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date ; probably 1447, when Pisano was at Mantua.

11. Another; somewhat different.

12. Lodovico Gonzaga, called the Turk (1414-70).
Lodovicus de Gonzaga Jfarchio Mantue etcet(era) Capit~
fineus armii/eronan. Bust in armour, with head bare.
Reverse : The Marquis in full armour on horseback, his
vizor down. Behind him the sun, before him a sunflower,
which turns to him, not to the sun. Opus Pisani Pictoris.

13. Cecilia Gonzaga (? 1425-51), daughter of Gian-
francesco Gouzaga and Paola Malatesta, sisterof Lodovico
III. Cecilia . Virgo .filia . Johannis . Francisci .primi .
JIarchionis -Vantue. The hair is drawn back from the
front, and fastened with a ribbon, the long, slender neck
is bare, the costume simple and beautifully rendered.
Reverse : A young girl, half nude, holds captive an uni-
corn. It was held that only a virgin could capture alive
the unicorn ; and we may note the epithet Virgo occurs
on the front of the medal, and helps to explain the
reverse. A study for this unicorn (taken from a large
he-goat) in the Vallardi drawings. Opus Pisani Pictoris,
with the date 1477, on reverse of Cecilia's medal. In
distance mountains, and a crescent moon, the symbol of

14. Vittorino da Feltre (1379-1447). Victoriitus . Fel-
trensis . Summits . (the legend continues on the reverse)
JIfatkematicus . et . omnis . Humanitatis . Pater . Opus .
Pisani . Pictoris. On front : The bust of Vittorino wear-
ing a cap. Reverse : A pelican, feeding her young with
her own blood, symbolizes his absolute devotion to his
pupils' highest and best interests. Date of medal, prob-
ably in 1446. A study for the pelican on this medal in
the Vallardi Collection.

15. Belotto of Como (1447). Nothing is known of this
person, save that Basilio of Parma, in his poem in praise of
Pisanello, alludes to his medal, "del Belotto fanciullo."
Bellotus . Cantaims. Bust, wearing cap. Reverse : A
weasel running, with above the date 1447, and around,
Opus . Pisani . pictoris.

16. Don Inigo d'Avalos, Marquis of Pescara. Legend :
Don Inigo . de . Avalos. Bust to R., wearing fur-trimmed
bonnet and cape. Reverse : A globe containing the
heaven filled with stars, the earth with cities and


mountains, and the sea or water beneath. Above, the
arms of Avalos between two rose-trees. Beneath, Per
wi se fa, and Opus Pisani Pictoris. A study for the
cities, mountains, and sky of reverse, but with one star
only, in the Vallardi Collection.

17. Medals of Alfonso of Aragon, King of Naples and
Sicily (born 1391, died 1458) :

(1) Legend : Divus . Alphonsus . Rex . Triumphator .
et . Pacifcus 31.CCCCXL VIII. (This still refers to his tri-
umphant return in 1443.) Bust facing to R., in armour,
head bare ; in front, an open crown between the date
given; behind, a helmet bearing the motto, Vir Sapiens
dominabitur astris. Reverse : An eagle seated on a tree-
truuk among the rocks, a dead kid at his feet, and a bird
beneath. Beneath him another eagle and two eaglets.
Opus . Pisani . Pictoris.

(2) Divus . Alphonsus . Arago(inae) . Siciliae . Val-
(entiae) . Hie(rosolymae) . Hun(gariae) . Ma(joricarum) .
Sa(rdiniae) . Cor(sicae) . Rex . Co(mes) . a(runoae) .
Dux . At(henarum), etc. Bust facing to R. Beneath it
an open crown. Reverse: Senator intrepidus. A naked
youth or man (PAlphouso), armed with a knife, bestrides
a wild boar, whom two boar-hounds hold back.

(3) Alphonsus . Bex . Aragoniae (small). Bust to E.
as in the last. Reverse : Victory driving a four-horsed
chariot. Victor . Siciliae is the legend.

