studied at the Berlin Academy under Hensel. He
afterwards became Professor in the Academy at
Konigsberg. He at first painted romantic subjects
from Polish history, and other historical pieces, one
of which was 'Marie Antoinette in the Temple.'
Later on he took to genre painting from Polish
popular life. He died at Konigsberg, the 29th
PIPER, F. LE. See LE PIPER.
PIPPI, GIDLIO (ROJIANO). See DEI GIANNDZZI.
PIRANESI, FRANCESCO, son and pupil of Giam-
battista Piranesi, was born at Rome in 1756, and
was instructed in design and architecture by his
father. The Revolution drove him to Paris, where,
with his brother Pietro, he essayed in vain to
found an Academy, and to start a terra-cotta
manufactory. He died in 1810. We have by him
several plates of architectural views, and also of
antique statues ; among them, the following :
Jupiter enthroned ; from the statue in the Capitolino
Museum ; after a draiciny by Piroli.
The Venus of Medici ; after the same.
[/ /<.'/ Ike etching
THE DARK PRISON
L/v'i'/// the eft hia^
A GUAM) STAIkCASK WITH COLUMNS AND FOUNTAINS
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
Cupid and Psycbe ; from the group in the Capitol.
Papirius and his Mother ; from the group in the Villa
Portrait of his Father, with Title-page to his Works ;
the latter after Cades.
The Illumination of the Chapel of St. Paul in St.
Peter's. (See also the list of plates by G. B. PIBANESI.)
PIHANESI, G IAMB ATT IST A, etcher and architect,
the so-called " Rembrandt of Architecture," was
born at Venice in 1720. About 1738 his father,
a mason, sent him to Rome. He studied under
Valeriani, through whom he acquired the style of
Valeriani's master, Marco Ricci of Belluno. Marco
Ricci and the better-known Giovanni Pannini,
stimulated by the example of Claude, had already
set a fashion of pictures in which the overgrown
ruins of Rome and the Campagna furnished the
matter of many a magniloquent composition.
Piranesi greatly excelled both Ricci and Pannini ;
but it was through his own medium of etching that
he displayed his superiority in boldness of inven-
tion and force of execution to the two painters.
His sound knowledge of engraving was derived
from the Sicilian Giuseppe Vasi. It was his
father's wish that he should practise as an archi-
tect at Venice, and the youth twice made the
attempt. Indeed " Architect of Venice " is found
on certain of his title-pages. But Piranesi could
not live away from Rome. Threats to cut off his
little allowance of six crowns a month only
sharpened his resolve to carve out a career for
himself according to his own lights. Amidst the
dwindling away, " under the attacks of time and
the greed of their owners," of the splendours of
ancient Rome, he " resolved to preserve them by
means of engravings." And the tilling up of this
huge pictorial record was the work of Piranesi's
forty years in Rome. He varied it by etching
some remarkable exercises in imaginative archi-
tecture, and also spent some time, at the request of
the Venetian Clement XIII., in restoring the two
Churches of Santa Maria del Popolo and II
Priorato. Of his restorations it must suffice to
quote Lanciani's opinion that II Priorato is a mass
of monstrosities inside and out. But it is not as a
master-builder that Piranesi wished to be judged.
His deliberate claim to immortality rests on his
etchings, as appears from his recorded belief that
he had " executed a work which will descend to
posterity, and will last so long as there will be
men desirous of knowing all that has survived of
the ruins of the most famous city of the universe."
Piranesi's life was uneventful. He married, five
days after his first sight of the bride, a maiden
whose hand he had demanded instantly upon
seeing her : and the impetuousness and decisive-
ness of this act marked the whole conduct of his
life, as they mark also all the best of his work.
In a sorry quarrel with an English patron, Viscount
Charlemont, Piranesi showed dignity and self-
respect, as four altered title-pages remain to prove.
