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Seven etchings, being part of a set of twelve of Birds ,
after Barlow; the other five were by Jan Griffier ;
very fine.

Lady confessing to a Monk.

A Dutch Family.

A Monk Reading ; after T'an Dyck.

A View of Tynemouth Castle and Lighthouse.

View of York Minster.

A Prospect of Leeds.

PLACE, GEORGE, an Irish miniature painter, born
in Dublin in the latter half of the 18th century.
He studied in the Schools of the Irish Academy,
and practised in London, exhibiting at the Royal
Academy from 1791 to 1797. He afterwards prac-
tised in Yorkshire. The date of his death has eluded

engraver, was born at Leipsic in 1818. He at-
tended the Academy of his birthplace, and at first



designed himself for a lithographer, but in 1840
he visited Italy, and afterwards studied engraving
at Dresden under Steinla. There, in 1873, not
being able to find a publisher for his drawing of
Leonardo's ' Last Supper,' he put an end to his
life by shooting himself. His principal plates

The Saviour ; after Cima da

Christ blessing the Bread ; after Carlo Dolci.

The Virgin Mary ; after Steinb>~tick.

The Repentant Magdalene ; after Correagio.

The Sons of Rubens ; after Rubens.

St. Mary of Egypt ; after Kit/era.

The Dead Christ mourned over by his Disciples ; after


Rembrandt and his wife ; after Rembrandt.
The Reading Hermit ; after De Koninck.
Portrait of Count Hoym ; after Rigaud.
Julius Schnorr von l&arolsfeld, painter.
Moritz Steinla, engraver.
Napoleon III., Emperor of the French.
Love riding on a Panther ; after a bas-relief by Rietschel.

PLANES, Luis, the elder, was born in Valencia
about 1732. He was Director of the Royal Academy
of S. Carlos, and died about 1810.

PLANES, Luis ANTONIO, a painter, was born in
Valencia in 1765. He was instructed by his father,
Luis Planes, and then went to Madrid, where he
studied under Francisco Bayeu, and gained the
gold medal of San Fernando. He died young, in
1799. One of his best pictures is an 'Immaculate
Conception,' in the Church of Albalat.

PLANK, JOSEF, German painter, born 1815 near
Vienna, where he first began to study. He painted
historical scenes, such as his ' Altar in der Stifts-
kirche.' He died in Feb. 1901 at Hutteldorf,
near Vienna.

PLANO, FRANCISCO, a Spanish painter, was born
at Daroca, and resided at Saragossa towards the
end of the 17th century. He had a great reput-
ation as a painter and architect, especially for decor-
ative works. Palomino places him beside Colona
and Mitelli ; and the works he has left in the sanc-
tuary of Nuestra Senora del Portillo, at Saragossa,
and other churches, would seem to justify the

PLAS, PIETER, a Dutch painter, was at work at
Alkmaar in 1810. He was a pupil of J. van Ravenz-
waay and G. Bodeman, and painted landscapes
and animals. He died at Alkmaar in 1853.


PLASCHKE, MORITZ, German painter, born at
Strehlen, August 5, 1818 ; painted genre scenes,
such as 'Kinder im Komfelde' (at Antwerp), ' Die
Erwartung,' &c. He died at Diisseldorf, June 5,

PLASENC1A, CASTO, was a prominent Spanish
historical painter. His best-known picture is ' The
Origin of the Roman Republic,' depicting the
death of Lucretia. He died at Madrid in 1890.

born September 29, 1817, at Bordeaux ; the first
picture exhibited by him at the Paris Salon in

1846 was ' Portrait de M .' It was followed

by a remarkable series of genre pictures, such as
' Le Dejeuner des Enfants,' ' L'Enfant Malode,' ' La
Visite au Tiroir,' ' La Famille,' ' La Sortie du Bain,'
&c. In 1852 he obtained a third-class medal, and
this also in 1857 and 1859, being decorated with
the Legion of Honour in that same year. He
died in Paris in 1903.

