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who studied at the Antwerp Academy, and resided
in that city. He died in 1864.



PIERONI, ADOLFO, painter, engraver, and medal-
list, was born at Lucca in 1832. He studied under
Onestini and Casale, though he was best known as
a medallist. He died at Florence in 1875.

PIERRE, a native of Troyes, who designed and
painted the fine series of windows in the cathedral
dealing with the parable of the Prodigal Son.

PIERRE. A painter of this name is mentioned in
the Belgian archives as the author of a portrait,
painted in 1417 or 1418, of Margaret of Burgundy,
the eldest daughter of Philip the Bold and the wife
of William IV., Count of Hainault. In 1418 this
portrait was placed in the Chapel of St. Anthony in
Barbefosse, near Mons.

PIERRE, maitre, a painter of this name was at
work in 1486 in the Monastery of the Cordeliers, at
Nancy. He was a native of Strasbourg.

PIERRE, ANDRE, a native of Blois, who, in 1472,
painted a large ' Nativity ' for the chapel of the
Chateau de Montilz.

PIERRE DE COMPIEGNE a native of Com-
piegne, (?) who was at work on miniatures and illum-
inations for the Chapter of Troyes in the year 1387.

PIERRE DE COPIAC, a glass-painter, who
painted the windows in the Cathedral of Montpellier,
his native place.

PIERRE DEST. CATHERINE, a native of Lille,
who painted in the year 1365 an altar-piece for the
church of St. Maurice in that city.

PIERRE, DIEDDONNE, the son of ETIENNE PIERRE,
a fruit and flower painter, was born at Nancy in
1807. He was a pupil of Hersent, and painted
historical subjects. In the Museum of Nancy there
is a ' Christ in the Garden of Olives ' by him. He
died in 1838.

PIERRE, JEAN BAPTISTE MARIE, was born in
Paris in 1714 (or 1713). He was at first a pupil
of Natoire, but went to Italy when young, and
studied some years at Rome under De Troy. On
his return to Paris he distinguished himself as a
painter of history, and was employed for some of
the public buildings, particularly on a large ceiling
in the chapel of the Virgin at St. Roch. He painted
an excellent picture of ' St. Nicholas and St. Francis,'
for the church of St. Sulpice, which has been en-
graved by Nicolas Dupuis. He was made director
of the Academy in Paris, and was appointed prin-
cipal painter to the Duke of Orleans and to the
king. He died in Paris in 1789. Among his best
paintings are, ' Peter curing the Lame Man,' and
' The Death of Herod ' (in St. Germain des Pres).
Pierre left several etchings, among which we may
name the following :

The Village Entertainment ; after his own design.
Several Studies of Heads ; made by him in Italy.
Some Plates of subjects from ' Fontaine's Fables ' ; after
designs by Subleyras.

PIERSON, CHRISTOPH, was born at the Hague
in 1631, and was destined by his parents for mer-
cantile pursuits, but became a scholar of Bar-
tholomaus Meyburg, whom after some time he
accompanied to Germany, but after an absence of
three years returned to Holland, and established
himself at Gouda, where he met with immediate
employment as a painter of history and portraits.
Notwithstanding the reputation he had acquired,
the encouragement given to the pictures of Lee-
mens, a painter of dead game, guns, &c., induced
him to adopt similar subjects, in which he sur-
passed his model. He died at Gorcum in 1714.

PIET, , was a native of the Low Countries,
and flourished about the year 1600. He engraved

117



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



the plates for a work entitled ' Le Manieruent
d'Armes de Nassau.' &c.. by Adam V. Brien, pub-
lished in 1608.

PIETERS, GEERTJE, or GERTRUDE, was a fruit
and flower painter, and was working at Delft at
the beginning of the 18th century. She was a
pupil of Maria van Oosterwyck, and was of good
repute in her day, though most of her productions
have been attributed to De Heem. The Suermondt
Collection had a ' Plate of Fruit ' by her, dated 1680.

PIETERS, GERARD, a Flemish historical painter,
who was a native of Bruges. He was received as
master painter in 1562, but in 1590 he left Bruges
and settled at Ghent, where he was often employed
by the town authorities. He died in 1612. His
son Pierre worked with his father.

