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secretary to the Artists' Benevolent Institution. He
died December 5, 1868. Amongst his works are :
London. Garrick Club. Charles Kean as Louis XI.
Royal College ) D p t _
of Physicians. )
Institution of ( Kobert stepheusou. 1866.

Civil Engineers.)

PHILLIPS, S., an English engraver, practising
in London at the close of the 18th century. Amongst
his plates are :

The Birth of Shakespeare ; after Westall.
The Guardian Angel ; after Maria Cosway.
PHILLIPS, THOMAS, a well-known portrait
painter, was born at Dudley, in Warwickshire, in
1770. He was placed with Eginton, the glass
painter, at Birmingham, and came to London in
1790 with a letter of introduction to Benjamin West,
who employed him on the windows in St. George's
Chapel at Windsor. In 1702 he commenced as an
exhibitor, with a ' View of Windsor Castle ' ; and in
the two following years he exhibited the ' Death of
Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, at the battle of Cas-
sillon,' ' Ruth and Naomi,' ' Elijah restoring the
Widow's Son,' ' Cupid disarmed by Euphrosyne,'
and other subject pictures. Soon afterwards he
devoted himself chiefly to portrait painting. Not-
withstanding that he had to compete with Hoppner,
Owen. Jackson, Lawrence, and Beechey, he kept
steadily progressing in public favour, and seemed
to be the selected painter for men of genius and


talent. In 1804 he was elected an Associate of the
Academy. In 1806 he painted the Prince of
Wales, Lord Egremont, the Marquis of Stafford,
and the Stafford Family. In 1808 he became an
R.A., and in 1824 succeeded Henry Fuseli in the
professorship of painting, which office he held till
1832. On his appointment to the professorship lie
made a tour in Italy, in the company of Hilton, in
order to enable him to discharge the duties of the
office more efficiently. He delivered ten ' Lectures
on the History and Principles of Painting,' which
he afterwards published in one volume (in 1833).
These lectures are clear and simple in their style,
and instructive in substance and arrangement,
especially in those parts where he gives an exposi-
tion of his views of the principles of art. He died
in London, April 20, 1845. In 1802 he painted by
stealth, but with the connivance of Josephine, a
portrait of Napoleon which is now at Petworth ;
it has been engraved. Phillips wrote many of the
articles on the tine arts in Rees's Cyclopaedia, and
in other publications. He was one of the great pro-
moters of the Artists' General Benevolent Institu-
tion. His Diploma picture at Burlington House is a
' Venus and Adonis.' The following portraits were
painted nearly in the order in which we give them.

Lord Thurlow.

William Blake (engraved by Schiaionetti').

Lord Byron (twice).

Count Platoff.

The poet Crabbe.

Earl Grey.

Lord Brougham.

Sir Joseph Banks.

Joshua Brookes, the celebrated lecturer on Burgery.

Major Deuham, the African traveller.

Lord Stowell.

Sir E. Parry.

Sir J. Brunell.

David Wilkie. (National Gallery.)

Sir F. Burdett.

Lord Lyndhurst.

Dr. Arnold.

The Duke of Sussex.

Sir Nicholas Tindal, Chief Justice of the Common


Dr. Shuttleworth, Bishop of Chichester.
Sir Walter St-ott, Thomas Moore, Thomas Campbell,

Southey, and Coleridge, for Mr. .Murray.
Dr. Buckland.
Professor Sedgwick.
Davies Gilbert.
Mrs. Somerville.
Mr. Hallam, the historian.
Francis Baily, the astronomer.
Michael Faraday,
sir Humphrey Davy.

l'HILOCHARES,abrother of the orator ^Eschines,
was one of the last of the Greek painters previous
to the decline of the art in the 3rd century B.C.
Another painter of the same name is mentioned by
Pliny as the author, about 50 B.C., of a ' Glaucon
and his Son,' for the comitia.

PHILOXENES, a native of Eretria, was a dis-
ciple of Nicomachus, and adopted the expeditious
style of his instructor. According to Pliny, he
painted for Cassander a picture representing the
Defeat of Darius by Alexander,' which was con-
sidered one of his most important works.