(4) Divus . Alphonsus . Aragoniae . utriusque . Siciliae .
Valenciae, and full titles as in (2), ending, as there, with
Comes . Roscilionis . et . Ceritaniae. Bust facing to R. in
armour, head bare, beneath an open crown. Reverse :
Fortitude . mea . et . laus . mea . Dominus . et . factus .
est . michi . in . salutem. Victory (or is it a draped
Love?), winged, drives a four-horsed chariot ; a groom or
esquire walks beside the leaders. Beneath, Opus . Pisani .

Numerous studies for these fine medals are in the
Vallardi Collection. One study seems to have served
for the head in the reverse of (2), i. e. the bold huntsman
(Venator intrepidus). Another is for the bust in the
medal No. (1), but with a child with three faces beneath
on the cuirass ; it has the date 1448, and the legend,
Triumphator et Pauftcus.

Other medals are attributed to Pisanello by con-
temporary and later writers, which have not yet
been found. Of special interest among these are
Guarino of Verona (born 1370, died 1460), Carlo
Gonzaga, Porcellio of Naples, Pope Martin V.
(1417-31), the Condottiere Braccio di Montone (see
above), Borso d'Este, Lord of Ferrara and patron
of Cosimo Tura, and Gian Galeazzo Visconti,
Despot of Milan. None of the existing medals of
Gum Galeazzo are genuine work of Pisano's period;
but there is a drawing in the Louvre (Vallardi
Collection), described by the writer in his Re-
naissance series (Vol. II. chapter ii.), which
seems to be a contemporary portrait of the
Milanese despot, and here we shall not be far
wrong in tracing Pisano's hand. g ]j

PISBOLICA, JACOPO, a Venetian painter, men-
tioned by Vasari in his Life of Sansovino as the
author of a good picture of ' Christ with Angels,'
in Santa Maria Maggiore, Venice.

PISSARRO, CAMILLE, French painter, born at
Saint Thomas (Normandy), January 18, 1830 ;
became a pupil of Melbye and Corot ; with Cezanne
and Sisley he counts as one of the most notable
exponents of the so-called Impressionist school.
He is best known to us by his landscapes, though
in architectural studies he shows equal skill and
subtlety. His early work was largely influenced
by Millet and Corot, and after Manet in 1885
succeeded in winning him over to Impressionism,
there remained a good deal of classicism in his work.
This blend of impressionism and classicism gives
a certain special and distinctive charm to Pissarro's
work. In his series of pictures representing views
of Paris he displayed rare insight, and makes one






feel the atmosphere, the charm, and the very spirit
of the French capital. Of his landscapes we may
mention, ' Paysage i Montmorency ' (in the Salon
of 1859), ' Bords de la Marne,' ' Route de Cachalas
a, la Roche Guyon,' ' Chennevieres, au bord de la
Marne,' ' La C6te de Jallais,' ' L' Hermitage,'
'Automne,' &c. He was a true artist, and a
sincere and conscientious painter. His death
occurred in Paris, November 14, 1903.

PISTOIA, GEKINO DA, is described by Vasari as
the friend of Pinturicchio, a diligent colourist, and
a follower of Perugino. For his birth or death no
dates can be given. In 1505 he painted some de-
signs in the cathedral of his native city ; and in
the church of San Pietro Maggiore an altar-piece
of his still remains. In the refectory of the
convent of Santa Lucchese, near Poggibonsi, now-
turned into a canteen, there are two scenes from
the life of Christ by him.




a genre painter, was born at Berlin in 1796. He
was originally a pupil of the portrait painter
Willich, and copied many pictures in the Gallery
of Sans-Souci. In 1818-19 he lived in Dresden,
where he chiefly busied himself with genre-paint-
ing. In 1827 he visited the Netherlands, and
stayed in Dusseldorf on his way back. He returned
in 1830 to Berlin, and was elected member of the
Academy in 1833. He died at Kissingen in 1862.
The National Gallery at Berlin possesses the
following pictures by him :

An Old Man and an Old Woman ; a pair (marked in
cipher, E. P.). 1824.

The Geography Class.

The Toilet. 1827.

The Village Fiddler. 1831.

The Artist's Studio. 1828.

