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sided at Genoa, where he engraved several plates>
for books, about the year 1687.

PINCON, ADOLPHE, French engraver, born in
1847 at Romorantin (Loire et Cher). His
'Baigneuse' (after Chaplin) was shown at the
Salon in 1868, and to this Exhibition he was from
that date a frequent contributor. He also completed
lithographs of Gerard's ' Psyche^ et 1'Amour,' Staal's
'Invocation,' and Schenck's ' L'Ete" ' and ' L'Hiver,'
besides several portraits. He died at Bicetre
Hospital near Paris in 1884.

PINE, JOHN, an engraver, and a man of letters,
was born in 1690. He kept a printshop in St.
Martin's Lane, and became intimate with Hogarth,
who introduced his portrait as the friar in his
picture of 'Calais Gate,' from which circumstance
he went often by the name of ' Friar Pine.' He
brought out several handsome works illustrated
with plates of his own engraving. The principal
of them were a series representing the ceremonies
used at the revival of the order of the Bath, by
King George I. (published in 1725) ; also his
prints from the tapestry in the House of Lords,
representing the ' Destruction of the Spanish Ar-
mada ' ; and a superb edition of ' Horace,' the text
engraved, and illustrated with ancient bas-reliefs
and gems. The ' Pastorals ' and ' Georgics ' of Virgil
were published by his son, after his death, orna-
mented in a similar manner, with a printed type.
Pine also engraved a few portraits, among which
are an etching of himself and a mezzotint bust
of Garrick, taken from a cast. He received the
appointment of Blue Mantle in the Heralds' Col-
lege, and there died May 4, 1756. Pine was one of
the committee of artists who attempted, in 1755, to
found a Royal Academy.

PINE, ROBERT EDGE, son of John Pine, was born
in London in 1742. It is not known by whom he
was instructed, but he gained the premium for the

best historic design, given by the Society of Arts,
with his 'Surrender of Calais' in 1760, and again
with 'Canute and his Courtiers' in 1763. Ho
afterwards practised as a portrait painter, and
occasionally exhibited at Spring Gardens and the
Royal Academy. In 1782 he exhibited a series of
pictures of scenes from Shakespeare. He after-
wards went to America, and portrayed Washing-
ton and other leaders of the revolution. He died
at Philadelphia in 1790. His principal works are
subjects from Shakespeare, and theatrical portraits,
which have been engraved by M'Ardell, V. Green,
0. Watson, Aliamet, Lomax, and Dickinson. His
' Surrender of Calais ' was preserved in the Town-
hall of Newbury, and mention may be made of
the following portraits :

George II. (at Audley End).

The Duke of Northumberland (Middlesex Hospital).

Garrick (National Portrait Gallery).

PINE, SIMON, an English miniature painter in
the 18th century, the son of John Pine. He
practised in Ireland and at Bath, and exhibited at
Spring Gardens, and at the Academy. He died in

PINEDA, FRANCISCO PEREZ DE, a Spanish painter,
was born at Seville about the year 1640. He was
a scholar of Murillo, whose style he followed, and
there are several of his works in the churches and
convents at Seville. There was also an ANTONIO
PEREZ DE PINEDA, who lived about 100 years

PINEL, EDOUABD, painter, born at La Rochelle,
was a pupil of Roqueplan and of Gudin. He en-
joyed some repute as a landscape painter in the
days of Louis Philippe, and was for many years
keeper of the Museum in his native town. He died
in 1884.