PHILP, JAMES GEORGE, painter, was a native
of Falmouth, and was born in 1816. He first ex-
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1846, his contri-
butions being two landscapes in oils. He after-
wards successfully devoted himself to painting in
water-colour, and in 1856 became a member of the

New Society of Painters in Water-Colours. He
died April 11, 1885.

PHRYLUS, an ancient Greek painter of some
repute, is mentioned by Pliny as a contemporary
of Aglaophon the younger, Cephisodotus, and
Evenor. He flourished about 420 B.C.

PIACENZA, BARTOLINO DA. This name is found on
some wall-paintings, executed in the 14th century,
in the Baptistery at Parma. The town of Piacenza

P1AGALI, FRANCESCO, a native of Saragossa,
who flourished in the 17th century, and is placed
by Palomino among the good Valencian painters.

a native of Zoagli, in the Genoese state, and flour-
ished about the year 1547. He was a disciple of
Lodovico Brea. In conjunction with Antonio
Semini, he painted several works for the churches
at Genoa, of which one of the best was a ' Martyr-
dom of St. Andrew.'

Molinaretto, was born at Genoa in 1660. He
studied at Rome under G. B. Gaulli, and painted
historical pictures and portraits. He visited Parma
and Piacenza, and Charles Bourbon of Naples
appointed him court painter. He died in 1745.


torical painter of Pistoia, and flourished at the
beginning of the 18th century. He was a pupil of
Luti. He painted several frescoes in the porch of
the Madonna della Umilta, at Pistoia, and also
worked in S. Maria in Via Lata, at Rome.

PIATTI, FRANCESCO, is said by Fuessli, in his
Supplement, to have been born at Teglio, in the
Valteline, in 1650. He does not acquaint us by
whom he was instructed, but informs us that he
painted a great number of altar-pieces and pictures
for the churches and galleries of the neighbourhood,
and highly commends a picture of ' Cleopatra,' by
him, in the possession of a noble family at Delebio.
Zani says he was living in 1690.

PIATTOLI, GAETANO, a Florentine painter, was
born in 1703. He was a pupil of Riviere, a French
painter, and painted portraits and mythological
scenes. He died about 1770. His wife ANNA was
also a portrait painter, and died in 1788.

Lodi about 1450, died before 1529 ; son of a
painter, Bertino, by whom no works are known,
and probably a pupil of Borgognone. Conjointly
with his brother, MARTINO PIAZZA, he painted many
altar-pieces, the two brothers being the chief repre-
sentatives of the local school of Lodi. Albertino
was, however, an artist of greater distinction and
finer fibre than his brother, though with strongly
eclectic tendencies. In many of his later works
he shows himself a close follower of the school
of Leonardo, as exemplified more especially by
Cesare da Sesto, while in others a strain of
Raphaelesque feeling is apparent. Among his
principal paintings are the following :

Bergamo. Lochis Coll. Marriage of St. Catherine.
Signor Fr^oni j Adoration of the jj^.

Castiglione S. Maria Altar-piece (Joint work with

d'Adda. dtlV fnco- AfartiTio) : Madonna and

ronata. Child, with SS. Roch and

John Baptist ; Crucifixion,

with Saints ; and above, th

Annunciation. Predella: the

twelve Apostles.


1 1 'alker_and Cockerel! photo] [National Part rait Gallery




Incoronata (Be-

rinzaghi Chapel).




Borromeo Coll.

Crespi Coll.

Marchese Vis-

conti Venosta.

Padua. Gallery.

Verona. Gallery.

Lodi. S. Agnese. Altar-piece (joint trork, dated

1520) : St. Augustine en-
throned, with faints; Ma-
donna and Child, with
Saints and the donor, Nic-
nil i GaUiani.

The Assumption.

Altar-piece (after 1513, joint
work): Madouna and Child,
with St. Anthony (who pre-
sents Albertino Berinzaghi)
and other Saints ; above,
Crucifixion, with Saints.
SS. Appollonia and Catherine
(lunette fresco).