PLASSARD, VINCENT, was a French engraver of
the 17th century, of whom there are no particulars.

His only known print represents the ' Holy Family,'
in a mountainous landscape, and is signed V. Plas-
sard in. et fe. 1650. It is in the style of the

PLATEAU, ANTOINE, a flower and decorative
painter, was born at Tournai in 1759, and died in
1815. Several pictures by this artist are in the
Temple of the Sun at Laeken, and in the house
of M. Walkiers.

PLATHNER, HERMANN, German painter, born
August 23, 1831, at Gronau (Hanover) ; was a
pupil of A. Tideniand, R. Jordan, and also of
the Diisseldorf Academy ; his artistic talent
was afterwards developed by travel. For some
time he worked in the Black Forest at a series
of genre studies, and subsequently settled at
Diisseldorf. Among his pictures we may mention :
' Ertappt ! ' (in the Leipzig Museum), ' Hungrige
Gaste'(in the Danzig Museum), 'Die Kartenlegerin,'
' Die gestorten Spider,' and several remarkable
portraits. In 1876 and 1877 he obtained the
London silver medal. Owing to an affection of
his eyes he had to give up painting. He died in

PLATNER, ERNST ZACHARIAS, painter and writer
on art, was born at Leipsic in 1773, and was a son
of the philosopher, Ernst Platner. He studied at
the Academy of his birthplace under Oeser, and
sought further improvement at Dresden from 1790,
at Vienna from 1797, and from 1800 at Rome. In
1823 he became Saxon consul at Rome, where he
died in 1855. He worked in conjunction with
Bunsen, Gerhard, and Rostel on their ' Description
of the City of Rome.' Among his best plates
are :


The Dismissal of Hagar.

Hagar and Ishmael.



Antwerp about 1608. Having acquired the first
rudiments of art in his native city, he went to
Italy, and resided some time at Florence, where, in
conjunction with his countryman, Jan Asselyn,
called Crabetje, he painted several sea-pieces and
landscapes, which were greatly admired. He
afterwards visited Paris, where his works were not
less esteemed, and he met with sufficient encourage-
ment to induce him to settle there for some time.
From a singular caprice, he Frenchified his name
of Platten-Berch into that of Platte-Montagne, which
he sometimes signed to his pictures and prints,
and sometimes Montague only. He died in Paris
in 1660. His landscapes are highly finished, and
exhibit very pleasing scenery. A ' Storm at Sea,'
by him, is in the Augsburg Gallery. We have a
few etchings, executed in a very spirited style.
They represent landscapes and marines, and re-
semble the works of Fouquieres, under whom he
learnt engraving. They are usually inscribed M.
Montague in. et f. He was the brother-in-law of
Jean Morin, and the larger number have the ad-
dition, Morin ex. cum privil. Re.

BERG, or VAN PLATTEN-BERCH,) was boru in Paris in
1631, and studied painting under Philip de Chani-
paigne. He was instructed in engraving by Jean
Morin, whom he surpassed. His principal works
as a painter are in the churches of Notre Dame,
St. Sacrament, St. Sulpice, and St. Nicolas des
Champs, in Paris. He was also a reputable portrait
painter. In 1681 he became professor of history




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to the Academy, and died in Paris in 1706. From
1651 to 1694 he executed twenty-eight plates with
the point and graver, in addition to ten portraits.
Among other prints we have the following by him :

The Portrait of Olivier de Castellan, general, killed at

the siege of Tarragona in 1644.
St. Gtinevieve ; after P. de Champaiyne,
Christ in the Tomb ; after the same.
The Penitent Magdalene ; after the same.
The Sudarium of St. Veronica ; after the same.

PLATTEL, HENRI DANIEL, a French historical
and landscape painter, was bom at Geneva in 1803.
He was a pupil of N. Berlin and of Remond, and
died in 1859.