Proud though he was of Venetian birth, he hahitu-
ally displayed a truly Roman imperiousness which
came out remarkably in his reply to an anonymous
Englishman's assertion that Rome owed all her
art to Greece. He received the great distinction
of the Order of Christ, but was still more proud of
his membership in the London Society of Anti-
quaries. The name " Salcindio Tiseio " on one of
his title-pieces commemorates his connection with
the Academy of the Arcadi, a Society which found
some satisfaction in giving to every one of its new
members a fantastic name. The comings of these
honours, the spoiling of the two churches, a few
disputes, and the etching of nearly two thousand
plates filled up a laborious life which ended at
Rome on November 9, 1778. His tomb is in II
Priorato, where his son set up a tolerable statue
The original copper plates of Piranesi's works
were captured by a British war-ship during the
struggle with Napoleon : and it had been better
for Piranesi's reputation if the British commander
had sunk them in deep water. Unfortunately they
still exist, and could quite lately be hired for a
day's printing. As a result, the curiosity-shops
are full of coarse and almost brutal prints which
grossly misrepresent Piranesi's achievements.
Despite his weakness for the blackest of blacks and
the whitest of whites, the artist's own proofs are
full of fine touches, and one can peer into their
shadows. It is only by a study of these copies
that Piranesi's excellence and importance as an
engraver can be understood. Nor have popular
anecdotes failed to do their work in strengthening
the common belief in this artist's rudeness and
summariness of working. It is told, for instance,
that Piranesi was wont to haunt a monument by
moonlight and then to throw his vision of it
directly upon the copper. An examination of the
drawings for the great Paestum set in the Soane
Museum, London, will throw sufficient light upon
such legends. Piranesi was always a strong
and picturesque draughtsman, though, strangely
enough, he could not deal truthfully with a round
tower. Speaking generally, he was less happy
with well-repaired churches and palaces than with
ruins or with the creations of his own fancy. He
loved to enhance the majesty of the crumbling
baths and temples by stretching back their
pillared flanks to an immeasurable distance, while
he marked their age by festooning them with
strange sea-weed-like foliage. It was also his
habit to emphasize their hugeness and stability by
a contrast of Callot-like hinds or beggars dancing or
gesticulating under the immense vaults and crag-
like columns. More remarkable even than the
ruins is the set of sixteen inventions called
' Career!,' said to consist of prison-interiors seen
by Piranesi during the delirium of a fever. On the
other hand, his original designs for chimneys,
' Diverse Maniere d'Adornare i Camini,' are
foolish and vulgar. Below is a list of his principal
works as published both by himself in Rome and
by his sons in Paris. (The plates passed from his
sons first to Firmin-Didot, and ultimately into the
hands of the Papal Government.) The dates
affixed are in some cases only approximately
correct, as the original sets are not always
encountered bound and arranged in the same way.
A MS. Life of Piranesi which was in London
about 1830 appears to have been lost.
Antichita Eomaue de tempi della repubblica, e de'
primi imperatori, &c. 1750.
Antichita Romane, 4 vols. 1756.
Kaccolta di Tempi Antichi, viz. di Vesta ; della Sibilla ;
dell' Oiiore e della Virtu. 1776.
Panteon di Marco Agrippa, detto la Rotonda,
Monument! degli Scipioni. 1785.
De Romanorum Magnificentia et Architectura. 1760.
Opere Varie di Architettura, Prospettiva, Groteschi,
Antichita, &c. 1750.
Trofei di Ottaviano Augusto. 1753.
Vedute di Archi Trionfali, &c. 1748.
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
Rovine del Castello del Acqua Giulia. 1761.
Lapides Capitolini, sive Fasti Consulares, &e. 1762.
Antichita di Cora. 1764.
Campus Martins. 1762.
Antichita d' Albano e di Castel Gandolfo. 1764.
Descrizione e disegno dell' emissario del Lago Albano.
Vasi, Candelabri, Cippi, Sarcofagi, Tripodi, Lucerne
ed Ornamenti Antichi, 2 vols. 1778.
Colonna di Trajano. 1770. Colonna Antonina, Colonua
dell' Apoteosi di Antonino Pio.
Rovine di Pesto.
Vendute di Roma, 2 vols. 1765.
Teatro d' Ercolano. 1783.