The Coronation of the Virgin

Christ and the Apostles (pre-

Madonna and Child.

Triptych, with several Saints.

I Pieta (predella).

Christ with SS. Peter and John.

Holy Family (ascribed to

Raphael). C. J. Ff.

PIAZZA, Cavaliere ANDREA, was the nephew of
Cosimo Piazza, by whom he was instructed in the
art, and he accompanied his uncle to Rome, where
he had the advantage of studying after the great
masters. He passed some years in the service of
the Duke of Lorraine, and on his return to Venice
painted a large picture of the ' Marriage at Cana,'
for the Church of Santa Maria, which, according
to Lanzi, is his most celebrated work. He died at
Venice in 1670. There is a picture by him dated

PIAZZA, BEBTINO, a painter of Lodi in the 15th
century, the father of Albertino and Martino Piazza,
and grandfather of Calisto da Lodi. No works by
him are known, but he is probably the painter
who, according to Lomazzo, was summoned by
Francesco Sforza to decorate with frescoes the
courtyard of the Palazzo dell' Arengo at Milan,
where he was associated with Bonifazio Bembo
and other distinguished masters of the day.

LODI,) born before 1505, died after 1561 ; the
son of Martino Piazza according to a contract
of 1529, in which Calisto and his brothers are
mentioned as receiving payment for completing a
picture left unfinished by their uncle Albertino.
His principal master was Romanino of Brescia,
whom he often approaches closely, and he must
also have been intimately associated with Ales-
sandro Moretto, who was his fellow-pupil in the
workshop of Romanino. Calisto was employed for
some years at Brescia and in the Val Camonica,
but returned to Lodi in 1529, where, in company
with his brothers Scipione and Cesare, he decorated
several chapels in the Church of the Incoronata,
some of these paintings being valued in 1532 by
Civerchio and other artists. In 1539 he visited
Spain and Portugal, and is known to have executed
a fresco in the Escurial. About 1544 he settled at
Milan, and did much good work in the Churches
of S. Maurizio, S. Francesco, S. Nazzaro e Celso,
&c. Calisto was a very prolific painter, and
though many works which he is known to have
executed have disappeared, he is still well repre-
sented in North Italy. In 1562 his son FABIO, a
very feeble painter, was ordered to complete the
work in the Incoronata at Lodi which Calisto had
left unfinished at his death. The archives of this
church contain many records of payments made to

the three brothers, Calisto, CESARE, and SCIPIONE,
between the years 1529 and 1549. By the last-
named painter, who died in 1551, there is a signed
work in the Church of S. Spirito at Bergamo.
Among the best works of Calisto are the following :

Breno. (ValCanonica). The Madonna and Child, with


,, The Deposition.

Brescia. S. Clemente. The Annunciation, with Saints.
S. Maria in The Visitation (signed and

Calchera. dated 1521).
Gallery. The Nativity (signed and dated

Cividate. (Val Madonna and Child, with Saints

Canonica.) (signed).

Codogno. The Assumption, with portraits

of the Trivulzio family

Crema. Church of the Madonna and Child, with
Trinita. Saints (signed and dated


Edolo. (Val Canonica.) Frescoes: History of St. John
Baptist, and the Crucifixion.

Erbano. (ValCanonica.) Frescoes: St. George ; Death of
St. John Baptist; and the

Esine. (ValCanonica.) Pieta, with Two Angels, and
seven other figures (signed
and dated 1527).

Lodi. Cathedral. Altar-piece: Madonna and Child,

with Saints ; Massacre of the
Innocents (left unfinished by
Albertino, completed by Ca-
listo and his brothers).
^ Incoronata. Beheading of St. John Baptist

(signed and datfd 1530).
, Scenes from the History of the

, Deposition (signed and dated

,, Scenes from the Passion.

Scenes from the History of

Joachim and Anna.
Milan. Brera. Madonna and Child, with

Saints and an Angel mu-
sician (1530).
Baptism of Christ.