PLATTNER, ANDREAS, painter, a native of
Nuremberg, was a pupil of his father Alexander.
In 1595 he went to Munich in the train of Duke
Ferdinand, where he remained till 1601. He died
about 1617.

PLATTNER, FRANZ, German painter, born 1826
at Zirl in the Tyrol ; studied at the Vienna Academy
and with Cornelius ; also with Overbeck at Rome.
He painted frescoes in several of the churches in
the Tyrol, at Dornbirn, Innsbruck, Girlan, &c.
Another large fresco by him is ' Veleda,' at
Innsbruck. Here he died March 18, 1887.

born, according to Fiissli, at Epan, in the Tyrol, in
1702, and studied under his step-father Kessler,
and with his uncle on the father's side, who was a
painter at Passau. In 1721 he went to Vienna,
and there became intimate with an artist of the
name of Jannek. They adopted the same style of
painting, but it did not weaken their friendship,
and the public were benefited by their rivalry.
Platzer returned to his native country, where he was
living in 1755. The cities of Breslau and Glogau
possess many good specimens of his finer work.

PLATZER, JOHANN VICTOR, is called by Nagler
a sculptor, though it does not appear that he
exercised that art. The same writer says that he
was born in Vintscbgau, probably at Mais, in 1704,
and was a scholar of Kessler at Inspruck, until the
court-painter, Christoph Platzer, took him under
his care at Passau. He afterwards established
himself at Vienna, and painted small pictures,
mostly with many figures, which were received
with much applause both at home and abroad.
His application was such that he weakened his
sight, and diminished the firmness of his hand, BO
that in painting he was obliged to use a machine
to steady it. In the year 1755 Platzer returned to
the place of his nativity, and died in 1767. His
garish pictures have nothing to recommend them
but manual dexterity. Among the best are:
Dresden. Gallery. The Four Elements.

Vienna. Gallery. Men and Women Drinking and

making Music.

PLATZER, JOSEPH, a painter of architecture,
theatrical decorations, moonlights, and small his-
torical subjects, was the son of the celebrated
sculptor, Ignaz Platzer, and was born at Prague
in 1752. After the completion of his scholastic
studies he devoted six years to drawing, chiefly
architecture, under the direction of F. Wolf. In
oil painting he was his own master, and while still
young, was favoured by the patronage of Prince
kannitz. Thus encouraged, he went to the Vienna
Academy, and was afterwards selected by the
emperor Joseph II. to embellish the royal theatre.
During these operations he encountered many
obstacles, and was obliged to maintain his reput-

ation by painting moonlights, historical composi-
tions, and small theatrical designs. On the ac-
cession of Leopold II. he was promoted at court,
became a member of the Vienna Academy in 1796,
and died in 1810. One of his pictures, 'The
Murder of Semiramis,' is in the Academy building.
He also painted in aquarelle.

engraver, who flourished in the latter part of the
18th century, and worked for Boydell on the Shake-
speare Gallery. He died at Lewisham in 1809.
Amongst his plates are :

Scene from the ' Comedy of Errors ; ' after Rigaud.
Lady Godiva ; after W. Hamilton.

PLEGINCK, MARTIN, was a German engraver
on wood and on copper, who flourished about the
year 1590. He engraved a set of copper-plates
representing figures fighting, entitled ' Fechter-
Bue'chlein,' in a style resembling that of Virgilius
Solis. His woodcuts are in the manner of Jost
Amman. Bartsch and Passavant describe fifty-
three prints by this master, which are of small size,
and represent ecclesiastical orders and dignities,
cavalry and foot soldiers (after J. De Gheyn).
animals, and goldsmiths' work : the date 1594 is on
some of them. Zani says he was working in 1606.

PLEISTEINETUS, a brother of Pheidias, is
stated to have been a painter, but nothing more
than this is known of him.