PIETERS, JAN, or JOHN, was born at Antwerp
in 1667, and was a scholar of Pieter Eyckens. He
came to England in 1685, when he was eighteen
years of age, and finding no employment for a
painter of history, he offered his services to Sir
Godfrey Kneller, who employed him to paint the
draperies and backgrounds of his portraits. He
excelled in copying the works of Rubens. He died
in London in 1727, and was buried in the church-
yard of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields.

PIETERS, PIERRE, the son of Gerard Pieters,
accompanied his father to Ghent in 1590, and was
admitted to the freedom of that city. In 1609 he
was at work for the magistracy of Ghent, but must
have been already dead in 1612, for in that year his
wife is spoken of as a widow, in a document still
preserved.

PIETERS, SIMON, a Flemish historical painter,
received as master painter at Bruges in 1521. He
was Dean of St. Luke's Guild in 1549. In 1553 he
restored the 'Last Judgment' of Walens, and painted
several pictures for the city. He died in 1556.

PIETERSZ, ROELOF, an obscure painter who
worked at Utrecht about 1517.

PIETERZEN, ABRAHAM, a Dutch painter who
flourished at Middelburg early in the present
century. He was a pupil of Van Regemorter, at
Antwerp.

PIETERSZEN, AERT, the son of Pieter Aertszen
(known as Lange Peer), was born at Amsterdam
in 1550. He deserves great praise for his picture
of the 'Lesson of Anatomy,' which hangs in the
same room as the world-famous picture of the same
subject by Rembrandt, in the Surgeons' Guild-Hall
at the Hague. It represents the professor Sebastiaen
Egberts lecturing over a dead body to twenty-eight
eager listeners, much in the same way as Rembrandt
has depicted Tulp. It is now in the Rijks Museum,
Amsterdam. Pieterszen's picture is vigorously exe-
cuted in a brown tone, and exhibits, more especially
in the countenances, much vivacity, facility of
drawing, and general truth to nature. It bears the
painter's monogram of A. P. and the date 1603,
which is twenty-nine years earlier than Rembrandt's
work. Besides this, the Rijks Museum possesses
two more excellent examples of Pieterszen, both

froups of portraits. Pieterszen died at Amster-
am, and was buried there on the 12th June, 1612.
PIETERSZEN, GERRIT, (PIETERS, or PEETERS,)
was a painter and etcher, who flourished at Amster-
dam at the end of the 16th century and beginning
of the 17th. He was first instructed by Jacob
Lenartszen and Cornelis van Haarlem, and after-
wards went to Antwerp and Rome. After a
residence of some years in the latter city he re-
turned to Amsterdam, where he distinguished him-
118



self as one of the ablest artists of his time.
Unfortunately he devoted himself principally to
portraiture, and the rapid production of small
pictures, but his talents fitted him for higher
efforts. He was particularly successful with the
nude, and is also celebrated as a painter of
gallant assemblies and conversations, which he
composed in a very agreeable style, and finished
with great neatness and delicacy. According to
Balkema he died in 1626. There is a beautiful
landscape drawing by him in the cabinet at
Munich. He etched several plates, among them :

St. Cecilia, with Angels.

St. John in the Wilderness.

The three Theological Virtues.

PIETERSZOON, PIETER, a glass-painter of
Haarlem, who was received into the Guild of St.
Luke in 1619, and formed a large class of scholars.

PIETRASANTA, ANGELO, a painter, was born
at Milan in 1837. He was a pupil of Hayez, and
worked from 1859 to 1861 in Rome and Florence,
where he won a considerable reputation as a fresco
painter. He painted 'The Rucellai Gardens,' the
'Borgia Family,' and figures of 'Europe' and
' Science ' in the Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele, at
Milan. His last work was the decoration of the Sanc-
tuary of the Incoronata, at Lodi. He died in 1876.

PIETRO BORGHESE. See DEI FRANCESCHI.

PIETRO DI PIETRI, an Italian painter, born at
Novara in 1671. He was a pupil of Carlo Maratti,
and painted historical subjects. He died in 1716.

PIETRO, GIOVANNI DI. See GIOVANNI.