PINELLI, BABTOLOMMEO, an Italian painter,
etcher, and modeller, was born at Rome in 1781.
He studied when young at the Academy of Saint
Luke, and then went to Bologna, where he ob-
tained honours, after which he returned to Rome.
He was very successful with his sketches from
popular life, and then took to painting views at
Kome and Tivoli in aquarelle. He also etched
(1810-22) a number of plates illustrating Italian
life and costumes, as well as Grecian and Roman
history and the works of classic authors. Be-
sides these original designs he engraved after
other artists. His drawings in chalk and in
water-colours are much esteemed. The works by
which he is best known are, ' Istoria degli Imperi-
;ori, inventata ed incisa in cento rami ' ; ' Rac-
colta di Costumi pittoreschi' ; ' Nuova Raccolta
di cinquanta Costumi pittoreschi'; 'Istorica Greca,'
with 100 etchings ; ' Istorica Romana,' 152 etch-
ings ; Illustrations to Virgil, Dante, Tasso, Aretino,
and Cervantes ; and some others, of which the
slates were brought to England, and printed here.
3.e also engraved the frescoes painted by Pintu-
ricchio in the cathedral of Santa Maria Maggiore ;
.he illustrations of the ' Life and Miracles of St.
Francis di Paula,' after Marco da Faenza and
others ; the friezes by Giulio Romano in the Far-
nesina ; Picturesque Views of Tivoli, &c. ; and
ithographed illustrations to Manzoni, He died at
Rome in 1835.

PINGO, LEWIS. The exquisite drawings which
this distinguished medallist made for the coins
and medals which he struck were of such beauty



as to give him full claim for recognition in this
dictionary. He was the son of Thomas Pingo, an
engraver, was born in 1743, became a member
of the Free Society of Artists when 19 years of
age, and was first of all assistant engraver and
then chief engraver to the Royal Mint. He lived
to be nearly 90 years of age, and died near London
in 1830. His medals were of great merit and
marked by much refinement.

painter and lithographer, born September 30, 1788,
at St. Quentin (Aisne) ; became a pupil of David
and of Regnault. He worked for some years in
Paris, afterwards at St. Quentin. Painted many
portraits, also historical and genre scenes, ' Voyage
de Louis Philippe a Windsor," &c. Obtained a
second-class medal in 1824, and the Legion of
Honour in 1839. Died at St. Quentin in 1875.

PINO, MARCA DA, (or MARCO DA SIENA,) a painter
and architect, is stated to have been born at Siena
about the year 1520. He was a pupil of Buonac-
corsi and Ricciarelli, but chiefly followed the style
of Michelangelo. He painted some pictures for
the churches at Rome, of which one of the most
esteemed was a ' Dead Christ, with the Virgin and
St. John,' in Santa Maria di Ara Cseli. Much of his
work in Rome waa done in collaboration with
Daniele da Volterra. From Rome he proceeded to
Monte Cahfiino. where, in 1557-8, he painted for
the church of the Benedictines some large frescoes
from the Lives of Christ and of SS. Haurus and
Placidus. But the chief scene of his activity was
Naples, where he established himself in 1560.
During a residence of twenty-seven years, he
decorated the principal churches with several of
his finest works. Of these, the most famous and
perhaps the best is a ' Deposition from the Cross,'
in the church of San Giovanni de' Fiorentini,
painted in 1577. In the same church is a fine
picture of the ' Annunciation,' and in the cathedral
an ' Incredulity of St. Thomas' (1573). A 'Christ
on the Cross,' an ' Assumption of the Virgin,' and
an 'Adoration of the Magi,' in the church of San
Severino, may also be named. Pino died in 1587.
His art has much that is clever and energetic about
it, but it has also the affectation and insipidity of
the decadence.

PINO, PAOLO, an unimportant Venetian painter,
who flourished about 1565. His style was founded
on the followers of Bellini. There is a portrait of
the physician Coignati by him, in the Uffizi, at


PINSON, NICOLAS, was born at Valence, in the
Drome, about the year 1640. He studied at Rome,
where he remained a considerable time, and imi-
tated the manner of Pietro da Cortona. Scarcely
anything more of his history, or of his works, is
known, except that Coelemans has engraved his
picture of ' Tobit and the Angel,' which was in
the collection of Boyer d'Aguilles ; and that he
etched two prints, a ' Dead Christ ' and the ' As-
sumption of the Virgin,' which are both of ex-
treme rarity. The first is marked N. P. In. /.,
and the second N. Pinson. Inuent. et Sculp.

