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style of Raeburn. A miniature of Nathaniel was
exhibited at South Kensington in 1865 by a Mrs.
Geddes, but it is not known to whom it now
belongs. Nathaniel Plimer signed his miniatures
with small initials in the same manner as his
brother, and almost always added the date of the
year as well. For a list of his works see ' Andrew
and Nathaniel Plimer,' by G. C. Williamson (George
Bell and Sons), 1903. G. C.. W.

PLIN, E., was a. native of France, who flourished
about the year 1780. He engraved some plates
representing conversations and domestic subjects,
which are etched, and finished with the graver.

PLOEGSMA, DIRK JACOBS, a painter, was born
at Leeuwarden in 1769. He was a pupil of Accama
and chiefly painted portraits, though there were
some historical scenes and genre pictures executed
by him, among which we may name ' The Disciples
plucking Corn on the Sabbath Day.' He died in

PLOETZ, HEINRICH, a miniature painter, was
born at Holstein in 1748. He was instructed by
Marsinhe of Ghent, after which he entered the house
of the famous naturalist Bonnet, and made draw-
ings of insects, till 1795, when he went to Italy.
There he visited Leghorn, Corsica, and Genoa, and
afterwards went to Germany, painting portraits
in Hamburg and Berlin. He finally settled in
Copenhagen, where he died about 1810.
born at Amsterdam in 1726, and died there in 1798,
was a collector of drawings and an amateur en-
graver. He devoted himself to the art with a zeal
rarely found in persons who do not adopt it as a
profession, and to him we are indebted for a very
interesting set of plates, after drawings by cele-
brated Dutch and other masters. The following is
a list of the more important :

Frontispiece, a Monument bearing a Latin inscription ;

on it stands a Genius holding an Escutcheon, in

the middle a Fleur-de-lys ; Inventor Cornelius Ploos

van Amstel, D. 1 Febr. 1765.

Two small Landscapes ; H. Zaftleven, del. ; v. Amstel,

fecit. 176t>.

A Landscape, with a Shepherd, Shepherdess, and Cattle
on the Banks of a Canal ; Ad. van de Veldt, del. ; P.
van Amstel, fecit.
A Woman looking out of a Door ; Rembrandt, del. ; P.

van Amstel, fecit. 1764.

A Young Man with a Hat on, looking out of a Door ;
same inscription. These two are clever imitations of

The Interior of a Dutch Cottage, with Peasants, one
reading a paper; Ad. v. Ostade, del., 1673; P. van
Amstel, fecit, 1766.

A Frost Piece, with six Spanish figures, one a Woman
with a Mask ; Hendrik Avercam, del., 1621 ; P. van
Amstel, fecit, 1766.
Portrait of Jan Josephzoon van Goyen ; Ant. vanDyck,

del., 1638 ; P. van Amstel, fecit, 1769.
A Landscape, with a Market at the entrance of a Town ;
Jan Josephzoon van Goyen, del., 1653 ; P. v. Amstel,
fecit, 1767.

A similar subject, with a Cattle Market ; same inscription .
A Lady seated at a Harpsichord ; Ger. Dome, del., 1660 ;

P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1767.
A Sea-piece, with Shipping ; Lndolf Bakhuysen, del.,

1694; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1769.

A Landscape, with a Woman riding on an Ass, with
Cattle, by the side of a Canal ; JV r . Serghem, 1764 ;
P. van Amstel, fecit, 1169.

The Virgin Mary, with the Infant Jesus. A circular
plate. Abr. Bloemaert, del.; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1769.



An assemblage of Peasants before an Alehouse, with a

Han playing on the Violin, and another dancing ; Ad.

v. Ostade, del., 1673 ; P. v. Amstd, fecit, 1769.
Portrait of a Young Lady, with a Book on a Table ; H.

Goltdus, del., 1612 ; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1770.
Portrait of a Young Man, sitting in a Chair ; C. Visscher,

del., 1651 ; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1771.
Landscape, with a Man leading a Horse, and in the

foreground some "Women washing ; Ph. Wouicerman,

del., 1660; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1772.
The Inside of a Church, with a Man drawing ; P. Saen-

redam, del., 1630 ; P.'v. Amstel, fecit, 1774.
A Spanish Concert ; Karel van Mander, del., 1603 ; P.

v. Amstel, fecit, 1772.
A Man seated, holding a Flute, with a Bonnet in the

manner of Eembraudt ; G. Flinck, 1643; PI. ran

Amstel, fecit, 1773.
A Sea-piece, with Shipping ; P. Coops, del. ; P. v. Am"

stel, fecit, 1773.
An assembly of Peasants, one sleeping; Ad. Brouwer,del.,

1635; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1775.
A Man sitting at a Table, with Cards in his hand ; F.