Diverse Maniere d' Adornare i Camini, &c. 1769.
Statute Antichi. 1781-84.
Varise Tabulae celeberrimorum Pictorum : Raccolta di
Disegni del Guercino.
Schola Italica Picturae, cura et impensis Gavini Hamil-
Peintures de la Villa Lante ; Sala Borgia ; Jules II. ;
Farnesina ; Villa Altoviti.
Antiquites de la Graude Grece, gravees parFr. Piranesi
d'apres les Dessius du feu J. B. Piranesi. (Paris,
1804.) 1807. E. J. 0.
PIRANESI, LAUKA, the daughter of Giambattista
Piranesi, was born at Rome in 1750. She carried
on business with her brother at Rome, and her
etchings bear a strong resemblance to those of her
father. She probably retired to Paris with her
brother. There is no account of her death. She
engraved some views of the remarkable buildings
in Rome ; among others, the following :
The Ponte Salario.
The Temple of Peace.
The Arch of Septimus Severus.
P1RINGER, BENEDIKT, a designer and engraver,
was born at Vienna ia 1780, and died in Paris,
where he had resided for some time, in 1826. He
studied at the Vienna Academy under F. A. Brand
and Herzinger, and was afterwards admitted to
membership. He worked in aquatint and with
the graver, and his productions are chiefly land-
scapes, romantic scenery, and views of cities after
old and modern masters, some of which were pub-
lished collectively. His pieces are rather numerous,
and include among the best :
The four Parts of the Day ; four plates, after Claude
The Waterfall ; after Molitor.
The Rocky Pyramid ; after the same.
Landscapes ; after Poussin and Locatelli.
PIRINI, Louis DE, a French engraver, by whom
ws have a plate representing two Men playing at
Cards, and a Woman holding a Mirror behind one
of them, to discover his hand to the other ; after
Cornells van Tienen.
PIRNBAUM, ALEXIS, was, according to Papillon,
who calls him PiRNRADM,an engraver on wood, and
resided at Basle about the year 1545. Papillon
supposes him to have been a disciple of Haas
Holbein, but does not specify any of his works.
Nagler is of opinion that he is identical with Adam
Petri, a bookseller of Basle.
PIROLI, TOMMASO, an Italian designer and en-
graver, was born at Rome in 1750, and received his
instruction in Florence. In 1806 he returned to
Rome, in which city, after passing some years in
Paris, he finally settled, and died in 1824. His
prints are numerous, etched in outline and in the
chalk manner. The following are considered as
the most interesting: 'The Deposition from the
Cross,' after Caravaggio ; Bronzes, &c., from Her-
culaneum ; a set of Bas-reliefs, after Canova ;
the Prophets and Sibyls of Michelangelo in the
Cappella Sistina ; a copy of Metz's prints of the
' Last Judgment,' in the same chapel ; the story of
Cupid and Psyche, from the frescoes of Raphael
in the Farnesina; Massacio's frescoes in the Bran-
cacci chapel at Florence ; and the outlines for
original editions of Flaxman's illustrations to
Homer, Hesiod, JSschylus, and Dante, engraved
under Flaxman's own supervision, and published
at Rome. There are also several sets of engravings,
from remains of ancient art, by Piroli, part of which
were published at Rome and part at Paris by Fran-
cesco and Pietro Piranesi, the sons of the celebrated
PIROTTE, OLIVIER, a Flemish historical painter,
born at Liege in 1699. He was a pupil of B. Luti
at Rome, and afterwards of Coypel at Paris. ^ He
painted several pictures for the churches in Liege.
He died in 1742.
PISANO, GIDNTA, (or GIUNTA DA PISA,) lived in
the first half of the 13th century, and was born,
if the old chronicles are to be believed, in 120'2.