PINSSIO, SEBASTIANO, who was born in Paris in
1721, and flourished in 1755, is mentioned by
Strutt as the engraver of a few portraits.


PIN US, CORNELIUS, a Roman painter of the reign
of Vespasian, was engaged with Accius Priscua in
the Temple of Virtue and Honour.

PINWELL, GEORGE JOHN, was born at Wycombe,
December 26, 1842, and died in London, September
8, 1875. His father was a builder, who it is be-
lieved built the original station at Surbiton, and
who was in a very fair way of business, but he
died young, and the care of the family fell upon
Mrs. Pinwell, who was somewhat rough and a
very determined person. His first important em-
ployment was with a firm of embroiderers for
whom he made designs, and it was while he was
with them that he met first the lady who after-
wards became his wife, and who now survives him.
She was a Miss Isabella Mercy Stevens, and the
firm who employed Pinwell were well known to
her mother. Miss Stevens needed a design for a
piece of difficult work that she had projected, and
went to this house to obtain it, but as the matter
was not an easy one to decide, she was referred to
the designer himself, and to him she explained
her wishes. Pinwell at once grasped the young
lady's idea, and promised her the design that she
wanted. He found that she had decided on the
colouring for the work, and that her decision gave
proof of a good judgment in colour, and of the
power of combining colours. Colour fascinated
Pinwell, and he was specially noted in after years
for his jewel-like colour and opulence of glowing
effect. He was therefore struck by the facility
that this young lady possessed in suggesting
colours suitable for work, and, started in this way,
the acquaintance grew into affection and ripened
into a very happy married life. Whilst Pinwell
was with the embroiderers his mother married
again, and the severe strain upon his means having
been in this way reduced, he was able to leave
his work, and devote himself entirely to training
in art. He first entered the St. Martin's Lane
School, where in the intervals of his work he had
already studied! in the night classes. In 1862 he
joined the Academy in Newman Street.

He worked at Heatherley's during 1862, trying
at intervals to earn some money by practical work,
and during that year produced the first of his
illustrations that are known. They are of a sin-
gularly uninteresting character, and show but little
promise of what was to follow. The volumes con-
taining these quaint early drawings are ' Lilliput
Levee," a book of delightful rhymes for children
by Matthew Browne, 'The Happy Home,' and
' Hacco the Dwarf.' A little before this time
' Fun,' which afterwards was the property of the
Dalziel Brothers, was started by a tradesman in
the Strand. He expressed himself willing to
purchase at a low price drawings and footnotes
suitable for his new publication, and Pinwell was
able occasionally to sull such work to him. Pin-
well never did much work, however, for ' Fun,'
and was more often engaged in preparing draw-
ings for Elkingtons the silversmiths, than in
black-and-white illustrations, until his connection
with ' Once a Week ' commenced.

Pinwell's acquaintance with Mr. J. W. Whymper
began at this time. At the time of Pinwell's call
upon Whymper, Fred Walker had just left, and
Charles Green was on the point of departure,
and there was no definite figure draughtsman
in the office. North was there at the time, and
first became acquainted with Pinwell when he
called to introduce himself to Whymper, and
in this way started a friendship that lasted as
long as Pinwell's life, and has been loyally
continued to his widow. Pinwell was not re-

