A Sound Sleep. 1839.

PISTRDCCI, BENEDETTO, a very eminent gem
engraver and medallist, born at Rome in 1764.
He was chief medallist at the Mint in 1828, and
many of the finest of the medals as well as
the designs for the gold and silver coinage of
George III. from 1817 to 1822 are from his hand.
To him is due the design for the St. George and
the Dragon, still in use on the existing gold coinage.
His engraving was of the utmost delicacy and
distinguished by much refinement, and his pencil
copies of antique coins, gems and medals were of
extreme beauty. He died near Windsor in 1855.

PITATI, BOXIFAZIO DI, born at Verona in 1487,
died at Venice in 1553 ; son of a soldier Marco di
Pitati, who removed with his family to Venice in
1505. Here Bonifazio must have entered the
workshop of Palma Vecchio, and became his princi-
pal pupil and assistant. During the first half of
the sixteenth century he was doubtless one of the
most popular painters in the city, and executed a
great number of works for palaces and churches.
His workshop was one of the largest and most
frequented in Venice, the pupils and assistants
being trained more especially in the execution of
decorative paintings for Venetian palaces. One
of Bonifazio's most important undertakings of this
description was the entire decoration of the Pa-
lazzo Camerlenghi, which was begun in 1529 and
carried out with the aid of numerous assistants ; it
was not completed until some years after the
master's death. Some of these paintings have

perished, but a great number are still in existence,
dispersed in different Galleries, at Venice, Vienna,
Milan, Florence, and elsewhere. As already ob-
served in the notice of Bonifazio Pasini, recent
research has proved that the painters formerly
designated Bonifazio I., II., and III. must now be
identified with Bonifazio di Pitati and his disciples,
and their works are classified as follows : pictures
formerly ascribed to Bonifazio I. are held to be by
the hand of B. di Pitati alone ; those attributed to
Bonifazio II. were probably executed in the work-
shop during the master's lifetime ; while those
which formerly passed under the name of Bonifazio
III. must have been produced by the followers
and heirs of B. di Pitati either during his lifetime
or after his death. The works of Bonifazio di
Pitati and his school are very numerous, and are
met with in public and private collections in Italy
and abroad ; among the most celebrated examples
by the master himself are the following :

Dresden. Gallery. Finding of Moses.

London. Nat. Gal. The Madonna and Child with

Saints in a landscape.
Milan. Amlirosiana. Holy Family with Tobias and

the Angel.

Brera. The Finding of Moses.

The Woman taken in Adult-

Rome. Colmma Gal. Madonna and Child with


Venice. Academy. Adoration of the Magi (1545).

Massacre of the Innocents


,, Dives and Lazarus.

,, Palazzo Reale. The Madonna with SS. Omo-

bono and Barbara (dated

Of Bonifazio di Pitati's pupils some are now
known to us by name, and a few of their works
have been identified. Among them may be men-
tioned the following :

Antonio Palma, died after 1575, a nephew by
marriage of Bonifazio, and his heir. A signed
picture by him is in the Gallery at Stuttgart, show-
ing his close connection with his uncle. Later he
appears to have worked in the manner of the Santa
Croce ; this is seen in a processional banner at
Serinalta of 1565, and in works at Vienna belong-
ing to the series from the Palazzo Camerlenghi.

Battista di Giacomo, nephew by marriage, and
heir of Bonifazio. A picture by him was formerly
in the Church of S. Sebastiano, Venice, where with
other painters of Bonifazio's workshop he was em-
ployed in decorating the sacristy about 1551.
After the death of Bonifazio, Antonio Palma and
Battista di Giacomo appear to have lived in their
master's house, and to have carried on the work-

Domenico Biondo, mentioned in documents be-
tween 1537 and 1553, in which year he signed his
name as one of the witnesses to the will of Boni-
fazio, being probably at that time an assistant in
the master's workshop. In 1541 he received pay-
ment for a picture painted for the Ducal Palace.
He may possibly be the author of two good pic-
tures originally in the Palazzo Camerlenghi and
now at Vienna : ' Zacharias and the Angel ' (1550),
and 'St. Laurence' (1551).