PLETSCH, OSKAR, German black-and-white
artist, born March 26, 1830, at Berlin ; became a
pupil of Bendemann at Dresden. He began as an
illustrator, first of popular fiction and then of chil-
dren's books, endeavouring to rival Richter in this
style of art. He obtained considerable success with
such works as ' Kleines Volk,' 'Allerlee Schnick
Schnack,' ' Was willst du Werden,' &c. He died
Jan. 12, 1888, at Niederlossnitz, near Dresden.

PLEYDENWURFF, WILHELM, one of the early
engravers on wood, was a native of Germany, and
nourished about the year 1493. Conjointly with
Michel Wolgemut, he is said to have executed the
cuts for the Nuremberg ' Chronicle,' compiled by
Hermann Schedel, and printed in 1493. They
represent views of towns, &c., and figures of vari-
ous kinds.

PLEYSIER, A., a Dutch marine painter, born at
Naardingen in 1809. He died in 1879. In the
Bruges Academy there is a ' Coast Scene ' by him.

PLIMER, ANDREW. This celebrated miniature
painter was a Shropshire man, the son of a clock-
maker at Wellington, and the parish register gives
the following record of his baptism : " Andrew,
son of Nathaniel and Eliza Plymer. December 29,
1763." The family was well known in Wellington,
and, as far as can be ascertained, the following
is a brief pedigree of the Plimers of Wellington :
One Abraham Plimer had four children, William,
Thomas, Abram, and John. William, his eldest
son, had four children, William, Charles, Anne,
and Sarah. Thomas had six children, Martha,
Isaac, Rebekah, Thomas, Mary, and William.
Abram, the third son, had four children, Sarah,
Eliza, Abram, and Nathaniel ; and this Nathaniel,
who was born November 20, 1726, and married
one Mary (whose surname is unknown), had
two sons, Nathaniel and Andrew the miniaturists.
The fourth son, John, had also four children,
Mary, Rachel, Elizabeth, and Thomas. Nathaniel
and Abram Plirner, the sons of one Abram and
the grandsons of another, were clockmakers in



partnership, and both sundials and watches are
still in existence bearing their names, together or
separately, as makers. Abram never married, but
Nathaniel had two sons, as already mentioned,
Andrew, born 1763, and Nathaniel his elder brother,
born 1757. The two boys were both brought up
as clockmakers, but greatly disliking the business,
they joined a party of gipsies with a caravan and
menagerie, and wandered about with them for
many months, eventually walking on into London
with all their worldly possessions on their heads,
tied up in two red and yellow shawls. The parents
on learning that their resolute sons had reached
London sent them some money, as the lads were
nearly starving, and they at once commenced to
take lessons in drawing. Presently Nathaniel
entered the employ of Henry Bone, the enamellist,
as an assistant, while Andrew became personal
servant to Cosway in order to be near to the artist.
It would appear that Andrew Plimer had at first
no other chance of becoming an artist than that
afforded him by domestic service, and that he was
so eager to be near to an artist of repute that he
presented himself to Mrs. Cosway in 1781, when
he was about seventeen, and the Cosways, who
had recently married, were living in Berkeley
Street, and begged to be engaged as studio boy.
He pleased Mrs. Cosway so much by his determin-
ation and by his pleasing manners, that she took
him into her service, and at first he was employed
in cleaning the studio, grinding and mixing
colours, arranging the easels, and announcing the
callers. With the Cosways he moved to Schom-
berg House, but had been there but a few days
when Richard Cosway detected him attempting to
copy one of his miniatures, and doing it with
such skill and with such " applomb " to use the
misspelt word which appears in one of Cosway's
letters that the artist speedily discovered the
making of a clever miniature-painter in his young
servant. He then seems to have sent Plimer otf
to a Mr. Halle (or Hayle) that he might learn
drawing from him, and with this master he ap-
parently remained for a year or more, employing
himself in the intervals of his tuition in similar
work to that in which he had been engaged while
in the studio of Cosway, so as to earn the tuition
which he received.