PIETRO DI BENEDETTO. See DEI FRANCESCHL

PIETROLINO, an Italian painter of the 12th
century, who was at work at Rome, with Guido
Guiduccio, between 1110 and 1120. In a MS,
preserved at Venice it is stated that Pietrolino's
home was at Siena. Some remains of his work are
said to be visible in the Church of the Santi Quattn
Coronati, in Rome.

PIETROWSKI. See PIOTROWSKY.

PIGAL, EDMIS JEAN, a French painter of still-
life, was born in Paris in 1794. He was a pupil
of Gros. Among his works is a ' Consultation of
Doctors.' He died in 1872.

PIGEON, JEAN BAPTISTS, a Flemish painter,
born at Bure in 1823. He was a pupil of Marinas
Van der Haert and Mathieu, and painted portraits
and historical subjects. His chief work is the 'In-
stitution of the Rosary,' in the Church of Anhee,
near Dinant. He died in 1868.

PIGLHEIN, EUMAR ULRICH BRUNO, German
painter ; born February 19, 1848, at Hamburg ; a
pupil of Pauwels at Weimar, and of Diez at
Munich. In 1855 he travelled through Palestine,
and subsequently painted a remarkable panorama
of the Crucifixion. This was destroyed by tire in
1892. He was a Professor and Honorary Associate
of the Munich Academy. He executed many
charming and piquant pastels ; and among hia
most notable works are : ' The Entombment of
Christ,' 'The Blind Woman,' ' Moritur in Deo,'
'The Krupp Family,' &c. He died at Munich,
July 15, 1894. P.P:

PIGNATELLI, VICENTE, a Spanish amateur
landscape painter, born about 1700. He was a
noble. He showed a decided inclination for the
arts, and took a prominent part in founding an
Academy at Saragossa, of which he became the
first President. He died in 1770.

PIGNE, NICOLAS, a French engraver, was born
at Chalons in 1690, and is said to have been a pupil



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



of Bernard Picart. He appears to have been in
England, as there is a portrait with his name, of
Richard Fiddes, B.D., prefixed to ' Divinity,' by
the latter, and dated 1718. We have by this artist
a few plates in line, among which are the following :

The Virgin, with the Infant sleeping in a eradle, with
St. John standing by her side, attended by four
angels ; after F. Trevisani ; for the ' Crozat Collection.'

The Woman of Canaan kneeling at the feet of Christ ;
after Ann. Carracci.

PIGNONE, SIMONE, was born at Florence, accord-
ing to Oretti, in 1614. After being instructed in
the elements of art by Domenico Cresti, he became
a scholar of Francesco Furini. He afterwards lived
for a time in Venice, where he improved his
colour by studying the works of Titian and
Tintoretto. On his return to Florence he painted
several pictures for the churches, of which the
most admired are the pictures of ' St. Michael dis-
comfiting the Evil Spirit,' in the church of the
Nunziata ; and ' St. Louis distributing his Wealth
to the Poor,' in Santa Felicita. He also excelled
in painting mythological subjects, which, however,
he sometimes treated with too much licentiousness
He died in 1698.

PIJNACKER, ADAM, sometimes erroneously
called ADRIAEN, was born at Pijnacker, near Delft.
in 1621, and went when young to Rome, where for
three years he studied the works of the most dis-
tinguished landscape painters, and made designs of
the most picturesque objects in the environs of
that capital. On his return to Holland he soon
gave proof of how much he had profited by his
travels, and became one of the most admired and
best employed artists of his country. It was at
that time the practice to ornament the apartments
of important houses with the works of the most
eminent landscape painters ; and Pijnacker was
much engaged in works of that description.
His style has something in common with that of
Jan Both. It is, however, at once more decor-
ative and less true to nature. His composition is
excellent, but his colour too cold, and his texture
metallic. In the Gotha Gallery there is a ' Land-
scape with a Ruin ' by him, which is signed with
the initials A. 7. P. P. He was a fine draughts-
man of trees. Almost all of his pictures contain
men and animals. Pijnacker died at Amsterdam,
where he was buried on March 28, 1673. Among
his best works we may name :

Amsterdam. Muzeuin. Four Landscapes.
Berlin. Landscape with Shepherds.