Among the existing works attributed to him, are a
' Crucifixion ' in San Ranieri at Pisa ; a picture of
Saints in the chapel of the Campo Santo ; a ' De-
struction of Simon Magus,' and a 'Martyrdom of
St. Peter,' both in San Francesco at Assisi, where
there was formerly a picture of the Crucifixion,
with Father Elias, the first General of the Fran-
ciscans, embracing the Cross. This was inscribed
with Giunta's name and the date, 1236, but is now
lost. Giunta died in or about 1258. Though still
constrained in design, he made some advance be-
yond the conventionality of the Byzantine painters
who immediately preceded him.
PISANO, VITTORE, called PISANELLO, famous as
a painter, and, even more so perhaps, as the greatest
of Italian medallists, was born at S. Vigilio in
the Veronese territory about 1380, and seems to
have ended his career at Rome early in 1456.
The date of his birth is approximate, but that
of his death is supported by two letters from
Rome to Giovanni de Medici and other evidence.
Vittore was a painter of great originality, excelling
especially in his treatment of animals. "In pin-
gendis equis caeterisque animalibus," says Fazio,
" peritorum judicio caeteros antecessit ; " and this
valuable evidence of a contemporary is fully borne
out by his magnificent fresco of ' St. George,' with
its great wnr-horses champing at their bits (Verona,
S. Anastasia), by his ' Vision of St. Eustace '
(National Gallery of London), and his drawings at
Paris in the Musee du Louvre. He was the Land-
seer or Morland of his day, but was at the same
time no less excellent in portraiture and modelling
in relief. Of too marked individuality to be classed
under any school, his connection with Verona is to
be noted, where he may have learnt from Alti-
chiero, who was working both here in the
churches and the Palace of the Signory and at
Padua with Jacopo d'Avanzo (in 1370), on the
decorations of the Capella S. Felice in S. Antonio,
and (in 1377) on the Church of S. Giorgio close to
the Santo (S. Antonio). At the same time Vittore's
connection with Ferrara is too important to be
omitted. Leonello d'Este, the natural son of
Niccolo III., had summoned him here. Pisanello's
portrait of his Ferrarese patron appears in the
Bergamo Collection, and is to be compared, with its
rich costume, short close-cut hair, and clever ugly
THE VISION OF ST. ANTHONY AND ST. GEORGE
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
face, with the same artist's medallion of Leonello.
A replica of this portrait is in the National Gallery,
from the hand of Giovanni Oriolo, a Ferrarese
painter, beyond much doubt a pupil of Pisanello,
and living in 1461. The portrait is a profile, life-
size, in red coat and black gown edged with gold ;
it is signed Opiis Johanis Orioli, and came from
the Costabili Gallery at Ferrara. Thus we find
that Pisanello's influence contributed to the forma-
tion of that most interesting Ferrarese school
which, under Leonello's successor, Duke Borso
(1450-71), takes definite form, with Cosimo Tura
as the Court painter. Leonello himself, the Mar-
quis of Este, calls Pisano in one letter, " Pisanus,
omnium pictorum hujusce aetatis egregius ; " and
the great medallist reproduced his patron's features
in no less than seven different medals. Vasari
tells us that Vittore Pisano was "fully equal to
any of the painters of his time ; and of this we
have ample proof in the works which may still be
seen in his native place, the most noble city of
Verona, though," he adds, " many of them are in
part destroyed by time." In fact the only frescoes
by Pisano which have escaped are those in S.
Fermo Maggiore at Verona (an ' Annunciation '
and figures of 'SS. Michael and George' which
are damaged, with an ' Adoration ') and the
magnificent scene of ' St. George mounting his
treat charger for the fight,' with the king's
aughter in rich mediaeval dress standing near
him, upon an arch in the Pellegrini Chapel of S.
Anastasia at Verona. Gone are his frescoes in the
Hall of the Great Council in the Ducal Palace of
Venice, where he was working with Gentile da
Fabriano (about 1421-22), and those recorded by
Vasari at Rome (notably in S. Giovanni Laterano),
as well as at Mantua, Ferrara, and the Castello of
Pavia ; but certain frescoes found in S. Eustorgio
of Milan, and since very freely restored, bore
traces of Vittore's style. His connection with
Gentile da Fabriano is to be especially noted.