Stefano Cernotto, a Dalmatian ; a signed picture
by him (' St. Peter '), dated 1536, is in S. Giov. e
Paolo, Venice; the companion picture ('St. Paul')
is at Vienna ; both were originally in the Palazzo
Camerlenghi, where they formed the wings to


Bonifazio's picture, 'Christ driving the Buyers and
Sellers from the Temple,' now in the Palazzo
Ducale, Venice. Cernotto was already dead in 1543.
Jacopo Pistoia, probably a relation of the
painter Antonio Zappello of Bergamo, who was
also called Pistoia. He doubtless received his first
teaching in the workshop of Palma Vecohio, and
on the death of that master became a disciple of
Bonifazio. A document of 1563 proves that he
was greatly esteemed as a painter at Venice, where
he was associated with Titian, Tintoretto, Paul
Veronese, and other distinguished masters. The
following works by him are known : ' The Ascen-
sion,' in the Church of the Madonna delle Cendriole
at Riese (between Castelfranco and Asolo), a picture
mentioned by Vasari (who erroneously calls the
painter Pisbolica) as being in his day in S. Maria
Maggiore at Venice ; 'The Madonna in Glory' and
'The Assumption,' both in the Venice Academy.
These two pictures are ascribed respectively to
Bonifazio and Palma Vecchio, but agree in character
with Pistoia's authenticated work at Riese. Like
that picture, they came originally from S. Maria
Maggiore at Venice. The following are also con-
sidered to be by this painter : a ' Madonna and two
Saints, 1 in the Gallery at Padua, and a similar sub-
ject in the Louvre, showing respectively the influ-
ence of Palma and Bonifazio, and ' The Supper at
Emmaus,' in the Pitti, ascribed to Palma Vecchio.
Vitruvio Buonconsiglio, called Vitrulio, son of
Giovanni Buonconsiglio, of Vicenza, born c. 1494
at Venice. He was working in the Palazzo Camer-
lenghi between 1551 and 1559, and was also
employed in the Scuola di S. Rocco. Three
pictures by Vitrulio are still in Venice : in the
Academy, the Palazzo Reale, and the Palazzo
Ducale, the latter being signed and dated 1559.
Among pupils of B. di Pitati must also be in-
cluded Polidoro Lanzani, whose real name is now
known to have been Polidoro de Renzi, son of
Paolo da Lanzano, near Lodi, and Jacopo Bassano,
who, according to Ridolfi, was for a short time in
the studio of Bonifazio. C, J. Ff.

PITAU, NICOLAAS, the elder, an engraver, was
born at Antwerp about 1633, and first studied under
his father JOHANN PITAU, but in 1660 went to Paris
and became a pupil of Francois de Poilly, or at
least partially adopted his style. Pitau died in
Paris in or about 1676. He engraved a variety
of historical subjects after different masters, and a
considerable number of portraits. The following
are considered to be his best plates :


Louis Henri, Due de Bourbon, supported by Wisdom

and Eeligion.

Pope Alexander VII. ; after Mignard.
Louis XIV., King of France ; after Le Fevre. 1670.
Louis, Dauphin, his son ; after the same.
Peter Seguier, Chancellor of France. 1668.
Alexandre Paul Pitau, Advocate in Parliament.
Caspar de Fieubert, Chancellor. 1662.
Nicolas Colbert ; after Le Fevre.


The Holy Family, with St. Elisabeth and St. John ; after


The Entombment of Christ ; after L. Carracci.
The Virgin holding the Infant Jesus in her arms and

reading ; after Guercino.
The Dead Christ, with Angels weeping over him ; after

the same.
The Virgin interceding for St. Bruno and bis order ;

after Champaiyne.

Christ and the Woman of Samaria ; after the same.

The Penitent Magdalen ; after the same.

St. Sulpice in Council ; after the same.

The Holy Family, with the Infant Jesus embracing St.

John ; after the same.
The Holy Family, with an Angel presenting a Basket of

Flowers ; after Villequin.
St. Francis de Sales.