Cassel. Cows and Cowherds.

Duluich. Gallery. An Italian Landscape.

>. Landscape, with Sportsmen. (A

first-rate example.)

Hague. Museum. A Torrent. ( Very fine.)

St. Petersburg. *- J Sea . coas ,

Vienna. Academy. Mountainous Landscape.

PILAJA, PAOLO, an Italian engraver, flourished
at Rome from 1727 to 1747. He executed a set of
plates for a book entitled ' Storia di Volsena,' by
the Abate Adami, published at Rome in 1737. We
have also, among others, the following prints by
him :

The Portrait of Pope Benedict XIII. ; after BrutjU.
The Martyrdom of St. Fedele ; after S. Conca.
A Miracle wrought by St. Thoribio ; after the same.
S. Liberate, with two Children ; after the same.
Statue of the Prophet Elijah; after the sculpture by
Ayost. Cornachini, in St. Peter's at Rome.

PILEN HANS, an unimportant Dutch landscape



painter, flourished toward the close of the 16th
century. He painted somewhat in the style of
Pieter Lastmann.

PILES, ROGER DE, painter, etcher, and writer on
art, was born at Clamecy (Nievre) in 1635, and
died in Paris in 1709. He was a pupil of Claude
Francois, and travelled in Italy and Holland. His
fame depends chiefly on his voluminous writings
on art.

PILGRIM, J. U. See WECHTLIN.

P1LKINGTON, SIR WILLIAM, Bart., an English
amateur landscape painter, born in 1775. He suc-
ceeded to the title as eighth baronet in 1811. His
style was founded on that of the classic school,
and especially that of Richard Wilson. He was
also an amateur architect and a good scholar.
Butterton Hall, Staffordshire, was built from his
designs. He died at Chevet Hall, Wakefield, in
1850.

PILLANS, R., an English marine painter, who
practised in the second part of the 18th century.

PILL ATI, HEINRICH, Polish painter, born at
Warsaw in 1832 ; studied there, and afterwards at
Munich under Kaulbach, and then worked at
Rome. Painted historical and romantic subjects,
' Faust and Marguerite," &c. He died at Warsaw,
April 14, 1894.

PILLE, CHARLES HENRI, French painter ; born
at Essomes (Aisnes) in 1845 ; became a pupil of
Felix Barrias ; began his career as a painter of
anecdotic genre and historical subjects ; scored
his first real success with ' Frederic de Saxe et le
Due d'Albe ' and ' L'Automne ' in the Salon of
1872 ; obtained a medal in 1869, a second-class
medal in 1872, a gold medal in 1889, and the
Legion of Honour in 1882 ; well known as a
portrait painter and successful as an illustrator of
' Don Quixote,' and also of the romances of Victor
Hugo. He died in Paris, March 4, 1897.

PILLEMENT, JEAN, was born at Lyons about
1728 (some say 1719), and after receiving his
education in that city, went to Paris and Vienna,
and after 1763 to London. He painted in oil or
pastel a few pictures of landscapes and fancy sub-
jects, which were composed and coloured in a
theatrical, gaudy style ; he treated similar subjects
in pencil drawings and water-colours, which were
finished with great neatness and labour. Between
1773 and 1780 he occasionally exhibited at the
Free Society of Artists, but in the former year he
dropped for a time the practice of his art on account
of ill-health, and returned to Avignon. He became
painter to Marie Antoinette and to the last king
of Poland, but finally settled again at Lyons,
where (?) he died early in the last century (? 1808).
Several of his designs have been engraved by
Canot, Ravenet, Woollet, Mason, Elliot, and other
eminent engravers. He himself etched a few plates
of flowers, &C.

PILLEMENT, VICTOR, designer and engraver,
was born at Vienna in 1767. He was a son and
pupil of Jean Pillement, and worked with the
graver and point combined. He died in Paris in
1814. Among his best plates may be mentioned :

The Banks of the Bosphorus ; after Melting.
Travels in Egypt ; after Denan.
(Edipus Colouueus ; after Valenciennes.

