St. Luke painting the Virgin ; after Raphael.
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Paolo Veronese.
The Holy Family ; after the same.
The Virgin and the Infant Jesus, with St. John ; after
Moses exposed on the Nile ; after the same.
PICCOLA, NICCOLA LA, a native of Crotona, in
Calabria. He was born in 1730, and worked in
Rome, where he painted some decorative pictures
in the Vatican, which have since been copied in
mosaic. Some of his work is also to be seen at
PICENARDI, CARLO. Two artists of this name
painted in Cremona early in the 17th century. One
was a pupil of Lodovico Carracci, and painted
church pictures and burlesque histories. These
were imitated by the other Picenardi, who, however,
PICHIO, ERNEST, (also called PICQ,) French
painter ; born in Paris in 1840 ; a pupil of Augusta
Couder ; his historical pictures achieved consider-
able success, notably ' Charles IX. et Catherine de
Medicis le Matin de la St. Barthelemy' (Salon
1866). Better known yet was the ' Mort d'Alphonse
Baudin,' which the Paris Municipal Council caused
to be engraved at its own expense. His death
occurred in Paris in August 1893.
PICHLER, JOHANN, gem-cutter, painter and en-
graver, was born at Naples in 1734. He was a
pupil of his father, Anton Pichler, and the painter
Corvi. In 1761 he painted several pictures for
the Franciscans and Augustinians, and made ex-
periments in encaustic and mosaic. In 1763 he
joined his father at Rome, after which he visited
England, returning to Rome in 1775. Most of his
time was given to gem-cutting, in which he rose to
such excellence that many of his intaglios were
sold as antiques. It is said that even Winkelmann
was deceived by them. He died at Rome in 1791.
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP
PICHLER, JOHANN PETER, mezzotint engraver,
was born at Botzen in 1765, and studied at Vienna
under Professor Jakobe. He worked for the Prince
of Anhalt Dessau at Dresden, and died at Vienna
in 1806. Among his best plates are :
Portrait of the Xing of Poland; after Lampi.
The Fruit Girl ; after Murillo.
Venus ; after Titian.
Omphale; after Domenichino.
Perseus and Andromeda.
Magdalene and St. John ; after Satoni.
Rembrandt's portrait of himself.
PICHON, PIERRE AUGUSTS, French painter;
born at Soreze (Tarn), December 6, 1805 ; a pupil
of Ingres ; was a fashionable portrait-painter
during the reign of Louis Philippe ; obtained a
third-class medal in 1843, a second-class medal
in 1844, a first-class medal in 1846, a rappel in
1857, and a like distinction in 1861, when he
received the Legion of Honour. He died in Paris,
PICKAKRT, PIETER, who was probably a
native of Holland, has left a set of coarse etchings,
published in Holland, and representing the flight
of James II. from England. They are probably
from his own designs, as he adds the word fecit to
his name. Neither the time of his birth nor death
are recorded, but he must apparently have been
living in 1688.
P1CKEN, ANDREW, an English lithographer,
born in 1815. He was a pupil of Louis Haghr,
and had much employment in illustrating books of
travel. Through ill-health he made two sojourns
in Madeira, and published a fine work, ' Madeira
Illustrated.' In 1835 he exhibited at the Academy
a ' Tomb in Narbonne Cathedral.' He died in
London, amid much promise, in 1845.
PICKENOY, NICOLAS ELIAS, called Ems, a
little-known Dutch painter, who is, however, the
reputed master of Van der Heist, was born at
Amsterdam about 1590. There are twelve pictures
by him in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam, which
show him to have been an excellent portraitist.
He died, probably at Amsterdam, between 1646
PICKERING, GEORGE, a drawing-master of
Chester, who hiid an important local renown for
the beauty of his work in water-colour. He was
a Yorkshire man, who resided for many years at
Chester, and later on at Liverpool. He exhibited
largely at the Liverpool Academy, and his pictures
were very highly esteemed. He also drew for the
engraver many views in Lancashire, and is believed
to have done work with the graver himself. He
died at Birkenhead in 1857, and his loss was much
lamented by his hosts of pupils, who had found in
him not only an admirable teacher but a refined
and most estimable friend.