St. Stephen, with two Saints


,, Portrait of Lodovico Vistarini.

(Stairs leading The Marriage in Cana, and

to the Library). medallions of Apostles. 1545
(from the refectory of S.

St. Peters- M.Paul Madonna and Child (copy of a,
burg. Delarof. picture by Moretto in the

Lajjard Collection, Venice).

Verona. Gallery. The Daughter of Herodias.

Vienna. Gallery. The Daughter of Herodias

(dated 1526). C; J. Ff.

PIAZZA, MARTINO, of Lodi, died about 1527 ;
father of the above, and brother of Albertino, with
whom, as already noted, he executed many large
altar-pieces for the churches of Lodi and elsewhere.
He was probably a pupil of Borgognone, and later
followed the Leonardesque painters. As a colour-
ist he often attained to great excellence, and his
landscapes are of peculiar charm. The name of
Martino Piazza has been connected with several
pictures in private collections in England and in
North Italy. In addition to the works already
mentioned, which he executed conjointly with his
brother, the following may be ascribed with
certainty to Martino alone:
London. Nat. Gallery. St. John Baptist (signed with a


Milan. Amlrosiana. Adoration of the Magi (with a
monogram similar to the pre-



Milan. Brera. St. John Baptist (dated 1519).

Sessa Coll. Nativity (1520).

Eome. Collection of Madonna and Child, with the
Miss Hertz. little St. John and a lamb.

C. J. Ff.

PIAZZA, PAOLO, called FEA Cosmo, born at
Castelfranco, 1577, died at Venice, 1663. Studied
at Venice, and acquired some reputation for his
painting iu S. Giovanni e Paolo over the tomb of
Marc Antonio Bragadino, the defender of Fama-
gosta. He was employed later by the Capuchins
of his native place, and entered the Order, taking
the name of Fra Cosimo. Subsequently he worked
at the Court of the Emperor Rudolph II., and went
to Rome, where he enjoyed the favour of Pope
Paul V. and of Cardinal Scipione Borghese, for
both of whom he executed numerous works. On
his return to Venice he painted prophets and
sibyls in the Church of the Redentore, and was
commissioned by the Doge Antonio Priuli to exe-
cute frescoes in the Ducal Palace, but he died
before completing the work. C, J.- Ff=

trarossa, near Treviso, 1682, died at Venice, 1754.
Pupil of Antonio Molinari. Went to Bologna,
where he was influenced by Giuseppe Maria
Crespi, and more especially by the works of
Guercino. He became first Director of the Aca-
demy of Venice in 1750, and was enrolled an
honorary member of the Clementina Academy at
Bologna. Among his best works are : frescoes in
S. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice ; the ' Decollation of
S. John,' in the Church of the Santo, Padua ; the
' Standard-Bearer,' Dresden Gallery, and the ' As-
sumption,' Lille. Other works by him at Dresden,
Cassel, and Brunswick. Fitter! and others have
engraved after him, and mention is made by Nagler
of two etchings by himself. Piazzetta enjoys the
distinction of having exercised some influence
over the development of Giovanni Battista
Tiepolo, the greatest Venetian master of the 18th
century. C. J. Ff.

PICARD, ALEXANBRE NOEL, a French painter,
born in Paris in 1813. He chiefly painted land-
scapes. He died in 1869.

PICARD, HUGUES, French painter, born in 1840
at Voreppe (dep. Isere). Studied first at Grenoble,
and subsequently in Paris under Boulanger and
Lefebvre. Painted portraits and landscapes, also
genre scenes, such as ' La lecon de Chant,' ' La
, k'gon au Convent," &c. He was also a prolific
illustrator. He died in Paris, January 16, 1900.