PILLIARD, JACQUES, French painter, born at
Vienne (dep. Isere) in 1814 ; became a pupil of
Orsel and of Bonnefond, a religious painter of
mark ; his works include ' Education de la Vierge,'

119



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



'Mort de Rachel,' ' Une Peste,' 'Le Martyre
de St. Hippolyte,' ' Le Christ au Tombeau." He
obtained a third-class medal in 1843, and a second-
class medal in 1844 and 1848. He lived for many
years at Rome, and died at his birthplace, April
10, 1898.

PILO, CARL GDSTAV, a Swedish painter, was
born near Runtuna, in Siidermanland, in 1712 or
1713. He first studied under his father, OLDF PILO
(a portrait painter), then under Crisman at Stock-
holm, and was at Vienna from 1734 to 1736. He
next travelled widely in Germany, and on returning
to his own country settled for a time at Schonen,
where he successfully practised portrait painting-.
In 1741 he went to Copenhagen, and was
appointed drawing-master to the Cadet Corps,
and after painting the Crown Princess Louise, was
in 1745 made court-painter, and three years later
professor at the old Academy. In 1771 he became
director, but by accepting the Order of Vasa from
his own sovereign, Gustavus III., he fell into dis-
favour with the Danes, and returned to Sweden.
Here, too, he was chosen a director of the Academy.
He died at Stockholm in 1792. Among his best
pictures we may note :

Frederik V. of Denmark on Horseback.
Caroline Mathilde, his Consort.
Coronation of Gustavus III.
Portrait of Lieut. -General Lerche.

PILOTTO, GiROLA5io, was a native of Venice,
and flourished about the year 1590. He was a
scholar of the younger Palma, and, according to
Zanotti, a faithful follower of his style One of
his best performances is a ' St. Biagio,'' over the
high altar of the Fraglia at Rovigo ; but his most
celebrated work is the ' Marriage of the Adriatic by
the Doge,' in the grand saloon in the ducal palace
at Venice. Zani places his death in 1649.

PILOTY, CARL THEODOR VON, a Bavarian painter,
was born at Munich in 1826. After studying under
his father he entered the Munich Academy, and be-
came the pupil of his brother-in-law, Carl Schorn.
In early manhood he visited Paris, England, and
Brussels, and soon after his return to Bavaria, was
commissioned by the king to paint, for the Maxi-
milianeum, ' The Elector Max adhering to the
Catholic League in 1609.' This was completed in
1854. Piloty formed a large class of pupils, and for
the greater part of his life was both a member and
a professor of the Munich Academy. Lenbach,
Defregger, and Hans Makart were among his
scholars. He died in 1886. Works :

Death of \Vallenstein.
Seui before Wallensteiu's corpse.
Battle of the White Mountain, Prague.
Galileo in Prison.

"Wallenstein marching against Egger.
Discovery of America.
Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn.
Nero among the ruins of Home.

Thusnelda at the Triumph of Gennanicus. (New Pina-
cothek, Munich.)

PILOTY, FERDINAND, lithographer, was born at
Homburg in 1785. He was instructed in painting,
but after the invention of lithography he devoted
himself exclusively to that art. In 1836 he asso-
ciated himself with Joseph Lohle for the production
of a series of copies from the Munich Pinakothek
and the Schleissheim Gallery. After the death of
Gottlieb Bodmer the two artists continued the
publication of his works, and the lithographic
establishment of Piloty and Lohle is still one of

120



repute in Germany. Piloty died at Munich in
1844.

PILOTY, FERDINAND, German painter, born Oct.
9, 1828, at Munich; a brother of the more famous
Karl Piloty ; studied at the Munich Academy
under K. Schoyn ; underwent a further course of
study in Rome. Paris and Vienna. His works
include five frescoes in the Munich National
Museum ; others are in the Landsherg Town Hall ;
he also painted ' Thomas More in Prison,' ' The
Judgment of Solomon' (for King Ludwig II.),
and illustrated Shakspere, Schiller's ' Bell,' &c. ;
he was an honorary member of the Munich
Academy and gained various decorations. He
died Dec. 21, 1895.