Miens, del., 1693 ; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1777.
Two Dogs, small prints ; similar inscription.
Three Peasants, one with a Bottle ; C. Dusart, del. ; PI.

van Amstel, fecit.
A Young Lady taking a Beverage presented by a Boy,

and a Physician standing near her ; Ger. Terbury,

del. ; PI. van Amstel, fecit, 1779.
A Young Lady, with a musical Instrument ; G. Netscher,

del., 1664 ; P. van Amstel, fecit, 1781 ; oval.
Two Sea-pieces ; Ludolf Bakhuysen, del. ; PI. v. Amstel,

fecit, 1781.
The Judgment of Solomon ; Lucas van Ltyden, del.,

1515 ; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1782.
A Landscape, with Ruins, and a Man with an Ass ; Th.

Wyck,del.; P.v. Amstel, fecit, 1782.
A View in Norway, with figures ; Aid. van Eterdingtn,

del. ; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1782.

Five Dutch Magistrates sitting round a Table ; J, de-
fray, del., 1663 ; PI. v. Amstel, fecit.
The Attorney and his Clerk ; /. Steen, del., 1672 ; P. V.

Amstel, fecit.
A Landscape, with Ruins, and a Shepherd with Sheep

and Goats ; J. van der Does, del., 1699 ; P. ran Amstel,
A mountainous Landscape, with Cattle ; J. v. der Jlfeer,

de Jonge, del., 1704 ; PI. v. Amstel, fecit.
The Carpenter and his Wife ; /. Saenredam, del., 1610 ;

P. v. Amstel, fecit.
The Inside of a Cottage, with Peasants ; Corn. Bet/a,

del., 1684; P. v. Amstel, fecit.
The Botanist, with Figures bringing him Plants; G. V.

den Eeckhout. del.; P. v. Amstel, fecit.
A Landscape, with four Sheep ; A", du Jardin, del. ; P.

v. Amstel, fecit.

The Chymist ; J. Langhans, del., 1711 ; P. v. A mstel, fecit.
Shipping ; J. Esseleiis, del., 1708 ; P. van Amstel, fecit.

PLOTT, JOHN, was born at Winchester in 1732.
In the early part of his life he was articled to an
attorney, but he did not long follow the profession.
In 1756 he came to London, and having shown an
inclination for painting, he became a pupil of
Richard Wilson, the landscape painter ; but his
genius directing him to portraiture rather than
landscape, he quitted that master, and placed him-
self under the tuition of Nathaniel Hone. He
afterwards distinguished himself as a miniature
painter, both in enamel and water-colours, though
he sometimes painted in oil. He had a taste for
natural history, and executed several drawings in
that branch. Whilst in London in 1777 he ex-
hibited at the Academy. Towards the latter part
of his life he resided at Winchester, and some years
before his death became a member of the corpor-
ation of that city. He began a history of ' Land
Snails,' and had made some beautiful drawings for
it when interrupted by death. He died at Stoke,
near Winchester, in 1803. Bromley mentions a
mezzotint portrait of Plott, scraped by himself.


PLUCHART, HENRI, French painter, born in
1840 at Valenciennes ; was a pupil of Abel de
Pujol and also of Picot. Chiefly distinguished as
a clever portrait painter. He became Director of
the Lille Museum, and here he died in November
1898. Of his genre works we may mention, ' Un
Escalier dans la Falaise,' ' Un Semeur,' ' L'Heure
de la Pipe,' ' En Octobre,' &c.

painter, was born at Colberg in 1809. His first
master was Seig in Magdeburg, and in 1828 he
entered the studio of K. Begas in Berlin, and went
in 1831 to Diisseldorf, to the atelier of W. von
Schadow, with whom he remained six years. In
company with H. Miicke he completed a number
of frescoes for Count Spee in hisschlossat Heltorf,
and in 1843 he painted a wall in the Rath-haus of
Elberfield. He went in 1848 to reside at Dresden,
where he died in 1868 Among his pictures we
may name :

Loreley. 1833.

The Death of Roland. 1834.

Columbus catching sight of Land. 1836. (Berlin Nat.

The Battle of Iconium (fresco) ; after Lessing. 1839.

(Schloss Heltorf.)
Columbus in La Rabida. 1845.
The Finding of Barbarossa's Corpse. 1846.
The Landgrave Ludwig. 1849.
Prince Hal and Falstaff. I860.
Henry at Canossa. 1863.