Both share in a sort of knightly grace, in both the
old sentiment of chivalry seems to find expression ;
and if the Eastern King of Gentile's lovely ' Ador-
ation 'seems like a delicious mediaeval fairy-tale,
then Pisano's ' St. George," clad in mail of silver,
is the true hero of the Christian legend. Of his
panel paintings there may be noted the ' Leonello
d'Este ' of the Bergamo Gallery, and the 'Miraculous
Stag appearing to St. Eustace' in the National
Gallery, with its beautiful rendering of animal life,
for which numerous studies exist among his draw-
ings. The Saint himself, riding out to the chase,
reins back his steed, covered with rich trappings,
as he sees before him a great stag, with between
his horns the Crucified Christ. Elsewhere in the
picture a hound is chasing a hare ; in the marsh
above herons are fishing in their quiet deliberate
manner ; stag's are browsing ; a bear climbs the
hillside ; and every hair, every feather of these
creatures is finished to perfection. This master-
piece of Pisanello's art came from the Earl of Ash-
burnhain's Collection, and was purchased for the
National Gallery in 1895. Scarcely less interesting
is the ' St. Anthony and St. George ' (inscribed
Pisamis pt) which came from the Costabili
Collection at Ferrara ; and here too the painter's
love of animal life grasps at some expression.
St. Anthony must have his boar, St. George, of
course, his dragon ; and behind the Saint the head
of his war-horse, and that of his esquire's steed,
recall those in the great fresco of Verona, just as
the quaint head-dress of the rescued Princess re-
appears in the profile portrait of a woman, recently
acquired by the Louvre Museum, which may depict
Margherita Gonzaga, first wife of Leonello d'Este
of Ferrara. An ' Adoration of the Kings ' and a
'Virgin with Saints' in the Berlin Gallery have
been attributed to his hand ; and we must by no
means omit that exquisitely tender ' Virgin and
Child ' of the Museo Civico of Verona, which is one
of the most beautiful creations of early Italian art.
As a medallist Pisano stands unequalled in Italian
art. M. Heiss, in his valuable work on the
medallists of the Renaissance, gives a detailed ac-
count of authentic medals by Pisanello, which,
following him, we might arrange chronologically
1. Head of the artist in profile, wearing a cap. One
with a cap ; a smaller without. Reverse : Wreath and
letters, F. S. K. J. P. F. C. (initials of the Seven Virtues ?).
2. Johannes Palaeologus, Emperor of the East. Bust,
wearing curious hat. Legend : Johannes . Easileus . kai .
autocrator . Bomaion . o . Palaiotoyos. Reverse : The
Emperor, mounted, before a crucifix, with the usual
legend Opus . Pisani . Pictoris repeated in Greek, Ergon .
tou . Pisanoic . zoarapho. An example of this medal in
the Florence Museum. A drawing in the Louvre (Val-
lardi Coll.) shows the Emperor on horseback a study
for this reverse. The best of Vittore's drawings are in
the Musee du Louvre ; others are at Vienna (women
with dogs and falcons) and in the British Museum.
3. Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan (1412-47).
Bust of Filippo Maria, wearing a cap. Reverse : The
Duke on horseback, clad iu mail, with on his crest the
arms of the Visconti (a serpent devouring a child). An
esquire and armed knight behind him. A towered city in
distance. Legend : Opus Pisani Pictoris. Legend on
face: Philippus . Maria . Anylus . Dux . Mediolani . et .
cetera . Amjierieque . Comes . ac . Genue , dominus. Two
drawings of this medal exist, probably by Pisano's hand,
in the Vallardi Collection.
4. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan (1450-66). Bora
1401, a successful Condottiere. Legend : Francesco .
Sfortia . yicecomes . Marchio . et . Comes . ac . Cremone.
Bust in armour, wearing a cap. Reverse: Head of a
horse, books, and a bared sword. This medal dates from
after his marriage (1441), when the Countship of Cre-
nioiia (Comes Cremone} came to him with Bianca Maria,
and before he became Duke of Milan (1447), as that title
does not appear. As Pisano left for Ferrara in 1444, it
must date between 1441 and 1444.