PILS, ISIDORE ALEXANDRE AUGUSTS, a French
historical painter, born in Paris in 1813. He studied
in the Ecole des Beaux Arts, and was a pupil of
Lethiere and Picot. In 1838 he gained the Grand
Prix de Rome for his ' St. Peter healing the lame
man at the gate of the Temple.' For some years
his attention was chiefly devoted to Scriptural
subjects, and he spent much time in travel. The
Russian War gave a new turn to his art, and
he henceforth painted those military subjects on
which his reputation rests. He went to the
Crimea, and depicted several incidents of the cam-
paign for Napoleon III. Besides medals in 1846,
1855, 1857, and 1861, he received the Legion of
Honour in 1857, becoming an officer of the order
in 1867. He became Professor of Painting at the
Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1863, and was elected a
member of the Institute in 1868. There are deco-
rative paintings by him at the churches of Ste.
Clotilde and St. Eustache in Paris ; but his greatest
work of this kind is the ceiling over the grand
staircase in the New Opera House. Pils died of
chest disease at Douarnenez (Brittany) in 1875.
Amongst his chief pictures are :

Christ preaching in Simon's Boat. 1846.

Death of the Magdalen. (1847.)

Bacchantes and Satyrs. (1848.)

Rouget de lisle singing the Marseillaise. 1849.

Death of a Sister of Charity. 1850.

Athenian Slaves at Syracuse. (1852.)

Prayer at the Hospital. (1853.)

A Trench before Sebastopol. 1855. (Bordeaux Museum.)

Disembarkation of the French Army in the Crimea.

1858.

School of Musketry, Vincennes. (1859.)
Battle of the Alma. 1861. (Versailles Gallery.)
Fete to the Emperor and Empress in Algiers in 1860.

(1867.)

Apollo with the Chariot of the Sun.
Fame crowning Wisdom.
Apollo charming the Beasts with his Lyre.
The City of Paris encouraging the Arts. (This and the

three preceding far the Stairs of the Grand Opera.)
Portraits of Lecointe and Castelnau.

His brother, EDOUARD AISNE PILS, born 1823,
died 1852, was a pupil of the School of Arts, and
from 1845 onwards painted religious and military
subjects with some success.

PILSBURY, R., English painter; born at
Burslem in 1830 ; began his career as a painter on
china, for which he received special training ; he
afterwards obtained a post as teacher at South
Kensington, and finally became associated with
Minton factories. He was one of the pioneers of
the new development of decorative pottery, his
talent being specially devoted to flower-painting.
He died at Longton, September 1, 1897.

PILSEN, FRANS, was born at Ghent in 1700,
and died in 1786. He studied painting and en-



ROBERT E. PINE




Walter tin.t Cockercli fiwta _\\:tional Portrait Gallery

DAVID GARRICK



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



graving under Robert van Auden-Aerd. We have
among others, the following prints by him :

The Virgin aiid Infant Jesus ; after Rubens.
The Conversion of St. Bavon ; after the same.
The Judgment of Midas ; after the same.
The Martyrdom of St. Blaize ; after G. de Crayer.
St. Francis ; after Rubens ; inscribed F. Pilsen, sculp
G. 1770.

PINACCI, GIUSEPPE, an obscure Italian painter.
a native of Siena, flourished about 1642. He was
a pupil of Borgognone, and painted historical and
battle scenes. He resided at Naples, and after-
wards at Florence, at the Court of Prince Ferdinand.

PINAIGRIER, THOMAS, a French landscape
painter, born in Paris in 1616. He was received
into the Academy in 1648, and died in 1658.

PINAS, JACOB, was the younger brother of Jan
Pinas, and was instructed by his brother, whose
style he imitated.

PINAS, JAN, was an historical painter of
Haarlem early in the 17th century. It is not
known under whom he learned the rudiments of
the art, but in 1605 he travelled, in company with
Pieter Lastman, to Italy, where he studied some
years. On his return to Holland he distinguished
himself as a painter of history and portraits. Of
his historical productions, one of the most esteemed
was a picture in the great church at Haarlem of
'Joseph and his Brethren.' He was living in that
city up to at least 1621, and in 1623 a landscape
by him, with the story of Salmacis and Herma-
phroditus, was engraved by Magdalen van de Pass.

PINCHARD, P., is said by Strutt to have re-



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