PICART, BERNARD, an engraver, and the son of
Etienne Picart, was born in Paris in 1673. He was
instructed in design and engraving by his father,
but obtained further help from Le Brun and
Jouvenet. At the age of sixteen he gained honours
at the Academy of Paris. He distinguished him-
self both as designer and engraver, and executed
a vast number of plates. He used both the point
and the burin ; but in his larger plates the exe-
cution was not equal to the drawing, and his later
productions were inferior to his earlier ones. His
works chiefly consist of plates for books, and other
ornamental engravings. In 1710 he left Paris, and
settled at Amsterdam, where he was greatly em-
ployed by the booksellers, and died there in 1733.
He engraved a set of seventy-eight plates in
imitation of the different styles of the old engravers,
which were published after his death, in 1738, in
one volume, entitled 'Les Impostures Innocentes.'
The following are his most esteemed works :



Charles I.; after Van Dyck. 1724.

Charles II. ; after Kneller. 1724.

James II. ; after LargilKere. 1724.

William III. ; after Fan der Werf.

George I. ; after Kneller.

Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon ; after Zoust. 1724.

William, Lord Russell ; after Kneller. 1724.

Frederick, Duke of Schomberg ; after the same. 1724.

Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury ; after Hoad/y. 1724.

Eugene Francois, Prince of Savoy ; after Van Schupuen.


Don Luis, Priuce of the Asturias.
Jan de Wit, Grand Pensionary of Holland. 1727.
Francois Pierre, Cardinal de Foix. 1713.
Philip, Duke of Orleans, supported by Minerva and

Apollo; after A. Cm/pel. 1706.
Etienne Picart, the Roman, Engraver to the King.
Roger de Piles ; ipsepinx. B. Picart fee. aquaforti. 1704.


The Murder of the lunocents. The first impressions are
before the crown was placed upon the head of Herod.

A set of twelve Prints, called the Epithalamia.

Truth, the Research of Philosophy ; a Thesis in honour
of Descartes.

The Triumph of Painting.

The Death of Niobe's Children.

The Feast of the Gods and the Cresars.

A set of Prints for the Annals of the Dutch Republic.

The Frontispieces to Ceremonies Religieuses,' 11 vols.
1723 1743 ; and to various other works.


Time discovering Truth ; after the picture by Poussin, ui

the Louvre.

An Allegory on human Life ; after the same.
Arcadia ; after the same.

Two Muses, Calliope and Terpsichore ; after Le Sueur.
Abraham dismissing Hagar ; after Le Brun.
The Discovery of Calisto's shame ; after Ann. Carracci.
Neptune calming the Sea; after An. Coypel.

PICART, CHARLES, an English engraver and
draughtsman, born about 1780. He practised in
London, and died about 1837. Specimens of his
work will be found in :

Dibdin's ' Decameron.'

'Description of the Ancient Marbles in the British

Lodge's ' Portraits.'

He also engraved several dramatic portraits after
Clint and Wivell.

PICART, ETIENNE, called ' Le Remain,' was born
in Paris in 1632. After a long sojourn in Rome
he was employed, with several other artists, to
engrave the pictures in the King of France's col-
lection. His plates are sometimes executed with
the burin only, in the style of Poilly ; but he also
engraved a few in which the point is predominant.
He died at Amsterdam in 1721. His prints are
extremely numerous ; the following are the most
deserving of notice :


Jean Fran9ois Paul Gandy, Cardinal de Retz. 1652.
Bust of Cardinal Fachenettus ; after Morand.
Melchisedeck de Thevenot, the traveller ; after Chaveau.
Nicolas Choart de Busenval, Bishop of Beauvais.
Claude de Brion, President of the Parliament.
Pierre Loisel, Doctor of the Sorbonue.
Francoise Athenais de Rochechouart, Marquise de


The Ecce Homo, with three Angels ; after Albani.

The Birth of the Virgin ; after Gvido.

The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after Correygio.


Triumph of Virtue ; after the same.

Triumph of Vice ; after the same.

St. Cecilia ; after Domenichino.

A Concert of Music ; after the same.

The Infant Jesus sleeping, with the Virgin holding up

her finger to St. John ; called ' Silenzio ' ; after Ann.


The Holy Family ; after Palma.