In 1783 Plimer was back again with the Cosways
at Schomberg House. Whether Nathaniel, who
had by this time left Bone's studio, accompanied
his brother to Schomberg House cannot be stated.
It is believed that he did, and it is certain that
both brothers are spoken of in contemporary letters
as the " pupils of Cosway." Andrew stayed with
Cosway till 1785, leaving him then to set up a
studio for himself. This he did at 32, Great
Maddox Street, Hanover Square. He seems to
have been there only for one year, as in the
following year his address appears in the catalogue
of the Royal Academy as at 3, Golden Square. It
was from Great Maddox Street that he sent the
first pictures which he exhibited at the Royal
Academy. No. 38 was a portrait of 'A Poor Boy
in a Cold Morning,' No. 202 represented the ' Death
of Don Louis de Velasco, at the storming of the
Moro Fort at the siege of Havana.' In 1787
Plimer was at 3, Golden Square, but in 1796 he
changed house, going from No. 3 to No. 8, and
there he remained till he married. Plimer married
at Wicken, in Northamptonshire, on February 21,
1801. Mrs. Plimer came of an old Northampton-


shire family, the Knights of Slapston, who had
been settled in that place since 1573. Mrs. Plimer
had five children, four daughters and one son,
the latter of whom died when quite a child. Of
the four daughters, one only, the eldest, Louisa,
married. The other three daughters of Andrew and
Joanna Plimer were Joanna (born 1803, died 1846),
Charlotte (born 1804, died 1845), and Selina (born
1809, died 1841). Mrs. Plimer survived all her
family save the eldest daughter, at whose house
she died. Her death occurred at Hawick Manse
in 1861, October 18, at the age of eighty-eight, and
she was buried in St. Cuthbert's churchyard at
Hawick. After his marriage Plimer and his wife
went into Devonshire and Cornwall, and then
returned to London, and settled down in Golden
Square. He exhibited one portrait only at the
Royal Academy in 1801 and two in 1804, but the
names of neither of the sitters are given in the
catalogue. In 1803 Plimer executed the first of
the Rushout commissions, sending a portrait of
Lady C. Rushout to the Royal Academy, and
rather later than that painted separate miniatures
of Lady Northwick and her three lovely daughters,
and then the famous group of the 'Three Graces,'
which was his most notable miniature, and upon
which his fame chiefly rests. Three miniatures
were sent up in 1805, one representing Master
Cunningham; another, said to be a Miss Wilhel-
mina Leventhorp, whose sister was painted as ' A
Lady, name unknown,' the following year, and
whose portrait can now be found in the collection
of Mr. Pierpont Morgan, bearing the initials W. C.
L. on its reverse ; and a portrait of a Mrs. Mortimer.
In 1806 Plimer sent the portrait of the other Mis^
Leventhorp to the Academy, and also a portrait of
the Hon. Colonel Acheson. In 1807 he sent in
the portraits of four children, and in 1810 two
pictures were exhibited, one representing ' Indo-
lence, a Portrait of a Gentleman,' and the other a
' North Devon Country Fanner.' After this date
Plimer's name disappears from the catalogue of
the Royal Academy for some time, and only twice
again is it to be found, when he exhibited again
in 1818 and in 1819. In 1815 Plimer was residing
at Exeter a few doors above St. Sidwell's Church.
In 1818 the family were back again in town and
living in Upper York Street, Montague Square,
and then for a couple of years his name appears
again on the lists of the Royal Academy. In 1818
he sent in portraits of Lieut. -Colonel Grey, Mr.
H. Bunn, and ' A Child, 1 the latter being, it is
believed, one of his own children, and very prob-
ably the portrait of Joanna. In 1819 he sent in
a portrait of Mrs. Colonel Hughes, and in the same
year there is an entry of his name in the books of
the British Institution as exhibiting three works
in that Gallery.