[From the engraving


gularly apprenticed to Mr. Whymper, but a
running arrangement, something on the lines
of apprenticeship, was made between them. Mr.
Whymper greatly appreciated the instinct for
design and character that he could discern
in Pinwell, but his want of knowledge of draw-
ing could not be overlooked by the publisher,
and no great amount of success attended Mr.
Whymper's efforts with him. It appears to have
been Thomas White who shared a room with
Pinwell in Millman Street, and first introduced
him to regular work. White had been working for
' Fun,' and had just started a drawing for 'Once a
Week,' that important magazine that was to con-
tain within its pages all the best work of the
" sixties," and in vol. viii., at p. 169, appeared the
first of Pinwell's drawings, called ' Saturnalia,' and
dated January 31, 1863. Many of Pinwell's old
fellow-students at Heatherley's were working on
the same magazine and in similar works, and of
those with whom he was most familiar may be
mentioned Linton, Fred Barnard, and Charles
Green. This same year saw other drawings from
Pinwell's hand in the magazines of the day.
'Good Words 'had 'Martin Ware's Temptation'
(p. 573); 'London Society ' had 'The Confessor'
(p. 37); 'The Churchman's Family Magazine '
had ' By the Sea ' (p. 257) ; ' Cornhill' one block,
and ' Sunday at Home ' had ' The German Band '
on p. 753. In the following year Pinwell made
the personal acquaintance of the Brothers Dalziel,
and commenced to work on ' The Arabian Nights,'
and on his most important volume, 'The Illus-
trated Goldsmith.' For this volume Pinwell did
no fewer than one hundred drawings upon wood.
He completed them week by week for the issue of
the book in parts ; producing them in about six
months, and putting all his heart into them. His
work on the ' Goldsmith ' is so thoroughly good,
so full of his earnest desire to represent the author,
that it can be taken as a model of what an illus-
trated book should be.

In the year that saw the completion and the
issue, in one volume, of the ' Goldsmith,' Pinwell
married. The wedding took place at Marylehone
parish church on April 25, 1865, and the honey-
moon was spent at Hastings. He was then living
at 70 Newman Street, but shortly afterwards
moved to Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square. In
1873 he moved into Adelaide Road, No. 52,
and eventually, in the same year, took Mr. Top-
ham's house in that road, No. 86, where he
died. When living in Newman Street he first
made the acquaintance of Joseph Swain, who
called upon him as to some business. The years
from 1865 to 1870 were very full of work. Each
volume of ' Once a Week' down to 1869 contained
his drawings, and other magazines include ' Good
Words' down to 1871, ' London Society,' 'Sunday
Magazine,' ' Quiver,' and ' Sunday at Home.' Be-
side these are his more important works: 'Touches
of Nature,' issued by Strahan in 1866, which con-
tained eight of his works ; ' The Spirit of Praise '
and ' Golden Thoughts,' both published by Warnes
in 1867 ; ' Wayside Posies,' a work published by
Routledge for Dalziel, and issued in the same pro-
lific year ; ' A Round of Days,' another of Dalziel's
and Routledge's books ; and then, perhaps greatest
of all, 'Poems by Jean Ingelow,' issued by Long-
mans in 1867, in which he had twenty illustrations
of his very finest work. These do not exhaust the
list of his engraved work, as there are books which

do not bear a date, such as Buchanan's ' Stories of
the Affections,' ' Our Life Illustrated by Pen and
Pencil,' and also ' The North Coast,' by Buchanan,
1868, 'National Nursery Rhymes,' 1877, and the
' Musical Annual,' 1870, which contain charming
drawings by him. The labour of these years was
byno means devoted entirely todrawing upon wood,
but side by side with that work Pinwell was steadily
building up a reputation as a painter. It was in
1865 that his first exhibited work was seen. It was
shown at the Dudley Gallery, then just founded,
and was a development in oil-painting of an idea
used in his black-and-white work. He called it
' An Incident in the Life of Oliver Goldsmith ' ;
it has also been styled after what it depicts,
' Goldsmith earning his Board and Lodging by a
Merry Tune.' The picture in 1876 belonged to
Mr. II. H. Waithman. It was to be seen in 1899
at Agnew's Gallery, No. 183, and was sold on that