PICKERING, HENRY, an English portrait painter
in the early part of the 18th century. He was a
follower of Kneller, and painted portraits " in
PICKERSGILL, FREDERICK RICHARD, a nephew
of H. W. Pickersgill, R.A., was born in London
in 1820. His tastes were early shown, and, after
instruction from his maternal uncle, F. Withering-
ton, he entered the Academy schools. His first
exhibited picture, 'The Brazen Age' (1839),
his ' Combat between Hercules and Achelous '
(1840), and again, his 'Amoret's Deliverance
from the Enchanter' (1841), showed his peculiar
talent and predilections, his chief pictures being
based on his loving study of Spenser, Milton,
Shakespeare, and the romantic episodes of history.
In 1843 he gained a 100 prize in the Westminster
Hall competition by his cartoon of ' The Death of
King Lear." In 1847 he followed up this success
by gaining the first prize for his ' Burial of Harold
at Waltham Abbey,' which was purchased for
.500 for the decoration of the new Houses of
Parliament. This brought him into prominence,
and he was elected in that year an Associate of the
Royal Academy at the unusually early age of
twenty-seven. In 1857 he became full Academi-
cian, his diploma picture being a Spanish subject,
'The Bribe,' and the Prince Consort bought his
' Death of Francesco Foscari.' His ' Birth of
Christianity ' is in the South Kensington Museum
(Jones Bequest), as are also the sketch and com-
pleted design for ' The Industrial Arts in Time of
Peace,' designed for a lunette in fresco but not
carried out. In the Glasgow Gallery there hangs
(on loan from the National Gallery) 'Amoret,
jEmylia and Prince Arthur in the Cottage of
Slander.' He was strongly influenced by W.
Etty ; his colour was sound and often brilliant, and
his drawing and composition correct though some-
what formal and academic. He exhibited 50
pictures in all at the Royal Academy, and six at
the British Institution (1841-1847). He also illus-
trated Milton's ' Comus,' Poe's poems, Mas-
singer's 'Virgin Martyr,' and certain Biblical sub-
jects ('The Life of Christ,' 'The Lord's Prayer').
These were engraved on wood by Dalziel, and
some designs appeared in Dalziel's Bible Gallery
in 1881. He was chosen as Trustee and Keeper
of the Academy in 1873, but resigned these
poats in 1887, retiring finally from the Academy
in 1888. He died in the Isle of Wight in
PICKERSGILL, HENRY HALL, an English sub-
ject and portrait painter, the eldest son of H. W.
Pickersgill, R.A. His studies were completed in
the Netherlands and Italy, and he first exhibited at
the Academy in 1834. About 1844 he spent two
years in Russia, which furnished him with subjects
for some pictures. On his return he practised as a
portrait painter in the midland counties. He died
in 1861. His picture ' The Right of Sanctuary ' is
e,t South Kensington. Other works :
Fishermen of Eabatsky, on the Neva.
Ferry on the Neva.
Cupid and Psyche.
Finding of Moses.
Komeo and Juliet.
PICKERSGILL, HENRY WILLIAM, an English
portrait and subject painter, born in London in
1782. He was originally intended for a silk manu-
facturer. Preferring art, he became a pupil of George
Arnald, A.R.A.,and in 1805 entered theschools of the
Academy. Here he first exhibited in the following
year, and was elected an Associate in 1822, and a
full member in 1826. His practice became very
large, and most of the eminent persons of the day
sat to him. Up to 1872, when he retired from
work, he exhibited no less than 363 pictures at the
Academy. These were chiefly portraits, with the
exception of a few landscapes and fancy subjects.
He died at Barnes April 21, 1875. Amongst his
works are :
H. W. PICKERSGILL
W'alkcr and Cockere II photo] \_A\itii>n a I Portrait (iallery
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
Bowood. Lady playing Guitar.
London. Nat. Gallery. Portrait of K. Vernon. 1846.
., A Syrian Maid. 1837.
National Portrait Portraits of Wordsworth,
Gallery. Jeremy Bentham, Hannah
More, W. Godwin, 'Monk'
Lewis, G. Stepheuson, and
Sir T. Talfourd.