In about 1820 Plimer seems to have started off
to travel about, leaving his wife and children at
home, probably in London. We hear of him in
Reading, in Brighton, in Devonshire, Cornwall
and Dorsetshire, in Wales and in Scotland. In
the following year Plimer settled down with his
family at Brighton. At first he took a house in
the Old Steine, but soon after that moved into
* estern Cottages, and there he lived till the
date of his death. At that time one of his friends
mentions him in a letter as a " prosperous and
very high-spirited man, thinking of buying an
estate in Northamptonshire, near to his wife's old
home, and settling down there." He was not,




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however, to carry out this cherished wish, for two
years after he had come to Brighton he was dead.
He died on January 29, 1837, aged seventy-four,
and his death is recorded in the ' Gentleman's
Magazine' of the time, No. 334, Part I., as "for
many years an eminent miniature painter of
Exeter." Plimer was buried at Old Hove, and the
entry of his burial is as follows : " Andrew Plimer,
Western Cottages, Brighton, buried February 4,
1837, aged 74 years. Walter Kelly, Vicar." His
funeral took place in the old churchyard at Hove,
and the tombstone is a flat one just behind the
church and quite close to that of Copley Fielding.

Plimer left behind him a substantial fortune of
five thousand pounds, which was in the 3J per
cent, reduced annuities, besides some other estate,
and he left the income of his fortune to his widow
for her life, to be divided after her decease between
his three daughters. For full information as to
this artist and his works see 'Andrew and Nathaniel
Plimer,' by G. C. Williamson (George Bell and
Sons), 1903. G.C.W.

PLIMER, NATHANIEL. For the details of the
early life of this artist see above article on his
brother Andrew. In 1787 the name of Nathaniel
Plimer first appears on the list of the Royal
Academy, and he was then living either at 31,
Great Marlborough Street, as one edition of the
catalogue for that year states, or 31, Great Maddox
Street, as another edition informs us. It is prob-
able that Great Marlborough Street is the correct
address, as several copies of the catalogue give
that as the address, whilst one only gives Great
Maddox Street. In 1794 he was, however, in
Maddox Street, and, strangely enough, his number
there was also 31, so that the problem as to where
he was before that time is not an easy one to solve.
From 1794 down to 1800 his address is given as
31, Maddox Street. In 1801 he was at 81, New
Bond Street, in 1815 at 13, Paddington Street.
After this we have no further trace of him, but he
is said on Redgrave's authority to have died in
1822. He only sent twenty-six works in all to the
Academy, and of those one only is named, the
portrait of one Isaac Perrins, which he sent in
1790. We do not know whom he married, but we
do know that he had four children, Georgina,
Mary, Louisa, and Adela, and that one of them,
Adela, married the artist Andrew Geddes, and had
offspring. A portrait of Adela belongs to Mr.
Andrew Geddes Scott of Edinburgh, and other
portraits of her to Mr. Pierpont Morgan.

The marriage of Geddes with Adela, the younger
daughter of Nathaniel Plimer, took place in 1827,
and he is believed to have had one son and one
daughter, who married a Mr. James. Their por-
traits were painted by Nathaniel Plimer. Nathaniel
Plimer is said to have been a man of violent temper,
giving way at times to terrible outbursts of
feeling. Where he died and where he was buried
are not known, and his children are stated to have
gone to the Colonies, with the exception of the
members of the Geddes family, who remained in
Scotland. A portrait of the artist, which was
painted by Geddes, now belongs to Mr. FitzHenry.
This was acquired from Miss James through
Messrs. Colnaghi, and was then said to represent
Andrew Plimer, but there is more likelihood that
it is a portrait of Nathaniel, and that the one in the
National Gallery of Scotland, which came from the
same collection and through the same dealers, is
the one which the artist painted of Andrew. It is

a far finer picture than the one which is in the
FitzHenry Collection, although this latter is a
remarkable piece of portraiture, somewhat in the

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