From the time of that first appearance till 1869,
when he joined the Water-Colour Society, Pinwell
exhibited at the Dudley Gallery. In 1866 he sent
three works: 'The Watch,' 'The Double Trans-
formation,' and ' Old Wives,' which was burnt by
an accident. In 1868 he sent ' The Tramps,' which
is to be recognized under the name of 'The
Vagrants,' in Mrs. Samuel Joseph's Collection, and
then, in 1869, occurs the last at the Dudley, ' The
Calf,' which was sold in 1899 at Agnew's, and was
a small drawing measuring only 15| by 12 inches.
Brought thus into favourable notice by exhibits
at the Dudley Gallery, " he sought election at the
Water-Colour Society, and was at once chosen as
Associate on April 3, 1869." He attained full
rank in the Society in 1870, and he exhibited as a
member in the summer of 1871. His first exhibit
in 1869 consisted of three works, two scenes from
'The Pied Piper of Hamelin,' called respectively
' Children ' and ' Rats,' which now belong to Mr.
J. S. Budgett, and a pathetic scene called ' A Seat
in St. James's Park,' a development of a drawing
done in the same year for ' Once a Week ' (vol. iii.
p. 518), a sketch for which can now be found
in Mr. Hartley's Gallery, the original being in
Australia in a public gallery. In the Winter
Show of the same year were four more : 'The
Quarry,' a sketch for the picture ; ' The Last
Load,' a fine sketch for which belongs to Mr.
Hartley ; ' New Books ' and ' The Old Cross.' The
one called 'New Books ' belongs to Mrs. Samuel
Joseph ; but the other now belongs to Sir Cuthbert
Quilter, Bart., and is called 'Out of Tune.' In 1870
appeared a really important picture, 'The Elixir
of Love.' This was shown at the Summer Exhibi-
tion, and in the winter of the same year Pinwell
exhibited two more: 'At the Foot of the Quan-
tocks' and 'Landlord and Tenant.' The Summer
Exhibition of the following year possessed only
one picture, called 'Away from Town,' and the
one in the next year was called 'The Poachers
(Early Morn).' Three others appeared in the Winter
Exhibition of 1871-2: 'Time and his Wife,' an illus-
tration to the 'Uncommercial Traveller' (Charles
Dickens), 'The Earl o' Quarterdeck,' and 'A Country
Walk,' which belongs to Mrs. Rand Capron. In
the year 1872 Pinwell exhibited 'Gilbert a Becket's
Troth, 1 his first exhibited work as a full member
of the Water-Colour Society. ' A Long Conversa-
tion ' is the solitary picture that the artist exhibited
at the Winter Exhibition of 1872-3. In 1873 ' The
Great Lady ' appeared.



For a year Mrs. Pinwell had been ill, and on
her recovery was ordered away, but for four
months they could not start, as no sooner was
the severe strain of her illness over than he
failed, and for many weeks lay at death's door.
Gradually he became a little better, and then
he went to Ventnor, accompanied by Miss Dora
Dalziel, her brother, and Pinwell's great friend
Houghton. Here the party remained for six
weeks, and then came home, but Pinwell's health
had become no better, and he was ordered to
Africa for the winter. One more picture he sent
in for exhibition ere he started, ' The Princess
and the Ploughboy,' which was to be seen at the
Winter Exhibition of 1873^. In Africa Pinwell
painted three pictures that were exhibited ; one
was at the Summer Exhibition of 1874, 'The
Beggars' Roost, Tangier,' and the other two, ' The
Prison Hole, Tangier,' and 'The Auctioneer,
Tangier,' were at the Winter Exhibition in 1875.
Pinwell was in Africa for eight months, and in
the spring of 1875 he returned home, spending a
week on the homeward journey at Gibraltar. In
the summer of that year he sent five pictures to the
Water-Colour Society, the last that he exhibited.
The five pictures exhibited in 1875 were: 'Sweet
Melancholy,' which belongs to Mr. Harry Quilter,
' The Old Clock,' ' Waiting,' ' The Letter,' and
' We fell out, my Wife and 1.'

