can be identified.

NEALE, JOHN PRESTON, a very eminent English
architectural designer and engraver, was born in
1771. His father is believed to have been a painter
of insects. He himself began his career as a clerk
in the Post Office, but he soon left clerical work
for topographical draughtsmanship. He painted a
few works in oil, but his favourite method was to
draw with the pen and finish with washes of water-
colour. In 1818 he published the first portion of
the ' History and Antiquities of the Abbey church
at Westminster,' and in 1823 the second part, form-
ing together two volumes royal quarto, containing
sixty-one beautiful engravings. The literary part,
consisting of notices and Biographical Memoirs of
the Abbots and Deans of that foundation, was
written by E. W. Brayley. Together with the


second portion of this work, he published six
volumes, royal quarto, of ' The Seats of Noblemen
and Gentlemen of England, Wales, Scotland, and
Ireland ; ' and in 1829 a second series in five vols.,
containing, in the whole, seven hundred and thirty-
seven plates. The labour of producing two such
important works in the period would have been
sufficient employment for the most industrious de-
signer ; but Neale was indefatigable. During the
years 1824 and 1825 he published, in conjunction
with LeKeux, ' Views of the most interesting Col-
legiate and Parochial Churches of Great Britain,
including Screens, Fonts, Monuments, &c., with
historical and architectural descriptions,' containing
ninety-eight plates, in which the talents of both
artists appear to the greatest advantage. He was a
frequent exhibitor between 1797 and 1844. In the
earlier part of his artistic career he painted many
architectural subjects in oil, with views of their
several localities, in which he exhibited the feeling
and power of a true landscape painter. A larger
number of his works were, however, in water-
colours, and in 1817 and 1818 he exhibited at the
Water-colour Society. But the success that at-
tended his publications induced him to abandon the j
palette altogether, and devote his energies and I
skill to a class of work in which he particularly '
delighted, and in which, for a long time, he stood
unrivalled. Many detached pieces were designed
and executed by him for the embellishment of
other publications. He died near Ipswich in 1847.
NEALE, THOMAS, was an English engraver, who
flourished about the year 1650. He is supposed
to have been a disciple of Hollar. He engraved
after him twenty-four subjects from Holbein's
' Dance of Death,' the first of which is marked,

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