The Parting of SS. Peter and Paul ; after Lanfranco.
The Plague among the Philistines ; after TV". Poussi*.
Christ curing the Blind ; after the same.
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after the same.
The Martyrdom of SS. Gervais and Protais ; after Le

St. Paul burning the Books of the Ephesians ; after the


The Martyrdom of St. Andrew ; after Le Brun.
The Stoning of St. Stephen ; after the same.
The Adoration of the Magi ; after Courtois.
The Virgin and Infant ; after Noel Coypel.
St. Anthony of Padua adoring the Infant Jesus ; after

Van Dyck.

PICART, JEAN, was a Frencli engraver, who
resided in Paris about the year 1640. He is sup-
posed to have been a pupil of Crispin van de Pass,
as he engraved from the designs of that master,
and imitated his style, though not very success-
fully. He appears to have been principally em-
ployed in engraving ornaments for books, and a
few portraits. We have by him a portrait of
Edward, prince of Portugal, a half-length, with
emblems ; that of Erasmus, a whole-length, forming
the frontispiece to an edition of part of his works,
published in Paris in 1639 ; and several other plates
for books, &c.

PICART, JEAN MICHEL, was a Flemish painter,
born about 1600. He painted flowers and land-
scapes, but his chief employment was selling
pictures. He established himself in Paris, where
he employed many young artists to make copies
which he sold as originals. He died in 1682.

PICAULT. PIERRE, a French engraver, was born
at Blois in 1680. It is probable that he was a pupil
of Gerard Audran, as he copied, on a small scale,
the celebrated 'Battles of Alexander,' from the
plates engraved by that artist, after Le Brun. He
also engraved some portraits, and the 'Visitation
of the Virgin to St. Elisabeth,' after Carlo Maratti.
He died young in 1711. He usually signed his
plates P. Picault, Blesensis, sculp.

PICCHI, GIORGIO, a painter of Castel-Durante,
who flourished about 1559. He sojourned for a
time in Rome, where he was employed in the
Vatican. He worked in the manner of Baroccio.

designer and engraver, was born at Florence about
1670. He was taught the rudiments of drawing
by G. B. Foggini, a sculptor, and applied himself
to engraving, both with the point and the burin.
In conjunction with Lorenzini, Mogalli, and other
artists, he executed several plates from the pictures
in the Gallery of Florence. We have, among
others, the following prints by him :


Sebastiano del Piombo ; after Titian.
Cardinal Bentevoglio ; after Van Dyck.
Pope Leo X. with the Cardinals Rossi and Giulio de'
Medici ; after Raphael.


The Madonna della Seggiola ; after Raphael.

The Virgin and Infant Jesus, with St. John ; after Ann

The Tribute Money ; after Titian.


The Virgin and Child ; after the same.

Abraham sending away Hagar ; after Pictro da Cortona

PICCINI, GIACOMO, an engraver, was born at
Venice in 1617, but it is not known by what master
he was instructed. Zani says he was still working
in 1669 ; but the latest date on his prints is 1655.
We have several plates by him, executed in a stiff,
disagreeable style ; among them a set of thirty
portraits of the principal painters of the Venetian
school for the account of their Lives published by
Ridolfi in 1648. We have also the following prints
by him :

The Portrait of Alessandro Farnese.

Diogenes, with his Lantern ; after P. Libert.

The Holy Family ; after the same.

Judith, with the Head of Holofernes at her feet ; after

The Holy Family ; after the same.

PICCINI, GUGLIELMO, was the brother of Giacomo
Piccini, and among other prints etched a plate after
a ' Pieti,' by Rubens. He had a daughter, ISABELLA
PICCINI, who was a nun, and engraved a set of
portraits of the illustrious personages of Italy, for
the ' Conchilia Celeste ' of G. B. Fabri.

PICCININO; NiccoLi, an obscure Milanese
painter, who was at work at Milan about 1500.

PICCIONI, MATTED, an Italian painter and en-
graver, was born at Ancona probably in or about
1615. Of his works as a painter little is known;
but he was made a member of the Academy of St.
Luke in 1655. We have a few spirited etchings by
him, two of which are dated 1641. The following
are among them :

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