On his return home the artist at once moved into
the house in Adelaide Road, but the doctor warned
him that he would have to winter abroad again.
The prospect was not an agreeable one to him,
as he was full of work, and very anxious to stay
in England and finish the great picture, 'Vanity
Fair,' that had been so long in hand. The idea
of a long journey in his weak state of health he
could not bear, and in his own words, " he would
almost rather die than go abroad." He was to
have that wish gratified, as in a few days after
he had received the doctor's report he grew worse,
took to his bed, and never rose from it again.
He died on September 8, 1875, and was buried at
Highgate Cemetery.

In the Winter Exhibition of the same year there
were exhibited upon one of the screens some
thirty-three unfinished sketches and studies, while
in February 1876 there was a very full show
of his works in Mr. Deschamp's Gallery, 168
New Bond Street. For full particulars of the
artist and his works see ' G. J. Pinwell,' by
G. C. Williamson (George Bell and Son), 1900.


PINZ, JOHANN GEORG, (or PINTZ,) was an engraver
of Augsburg, who died in 1767, at the age of 70.
He is said to have been chiefly employed by the book-
sellers, for whom he engraved several prints, in the
style of those which ornament the numerous pub-
lications of Van der Aa. He engraved, among
others, an emblematical print, entitled ' Gallus and
Germanus,' in honour of the King of France, after
P. Decker.


PIOLA, DOMENICO, the younger brother of Pel-
legrino Piola, was born at Genoa in 1628. He
received his first education in art from his brother,
but after his death he became a scholar of Gio-
vanni Domenico Capellini. In conjunction with
Valerio Castelli, he executed some works for the
public edifices in Genoa and the state. For some
time he followed the style of Castiglione, and after-
wards that of Pietro da Cortona. He was particu-


larly happy in the representation of children, which
he designed from the casts of Fiammingo. One of '
his best productions is the ' Miracle of St. Peter
at the gate of the Temple,' at Carignano, which is
not degraded by its vicinity to an admirable picture
by Guercino. He died in 1703. He is known
to have produced the following etchings : two
' Nativities ' ; ' The Virgin on the throne with the
Infant Jesus on her knees, and St. John kneeling' ;
' Paris holding the Apple ' ; and an ' Old Man with
a long beard." Domenico Piola had three sons, AN-
TONIO, who abandoned painting in early life after
showing some promise, GIOVANNI BATTISTA. who
never developed any original talent, and PABLO

PIOLA, DOMENICO, the younger, was a grand-
son of Domenico Piola. the elder, and was born in
1748. He painted historical subjects with mediocre
talent, and was the last of the family. He died
in 1774.

PIOLA, GIOVANNI GREGORIO, a successful minia-
ture painter, born at Genoa in 1583. He died at
Marseilles in 1625.

PIOLA, PABLO GERONIMO, historical painter, son
of Domenico Piola, the elder, was born in 1666.
He was a pupil of his father, but imitated the style
of Carlo Maratti and the Carracci. He died in 1724.

Genoa in 1617. He is supposed to have been a
pupil of Capellino. Though the world was de-
prived of his talents^ at the premature age of
twenty-three, when he was assassinated, a ' Ma-
donna,' painted by him, which was in the
collection of the Marchese Brignole, was thought
by Franceschini to have been painted by Andrea
del Sarto ; and his picture of St. Elogio, in one of
the churches of Genoa, was mistaken by Mengs for
a work of Lodovico Carracci. He died in 1640.

PIOLA, PIETRO FRANCESCO, historical and portrait
painter, was born in 1565. He was a pupil of
Sofonisba Anguisciola, and a successful imitator of
Cambiaso. He died in 1600.


PIORT, V., an obscure artist, mentioned by
Strutt as the engraver of a plate from Rubens, re-
presenting an old woman holding a pot on a fire
from which a boy is taking a lighted coal.

TROWSKI,) was born at Bromberg in 1814, and

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