Incorporated 1 Lord chancellor Truro .
Law soc'nty. J
Royal Institution. Professor Faraday.
Longleat. Portrait of second Marquis of
Wiudsor Castle. Portrait of Lord Hill.
PICKNELL, WILLIAM LUCIAN, American painter;
born 1854 at Boston ; a, pupil of Innes at Rome,
and of Gerome at the Ecole des Beaux Arts ; he
also studied in Brittany with R. Wylie ; returned
to America in 1882, and settled in New York ;
examples of his work are in the Museums of New
York, Philadelphia, Boston and Liverpool ; he
obtained an honourable mention at the Paris
Salon of 1880, and the Boston gold medal. He
died at Boston in 1897.
PICOLET, CORNELIS, a painter of portraits and
conversations, flourished at Rotterdam from about
1670 to 1690. His reputation rests rather on the
circumstance of his having been the first instructor
of Adrian van der Werf than on any particular
work that can be with certainty ascribed to himself.
PICOT, FRANCOIS EDOUARD, a French historical
painter, born in Paris in 1786. He studied under
Vincent, and in 1811 obtained the second ' Prix de
Rome' for his 'Lycurgus. ' In 1813 he obtained
the same award by his ' Death of Jacob." As he
could not be sent to Rome, he was awarded a prize
of 3000 francs. Many commissions for decorative
works were entrusted to him : the chief of these
were for the Louvre, for Versailles, and for the
churches of St. Vincent de Paul (in conjunction with
Flandrin) and St. Clotilde. He was elected to
the Institute in 1856. He died in Paris in 1868.
Amongst his works u re :
Amiens. Museum. Cephalus and Procris. 1824.
Brussels. Museum. jEneas and Venus. 1815.
Grenoble. Museum. The Plague at Florence. 1839.
Paris. Louvre. Orestes and Electra. 1822.
Comedie Fraiigaise. Portrait of Talma.
TV. D. de Lorette. Coronation of the Virgin.
S. Sulpice. Death of Sapphira. 1819.
Versailles. Siege of Calais. 1838.
PICOT, VICTOR MARIE, a French engraver, was
born at Abbeville in 1744, and studied in Paris.
He came to London in the year 1766 with Wynne
Ryland, and about 1770 he was living with Ravenet,
whose only daughter, Angelica, he married. In
1766 he was elected a member of the Incorporated
Society of Artists. He engraved several plates after
Serres, Barralet, Loutherbourg, and others, some of
which were for the collection of Boydell. He re-
turned to France in 1790, and died about 1805. We
have, among others, the following prints by him :
The Four Evangelists ; after Rubens,
Diana and her Nymphs ; after'the same.
The Nurse and Child ; after Schedone.
A young Man holding a Flute ; after B. Luti.
Apollo holdiug a Branch of Laurel ; after S. Cantarini.
A Landscape and Figures ; after Zuccarelli.
Two Sea-pieces ; after 1). Serres.
Two Landscapes, Morning and Evening ; after Barralet.
Several other subjects ; after the same.
PICOU, HENRI PIERRE, French painter of his-
torical and allegorical subjects ; born at Nantes,
February 27, 1822 ; a pupil of Delaroche and
Gleyre; made his debut at the Salon in 1847;
obtained second-class medal in 1848, and a rappel
in 1857 ; in 1853 won the second Prix de Rome ;
was considered the fashionable painter towards
the close of the Second Empire. Among his chief
works we may mention : ' Cleopatre et Antoine sur
le Cydnus,' ' Le Passage du Styx,' ' L'Etoile du Soir,'
' Une Nuit de Cleopatre,' and ' Psyche aux enfers.'
He died at Nantes, July 17, 1895.
PICOU, ROBERT, (or PIQUOT,) a French engraver,
was, according to Marolles, a native of Tours, and
flourished about the year 1630. He enjoyed the
title of Peintre du Roi ; he visited Italy, and re-
mained some time at Rome. Dumesnil describes
seven rare prints by him, of which the last,
executed from a picture by Jacopo Bassano, is the
best ; the others are evidently from his own de-
signs. They are executed partly with the point,
partly with the burin. We have also several frontis-
pieces and other book ornaments by him, from his
own designs. The following are the titles of the
seven plates above alluded to :
Love asleep; R. Picou.fe.