PLUMIER, EDMOND, painter, was born at Liege
in 1694. He was a pupil of Fisen and Largilliere
at Paris. He then went to Italy, and entered the
atelier of Masucci. He had a son, JACQUES THEODOR,
also a painter, who died in 1766. In the church
of S. Remacle at Liege is a ' Descent from the
Cross' by this artist. He died in 1733.

PO, P. DEL. See DEL Po.


POCCI, FRANZ, GRAF VON, draughtsman, etcher,
poet, and musician, was born at Munich, March 7,
1807. He owed such teaching in art as he had
to the example of his mother, AMALIA FRANZISKA
XAVERIA (born in Dresden, 1776 ; died, 1849). From
1825 to 1828 he studied jurisprudence, and then
became a member of the Bavarian Government.
In 1830 he was named a master of the ceremonies
at the court, and shortly afterwards accompanied
King Ludwig and the Crown Prince to Italy.
Pocci's best works as an artist are his etchings
for Grimm's ' Volksmarchen ' and for Schreiber's
' Marchen. 1 He died May 7, 1876.

POCH, TOBIAS, (PouK,) a German historical and
still-life painter, who flourished at Constance in
the 17th century. He was living at Vienna in 1662.

painter, was born at Dresden in 1762. He was a
Professor of the Dresden Academy, and died in
1830. His own portrait is in the Dresden Gallery.


POCOCK, ISAAC, an English portrait and his-
torical painter, the son of Nicholas Pocock, was
born at Bristol in 1782. He studied under Romney
and Beechey, and in 1807 was awarded a prize of
100 by the British Institution for his ' Murder of
St. Thomas a Becker.' His works occasionally
appeared at the Academy between 1800 and 1819,
and he also exhibited at the Liverpool Academy,
of which he was a member. Inheriting property,
he retired from the practice of art, and amused
himself by writing for the stage. He died at















Maidenhead in 1835. There is a portrait of Hartley
as Hamlet by him at the Garrick Club, London.

POCOCK, NICHOLAS, an English marine painter,
born at Bristol in 1741. His family were mer-
chants, and in his younger years he commanded
a vessel. During his voyages he was enabled to
exercise his talent for sketching, and he at length
devoted himself entirely to art. He attracted the
favourable notice of Sir J. Reynolds, and first
exhibited at the Academy in 1782. Seven years
later he moved to the wider sphere of London, and
was much engaged in depicting the naval battles
of the period. He was one of the original members
of the Water-Colour Society, where he exhibited
up to 1817. He died at Maidenhead in 1821. The
following are some of his works :

Greenwich. Hospital. Defeat of the French Fleet at
St. Kitt's, 1782.

H.M.S. Triton.

H.M.S. Defence.

Cutting out a Vessel.

London. K- AMountainous Country . 1790 .

, Bangor, with Penmaenmawr.


Caderldris. 1790.

Llanstephan Castle.

PODESTA, GiAgoMO ANDREA, was born at Genoa
about the year 1620, and went early in life to
Rome, where he became a scholar of Giovanni
Andrea Ferrari. The year of his death is not as-
certained. It does not appear that he reached any
celebrity as a painter ; but we have some very
spirited etchings by him, which prove him to have
been an artist of considerable ability. He usually
marked his plates AND. P. or And- P. in. etfec.
One of his prints is marked 1636, and four others
1640, which was probably his best time. Bartsch
describes eight engravings by him, of which five
are bacchanalian subjects, two amatory, and one
a St. Francis performing a miracle. The following
are also by him :

An Allegorical Subject, representing Boys cultivating
the Arts, and a Phcsnix in the Flames ; after his own

The Triumph of Bacchus ; after Titian.

Bacchus and Ariadne ; after the same.

Silenus Drunk, supported by Satyrs atd Bacchanals ;
after the same.

Two subjects from the Life of Diego ; after Carracci.

PODESTI, FRANCESCO, Italian painter, bom 1800
at Ancona ; was at first a pupil of Cammuccini
at Rome. Many of his works, including mural
decoration in churches, are to be seen at Ancona.
His ' Medicante ' was burnt during the Hamburg
fire, but a copy of it exists at Naples. Pius IX.
commissioned him to paint the imposing frescoes
in Sala dell a Concezione of the Vatican. Other
works by him are ' Tasso a Ferrara,' ' Assedio di
Ancona,' the latter exhibited at Paris, 1855, where
it obtained a second-class medal. He was Corre-
spondant de I'Acade'inie des Beaux Arts. He died
at Ancona in February 1895.