PITAU, NICOLAAS, the younger, son of the last
named, worked from 1695 to 1745, and has left a
few engraved portraits, including :

Louis Alexandra de Bourbon, Count de Toulouse ; in-
scribed Co'-'ert piiix. 1701. FT. Pitau Junior.
Oliver Cromwell.

PITI, a Spanish historical painter, born at Sala-
manca. He was a pupil of Giordano, on whose
return to Italy Piti received a commission to work
in the cathedral of Valladolid. He also painted for
the chapel of the Marquis of Cerralvo at Salamanca.

PITLOO, ANTON S., a Dutch landscape painter,
born at Arnheim in 1791. He was a pupil of H.
J. van Ameron. In 1816 he went to Italy, where
he painted several views, among which were a
view of Rome, and one of the Capitol from theCampo
Vaccino. He died in 1837.

PITNER, FRANZ, German painter, born October
11, 1826, at Vienna ; a pupil of the Academy ; also
studied at Venice and Rome ; became drawing-
master to the Duchess of Berry and subsequently
worked at Venice, where he painted Italian genre,
such as ' Serenata,' ' Italian Water-carrier,' and
several water-colours. He also executed several
chromo-lithographs. He died at Gries, near Bozen,
in June 1892!

PITOCCHI, MATTEO DA, a native of the Venetian
state, who painted bambocciati, and also some re-
ligious pictures for the churches of Padua. He
died about 1700.



PITTERI, GIOVANNI MARCO, designer and en-
jraver, was born at Venice in 1703, and died there
n 1786. He was a pupil of J. Baroni and Antonio
Faldoni, but adopted an original style, with single
strokes which run from the top to the bottom, his
(shadows being produced by strengthening these
as the occasion requires. The effect he produced
by this whimsical operation is neither unpleasing
nor unharmonious, and his prints possess consider-
able merit. Some of his works are marked M. P.
fecit. He engraved several plates for the collec-
tion of the Dresden Gallery, and others after various
masters ; among them the following :


A bust of himself ; after Piazzetta.

Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, painter, of Venice ; after

the same.

Carlo Goldoni, the poet ; after the same.
Giuseppe Nogari, painter ; after the same.
Giovanni Mocenigo, noble Venetian ; after the same.
Count Schulenburg, Field Marshal of Venice ; after


Cardinal Quirini.
Marquis Scipione Mafifei.
Clara Isabella Fornari.

The Holy Family ; after Pietro Longhi.
The Seven Sacraments ; after the same.
The Crucifixion ; after Piazzetta.
The Twelve Apostles ; after tht same.
Religion overthrowing Heresy ; after the same.
St. Peter delivered from Prison ; after Ribera.
The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew ; after the same.


St. Catharine of Siena: after Tiepolo.

Mary Magdalene, penitent ; after the same.

A set of six Plates of Hunts in the environs of Venice ;

after Pietro Lonahi.
Twelfth-Night ; after Teniers.
Two Rustic Subjects ; after the same.

graver, was born at Vicenza probably in 1520, and
was living in 1585. His engravings consist of
landscapes with ancient ruins, mythological sub-
jects, and arabesques. Some of them bear date from
1561 to 1585. A work formerly in the possession
of alate collector (Mr. Lloyd) was entitled ' Imagini
favolosi, &c., intagliatiin Kami da M. (Messer) Bat-
tista Pittoni.' Venice, 1585. In conjunction with
Battista Angolo del Moro he engraved a set of fifty
landscapes from Titian and others. These plates
are very boldly and freely executed. Vicentino
usually marked his prints Battista P. V. F., and
appended a Latin inscription descriptive of the

born at Vicenza in 1690, and received his first
instructions in the art from his uncle FRANCESCO
PITTONI ; but his greatest improvement was de-
rived from study of the works of the best masters
of the Venetian school. His figures are generally
smaller than life ; and he was less successful when
he attempted to work on a larger scale. Two
of his finest pictures are the ' Martyrdom of St.
Thomas,' in the church of Sant' Eustacio, at Venice,
and the ' Miracle of the Loaves,' in San Cosmo della
Giudecca. He died at Venice in 1767. The exist-
ence of two etchings by him is recorded a ' Giov.
Nep. Canonico de Praga,' and a ' St. John.'