Two Cupids caressing; R. Picou.fe. Roma 1 .
Two Infauts; R. Picou.fe. Roma.
Three Infants ; R. Picou.fe.
The little Wrestlers ; R. Picou. fecit.
Two couples of Infants ; R. P. $c.
Jesus Christ delivered to His Euemies. On the margin
to the left inscribed Jacobus de poto Hassan pinxit, R.
Picou sculpsit ; and on the right, dartres for mis Cum
Priuilegio. In a second impression, dartres formis
is erased, and Jfariette Excudit substituted.
P1CQUE, CHARLES, a Flemish painter, born at
Deynze in 1799. He painted portraits, still-life,
and historical pictures. He died at Brussels in 1869.
PICQUET,J. In Dubrayefs drawing-book there
is a print by this artist, representing 'Juno, Pallas,
and Venus,' half-length figures, executed with the
graver. It is inscribed Joan Picquetft.
PICQUET, THOMAS, a French painter of the 17th
century, quoted by Marolles.
PICQUOT, HENRI, supposed to be the brother
of Thomas Picquot, was a scholar of Simon Vouet,
at Paris, and flourished about 1640, as appears by
that date on one of his prints. Dumesnil describes
three prints by him ; the first two after Chapron,
etched with the point in a style analogous to that
of Michel Dorigny, the other from his own design,
also with the point, in a very light and spirited
The young Virgin ascending the steps of the Temple ;
a composition of many figures, with a glory of angels
and cherubim above ; Chappron jimen. et pinxit ; H.
Picquot jncidit Cum Priuileyifi Reais. 1640. In a
second impression, Coypel,ex. tivec privilege, was sub-
The Virgin giving the breast to the Infant Jesus ;
Joseph, Elisabeth, and the infant St. John are intro-
duced. Although this print bears the name of Gtieri-
neau, and not of H. Picquot, Dumesuil is of opinion
that it is by the latter.
A sick Frog attended by others ; one acts as a physician,
two seem to pray, another is bringing a potion, aud
four frogs are dancing to the sound of a violin. In
the margin are six lines of French verse, moralizing on
the brutalizing propensities of man. H. Picquot jnven.
et fecit. F. L. D. dartres excudit avec Privilege du
PICQUOT, THOMAS, an engraver of goldsmiths'
work, designs for embroidery, damascening, and
other ornaments, flourished, according to Zani,
from 1623 to 1645. Dumesnil conjectures that he
was a scholar of Marin le Bourgeois, painter and
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
valet de chamhre to Henry IV. and Louis XIII.,
and describes fourteen prints by him, the first of
which is a portrait of the aforesaid Marin 1e Bour-
geois ; the others consist of arabesque designs for
goldsmiths' and armourers' work, book and other
decorations. The portrait is etched in the manner
of a painter, and is the best piece ; the ornaments
are etched with an extremely delicate point, and
appear in white on a dark ground.
PIUDING, HENRY J.. an English subject painter,
born in 1797. He was the son of a Cornish lottery-
office keeper, and studied under Aglio. His works
appeared at the Academy from 1824 onwards, and
also at the Society of British Artists, of which latter
body he was elected a member in 1843. He fre-
quently chose humorous subjects, and some of his
pictures enjoyed considerable popularity. He died
at Greenwich in 1864. His best-known works are :
The Gaming Room at Homburg. 1860.
The Fair Peniteut.
Negro in the Stocks.
Greenwich Pensioners re-fighting the battle of the Nile.
( Woburn Abbey.)
The two last-named were engraved by himself.