POEHAM, MARTIN, an old German engraver, to
whom Professor Christ attributed some indifferent
copies from the prints of Aldegrever, Sebald Beham,
and others.


BTTEG,) called also BRUSCO and SATTRO, was born
at Utrecht in 1586. He received his first instruc-
tion from Abraham Bloemaert, and then travelled
to Italy in search of improvement. On his arrival

at Rome, he attached himself to the style of Adam
Elsheimer. He adopted a pleasing style of painting
small landscapes, distinguished by suavity and
delicacy of colouring, and an agreeable choice of
scenery, enriched with architecture, into which he
introduced figures remarkable for the fusion oi
their handling, their clear carnations, and mediocre
drawing. He quitted Rome with some reluctance,
after a sojourn of several years ; and on his arrival
at Florence, where the reputation of his talents had
preceded him, he was received with favour and
distinction by the Grand Duke, for whom he
painted several pictures. On his return to Utrecht,
the impatience of his countrymen to possess his
works loaded him with commissions. In 1607
Charles I. invited him to London, where he re-
mained some time, and painted several pictures for
the king and the nobility. He frequently orna-
mented with figures the architectural views of
Steenwyck, and the landscapes of Keirrinckx. In
King Charles's catalogue are mentioned the por-
traits of his Majesty, and of the children of the
King of Bohemia, by Poelenburgh ; and in that of
James II. there are sixteen pictures by him. But
the success he met with did not induce him to remain
in England. He returned to Utrecht, where in
1649 he was made President of the Painters' Guild,
and where he died, August 12, 1667. Descampsand
M. Watelet assert that Poelenburgh etched some
prints from his own designs, and that the plates
being soon afterwards destroyed, they are now ex-
tremely scarce. Possibly the prints thus attributed
to Poelenburgh are those etched by J. G. Bronk-
horst after his designs. Jan van der Lys was an
imitator of his style. Poelenburgh' s pictures are in
nearly all the G alleries of Europe ; among them the
following may be named :

Cassel. Gallery. The Virgin.

" Christ borne to Heaven by

Dresden. Gallery. The Assumption of the Virgin.

Diana at the Chase.

Dulwich. Gallery. Nymph and Satyr dancing.
London. Nfft. Gal. Judgment of Paris (in a landscape.

liy Both).

Euins ; Women bathing.

Paris. Louvre. The Annunciation.

Vienna. Gallery. The same subject.

was born at Dresden in 1729. He was instructed
by Oeser, and painted portraits. In 1752 he was
appointed one of the painters to the Count of
Saxony, and died in 1813.


POERSON, CHARLES, who was born at Metz in
1609, and died in Paris in 1667, was a pupil of
Simon Vouet, and became painter-in-ordinary to the
king and Rector of the Royal Academy of Painting.

was born in Lorraine in 1652. He was a son of
Charles Poerson, and a pupil of Noel Coypel, in
whose style he painted history. Through the patron-
age of M. Mansard, he was introduced to the notice
of Louis XIV., and was employed on some his-
torical subjects for the Hospital of the Invalids ;
these, however, were soon afterwards destroyed,
and replaced by some frescoes by Bon de Boul-
longne. He was subsequently appointed director
of the French Academy at Rome, where he died
in 1725.

POESEL, WOLFGANG, a painter, was born at
Amberg in 1736. He painted for several of the
churches in his native district, and died in 1797.



POGET, JEAN, a miniature painter, who flourished
early in the 16th century. Some of his work is in
the 'Livre d'heurs,' of Anne of Brittany, in the
Muse'e des Souverains of the Louvre.


POGGI, CESARE, historical painter, was born at
Milan in 1803. He was a pupil of Sabatelli, but
after 1824 studied in Venice and Rome. He died
at Milan in 1859, a member of the Academy there.
Besides a large number of pictures by him in the
churches of Lombardy, we may name the follow-
ing :

Death of Clarissa Visconti. (Count Arese.)

The Adulteress before Christ. (Jlfarchese Eusca.)

Brutus and Ligarius.

St. John the Baptist.

Susannah in the Bath.

Three Card-players.

Roman Robbers.

POGGINO, ZANOBI DI, an Italian painter, who
flourished in the 16th century. He was a pupil of
Sogliani, and painted portraits and historical scenes,
of which a considerable number are still to be found
in Florence.