Italian painter, born at Masaccio, where he painted
many pictures for churches, &c. He died in 1590.
painter, flourished about 1533 at Macerata, where
he painted a ' Christ,' in the Church of the Virgin,
in the anlico-moderno manner.
PIXELL, (Miss) MARIA, an English landscape
painter in oil and water-colours, born in the latter
part of the 18th century. She studied under Sawrey
Gilpin, and obtained a considerable, but transient,
reputation. Her works appeared at the Academy
between 1796 and 1811.

PIZZARO, ANTONIO, a Spanish historical painter,
was a scholar of El Greco, and resided at Toledo
at the commencement of the 17th century. He
painted the ' Foundation of the order of Los Trini-
tarios ' for their convent ; several pictures in the
churches of SS. Justo and Pastor ; and the ' Nativity
of the Virgin' in the church of Santa Maria, at
Casarrubios. He also designed the three subjects
engraved by Alardo Popma for the ' Life of St.
Ildefonso ' by Salazar de Mendoza, published in
1618. Neither the date of his birth, nor of his
death, is recorded.

PIZZOLI, GIOVACCHINO, a decorative and land-
scape painter, born at Bologna in 1651. He was
instructed by Borboni, Pasinelli, and Michelangelo
Colonna, whom he afterwards assisted. He died
in 1733.

PIZZOLO, NiccoL6, was one of the most import-
ant of Squarcione's pupils, and aided him in the
decoration of the Eremitani Chapel, at Padua.
According to Vasari, the ' Eternal,' in the semi-dome
of the chapel, the ' Virgin in Glory, with Cherubim,'
and the figures of SS. Paul, Christopher, Peter,
K 2.

and James, are all by him. In these works there is
much to remind us of Mantegna, who is said to
have been much influenced by Pizzolo. He also
assisted Fra Filippo in the chapel of the Podesta,
Florence, and Donatello in the church of S. An-
tonio, Padua, in 1446 to 1448. He is said to have
perished early in life in a street brawl.


PLACE, FRANCIS, was the younger son of Rowland
Place, of Dinsdale, in the county of Durham, but
was himself born in Yorkshire. His father, intending
him for the profession of the law, placed him as a
clerk to a solicitor in London, under whom he
continued until the year 1665, when he was obliged
to quit the metropolis on account of the plague,
and he took this opportunity of abandoning a pur-
suit which was never agreeable to his inclination,
and of indulging his propensity for drawing. He
painted, designed, etched, and engraved in mezzo-
tint, and also drew with the pen, shading the fore-
grounds with Indian ink ; but as he practised art
for amusement only, his works are very scarce.
They prove him to have been a man of genius, and
it is to be regretted that his application was not
equal to his abilities. He is said to have refused a
pension of five hundred pounds a year, which was
offered him in the reign of Charles II., to draw the
royal navy, as he could not endure confinement or
dependence. He was intimate with Hollar, and
with Ralph Thoresby, the antiquary. He died at
York in 1728, and his widow disposed of his paint-
ings, among which were one of fowls, and others
of flowers and fish. Most of his engravings appear
to have been private plates, and this may account
for their scarcity. They were executed not later
than about 1683, and among them the following
are the chief :


Charles I. ; after Van Dyck.

Catharine, Countess of Middleton ; after Lely.

Major-General John Lambert.

Eichard Sterne, Archbishop of York.

Nathaniel, Baron Crew, Bishop of Durham ; after


Rev. William Cray, of Newcastle. 1683.
Richard Tompson, printseller ; after Zoust.
Philip Woolrich, Esq., in armour ; after Greenhill.
John Moyser, Esq., of Beverley ; after Kneller.
Henry Gyles, glass-painter.

Sir Ralph Cole, Bart., amateur painter ; after Le!y.
William Lodge, engraver.
Pearce Tempest, printseller ; after Heemskerk.
James Naylor, the Quaker.


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