5. Pietro Candido Decembno (1399-1477). Legend:
Petrus . Candidus . Studiorum . Htimanitati* . decus.
Bust, wearing a cap. Reverse : Opus Pisani Pictoris. An
open book, with eight seals. Dates probably from about
the same period as the preceding, viz. at Milan, between
6. Niccolo Piccioino (1380-1444). Legend : Ntcholaws .
Pici/iinus . Vicecomes . Marchio . Capitaneus . Maximus .
ac . Mars . alter. Bust in armour, wearing a cap. Re-
verse : N(icolaus) Picininus . Draccius . Pisani Plictoris)
opus. A winged griffin, with Perusia engraved on her
collar, suckles two babes. Vicecomes (i.e. Visconti) refers
to Picciuiuo's formal adoption by Duke Filippo Maria.
Date about 1441.
7. Leonello d'Este (born 1407, ruled 1441-50). There
are seven medals of Leonello, all with his strong ugly
face, with its short curly hair. Three contain the title
Lcjmellus Marchio Estewsis; on reverse, Opus Pisani
Pictoris. On No. 1 (reverse) an old man and youth
naked, seated by a mast ; on No. 2 (reverse) the mask of
a child with three faces, armour, and an olive branch ; on
third (reverse), a naked youth and old man carry great
baskets filled with corn. These are fine medals, but yet
finer are three others inscribed (as well as one smaller
one), Leonellus Marchio Estensis Dominus Ferrarie Seoii
No. 4. Reverse : A naked youth lying beneath a rock ;
above, a vase filled with corn. Superb, this, in spacing
and modelling of the figure.
No 5. Winged Love stands holding a scroll of music
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
before a lion. On a column a sail, filled with wind, and
date MCCCCXLHI. Behind, an eagle on a tree with bare
No. 6. A wild cat or lynx, sitting on a cushion, with its
No. 7. A vase of fruit, with two anchors attached.
In No. 5, above Leonello's portrait are the letters
G(ener) R(ex) Ar(agonii), referring to his marriage
(which Filippo Maria Visconti helped to arrange) in 1444
with Maria of Aragon, natural daughter of Alfonso.
8. Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta (born 1417 ; Lord
of Rimini and Fano 1432-63). (1) Legend: Sigismundus
de Malatestis Arimini et Romanae Ecclesiae Capitaneus
Generalis. Bust in armour, with head bare. Reverse :
Sigismondo Malatesta armed, on horseback ; behind, two
towers bear the date 1445, and the Malatesta shield.
(2) Legend: Sigismundns Pandulfusde Malatesta Ari-
mini Pant Dominus. Bust in armour, with head bare.
Keverse : Sigismondo upright, in full armour, his vizor
down, placing his sword in sheath. On his left upon a
tree the Malatesta shield ; on right his casque, with the
elephant's head as his crest.
9. Domeuico Malatesta, called Novello. Legend : Dux
Equitum prat&tans (above the head) ; beside it : Mala-
testa Nbvellus Cesenae dominus. Bust (profile of great
beauty); head bare. Reverse: Novello in armour kneels
before a crucifix, embracing its stem ; his horse waits
beside him. Opus Pisani Pictoris.
10. Giovanni Francesco Gonzaga (1395-1444). Legend :
Johannes . Francescus . de . Gonzaga . Primus . Marchio .
Mantue . Capit(aneus) . Maximus . Armigtrornm. Bust,
wearing a high cap trimmed with fur. Reverse : Opus
Pisani Pictoris. The Marquis in armour on horseback, still
wearing his peculiar cap. In front of him a rosary, be-
hind him an esquire on horseback with his back turned,
who seems a dwarf. In the Vallardi Collection is a draw-
ing by Pisano of Gianfrancesco on horseback, with his
daughter Cecilia also on horseback beside him, and be-
hind the same dwarf as his esquire. Another drawing at
Oxford shows him again in the same fashion on horse-
back, but the dwarf riding away as in the medal. These
drawings are most evidently studies for the medal. No