PIDGEON, HENRY CLARK, painter in water-
colours, was born in 1807. He was originally
intended for the Church, but abandoning this,
took first to literature and then to art. He was
for some time a teacher of drawing in London, but
in 1847 removed to Liverpool as Professor of the
School of Drawing at the Institute there. He had
a strong antiquarian bent, and made many sketches
of old local buildings. In 1848 he was associated
with Mr. Joseph Mayer and Mr. Abraham Hume
in founding the Historic Society of Lancashire and
Cheshire, to the Proceedings of which he con-
tributed numerous lithographs and etchings. On
his arrival in Liverpool he was elected a member
of the Liverpool Academy, and held the post of
Secretary in 1850. He contributed some fifty works
to the Liverpool Academy Exhibitions. He was
elected an Associate of the Institution of Painters
in Water-Colours in 1846, and a full member in
1861. He was also President of the Sketching
Club. He exhibited four times at the Royal
Academy and twice at the British Institute,
besides numerous pictures at the Suffolk Street
Galleries and the Manchester Institution. His
work is accurate in draughtsmanship, broad in
treatment, and in colour somewhat after the style
of Varley. He died in Fitzroy Street, Regent's
Park, on August 6, 1880. E. G. D.
PIDOLL, KARL VON, German painter, born
January 7, 1847, at Vienna ; was a pupil of
Arnold Bocklin and H. von Mare'es. For a long
period he lived in Paris, and afterwards at Frank-
fort-on-the-Maine, where he obtained some distinc-
tion as a portrait-painter. Among other works he
published a series of seven pen-drawings in litho-
graph, representing views of Gelnhausen. He
died in 1901.
PIEMANS, an obscure Dutch artist of the 17th
century. He painted somewhat in the manner of
" Velvet " Breughel, and formed one pupil, his
nephew, Jan de Baan.
PIEMONT, NICOLAAS, called OPGANG, was born
at Amsterdam in 1659. He at first passed some
time under Marten Zaagmolen, an obscure artist,
but he afterwards became a scholar of Nicolaas
Molenaer. He visited Italy, where he passed seven-
teen years, and improved his talents for landscape
painting, by designing from nature in that country.
From Rome he returned to Holland, where he
painted pictures from his Italian sketches and
gained a great reputation. His landscapes bear a
strong resemblance to the works of Jan Both. He
died at Vollenhove in 1709. The sobriquet 'Opgang'
(up-going) was bestowed upon him in consequence
of his marriage with the landlady of the Guild.
PIENE. A. DE, a French engraver, produced,
among other plates, a portrait of the ' Duchess of
Savoy,' after Sacchetti.for a book published in 1672.
PIENEMAN, JAN WILLEM, a Dutch historical,
portrait, and landscape painter, born at Abcoude
in 1779. He was a pupil of the Amsterdam
Academy, and subsequently taught drawing in the
military school at Delft. The appointments of
Director of the Hague Museum and of the Amster-
dam Academy were afterwards conferred upon
him. He died at Amsterdam in 1853. The follow-
ing pictures by him are in the Rijks Museum,
An Arcadian Landscape.
Portrait of Joanna Cornelia Ziesenis.
Albertus Bernardus Eoothaan and Louis
Battle of Waterloo. (Signed J. W. Pieneman, i.D. 1824.)
1'IENEMAN, NICOLAS, a Dutch historical painter,
the son and pupil of J. W. Pieneman, was born at
Amersfoort in 1809. He died at Amsterdam in 1860.
Amongst his chief works are :
The Death of Admiral De Ruyter.
William I. of Orange wounded by Jaurequi.
The Condemnation of Barneveldt.
Portrait of J. W. Pieueman. (Haarlem Pavilion.}
J. S. de Ryk in presence of Requessens.
The Death of Archimedes.
Portrait of William III.
Portrait of C. J. Fodor. (Fodor Museum, Amsterdam.)
PIEPENHAGEN, AUGUST, landscape painter,
was born at Soklin, in Prussia, in 1792. He was
originally a button-maker, but raised himself, by
no other assistance than the diligent study of
nature, to a distinguished rank in art. He died at
Prague in 1868. Three of his best pictures are :
Landscape in a Storm.
Sketch of Forest Scenery.
PIERA, P., a Dutch painter, and a native of
Amsterdam. He painted landscapes and portraits,
and had two sons who followed in their father's
steps. He died in 1784.
PIERCE, EDWARD, was an English artist, who
flourished in the reigns of Charles I. and II. He
was eminent as a painter both of history and of
landscapes, and also excelled in architectural and
perspective views. For some time he was an
assistant to Van Dyck, and after the Restoration
he was employed to repair the altar-pieces and
ceilings in London churches, damaged by the
Puritans. He died soon afterwards, and was
buried at Stamford. Few of Pierce's works now
remain, the far greater part being destroyed in the
fire of London in 1666. Lord Urford attributes to
him a set of friezes, in eight plates, etched in 1640.
His son JOHN is said to have attained some eminence.
Another son, Edward, became a successful sculptor.
FIERI, ANTONIO DI, called Lo TOPPO, was a
native of Vicenza. He worked about 1738, and
painted landscapes and frescoes.
FIERI, STEFANO, was a native of Florence, and
a disciple of Battista Naldini. Zaci places his
birth in 1513, and his death in 1600. According
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
to Baglione, lie visited Rome in the pontificate of
Clement VIII., and was taken under the protection
of Cardinal Alessandrode' Medici, by whom he was
employed in the church of San Prassede, where he
painted some pictures of the Apostles, and an ' An-
nunciation.' In Santa Maria in Via Lata is a picture
by him of the ' Assumption of the Virgin.' He
assisted Giorgio Vasari in the Cupola of Santa
Maria del Fiore, at Florence, and painted for the
Palazzo Pitti the 'Sacrifice of Isaac,' one of his
PIERINO DEL VAGA. See BDONACCORSI.
PIERINO DE NOVA. See NOVA.
PIERO, GIOVANNI DI. See GIOVANNI.
PIERO DI LORENZO, the son of Lorenzo di
Piero, was born at Florence in 1462. He became
an assistant to Cosimo Roselli, and accompanied
the latter when he was summoned to Rome by
Sxtus IV. Hence the name PIERO DI COSIMO,
by which he is known. In 1485 he returned to
Florence, and was employed with Fra Bartolommeo
in the Convent of Sant Ambrogio. The connection
with Roselli, however, seems to have lasted till the
death of the latter, which took place in 1506, and
BO Piero may be considered to have taken a share
in several altar-pieces in S. Spirito at Florence,
and other works of Roselli. Piero did not confine
himself to sacred subjects, but took pleasure in
classic fable, especially when he was able to dis-
play animal life in natural or fantastic shapes.
This may be seen in 'The Wedding of Perseus
disturbed,' ' Sacrifice to Jove for the Safety of
Andromeda, 1 and two ' Rescues of Andromeda,' in
the Uffizi, and in a splendid ' Death of Procris '
in the National Gallery. A picture by him of
'Venus playing with Cupid and a sleeping Mars'
is in the Berlin Museum. He was the inventor of
the strange masque called ' The Triumph of Death,'
which became the fashion in the Carnival at
Florence. Besides the picture already named,
which is, perhaps, Piero's master-piece, the
National Gallery possesses, according to the best
connoisseurs, a second example of him, in a
picture now ascribed to Lorenzo Costa, and called
the portrait of Francesco Ferrucci. This is a
work of much power, and besides its undoubted
affinity with the acknowledged productions of
Piero, it offers a curious confirmation of his
asserted authorship, in the introduction of the
Palazzo Vecchio, with Michelangelo's David at its
portal, into the background. For Piero di Cosimo
was a member of the committee appointed in 1504
by the Signory of Florence to choose a site for that
statue. Many of his pictures, most of them, per-
haps, pass under other names. The ' Vierge au
Pigeon,' in the Louvre, and two fine Holy Families,
both 'tondos,' at Dresden and in the Borghese
Gallery, Rome, are among the best of these. Piero
was a man of curious interests and habits, caring
much more for the strange traditions of the pagan
mythology than for the tales of his own Church.
He was the master of Andrea del Sarto. He died
at Florence in 1521.
PIERO DA PERUGIA, a miniaturist of the 15th
century, many of whose works are preserved in the
Duomo at Siena.
PIERO DI RIDOLFO, an obscure painter who
flourished in Tuscany at the close of the 16th
PIERON, GUSTAVE, a Flemish landscape painter,