POHLE, HERSTANN, German painter, bom
November 23, 1831, at Berlin, where he first
studied under Biermann, and subsequently under
Gude and Schirmer at the Diisseldorf Academy,
and here, after lengthy travel, he settled down.
He painted landscapes, mostly of Alpine scenery.
The Rudolfinum of Prag has a fine example of his
style in ' Waldbach.' Other pictures by him are
'Meersburg am Bodensee' and 'Schloss Klenau,'
at Lugano. He died at Diisseldorf, July 10,
1901. His pencil sketches of scenery around
Lugano are of remarkable beauty and recall the
work of Prout, but in his oil work he adopted an
entirely different technique, painting in broad
masses with but little detail.

POILLY, FRANgois DE, the elder, an eminent
French engraver, was born at Abbeville in 1622
or 1623. He was the son of a goldsmith and en-
graver, who instructed him in the rudiments of
art. He afterwards went to Paris, where he became
a pupil of Pierre Daret, under whom he remained
three years, and afterwards visited Rome, where
he took Cornelis Bloemaert as his model. During
a residence in Rome of seven years, he greatly
improved his design, and engraved several plates
:ifter the works of the great Italian masters. In
1656 he returned to Paris, where he became one
of the most celebrated engravers of his time and
country. In 1664 he was appointed engraver in
ordinary to the king. He died in Paris in 1693.
His plates are executed entirely with the burin,
which he handled with uncommon firmness and
dexterity. Though he had the assistance of some
able pupils, it is surprising that he could have
finished so many plates. About 400 prints bear
his name, and Nagler describes 107 as entirely by
him. The following are among his best:


Pope Alexander VII.

Louis XIV. when young ; after Nocret.

Cardinal 'Mazarin ; after Mignard.

Henri d'Arnaud, Bishop of Angers.

Jerome Bignon, Counsellor of State ; after Philippe de


Abraham Fabert, Marshal of France ; after Ferdinand.
Guillaume de Lamoignon, with Allegorical Figures ;

after Mignard.
Bust of Guillaume de Lamoignon ; after Le Brun.



The Virgin and Child.

The Holy Family, with St. John embracing the Infant


St. Ignatius Loyola.
The Death of St. Francis Xavier.
The Crucifixion.
The Triumph of Augustus.


The Vision of Ezekiel ; after Raphael.

The Holy Family, in which the Infant Christ is standing

upon the cradle (Louvre) ; after the same.
The Virgin lifting up a veil, to show to St. John the

Infant Christ sleeping (Vierge au Diademe, Louvre) ;

after the same.

The Flight into Egypt ; after Guido.
The Nativity, or Adoration of the Shepherds, hi au oota-

gonal border ; after the same. The first impression-*

of this plate are before the two angels which appear

above were inserted.

Christ praying in the Garden ; after the same.
The dead Christ on the lap of the Virgin, at the foot of

the Cross; after L. Carracct.
The Repose in Egypt, in which the Virgin is represented

sleeping, with two Angels kneeling ; after Ann. Car-


The Holy Family ; after N. Poussin.
The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after P. Mignard.
The Holy Family ; aftei' the same.
The Baptism of Christ ; after the same.
S. Carlo Borromeo administering the Communion to

Persons infected with the Plague ; after the same
The Visitation ; after C. le Brun.
St. John in the Isle of Patmos ; after the same.
The Crucifixion ; after the same.
The Parable of the Wedding Garment; after P. dt

The Crucifixion ; a large print, in three sheets ; after

the same.

The Trinity ; after the same.
Joseph's Bloody Garment presented to Jacob ; after

Charles Antoine Coypel.
Nymphs Bathing ; after Giulio Romano.

POILLY, FRANgois DE, the younger, the younger
son of Nicolas de Poilly, was born in Paris in 1671,
and was instructed in engraving by his father. He
afterwards travelled with his brother to Rome,
where he engraved a plate representing ' St. Cecilia
distributing her wealth to the Poor,' after Domeni-
chino, a companion print to the Martyrdom of that
Saint, by Jean Baptiste de Poilly.

POILLY, JEAN BAPTISTE DE, the son and pupil
of Nicolas de Poilly, was born in Paris in 1669.
Having made some progress in engraving under
his father, he went to Rome, where he studied
some years. On his return to Paris he executed
several plates, by which he gained a considerable
reputation, and was made a member of the Academy
in 1714. He died in Paris in 1728. His style of
engraving differs greatly from those of his father
and uncle. He forwarded his plates with the point,
and finished them with the burin, in a pleasing
and picturesque style. We have several portraits
and historical subjects by him, of which the follow-
ing are the most deserving of notice :


Clement XIII. Pontifex Max.

Louis XIV. ; after Mignard.

Charles James Edward Stuart, son of the Pretender;

after Duprat.
Francois de Troy, Painter ; from a picture by himself,

his reception plate at the Academy.
Cornelis van Cleve, Sculptor ; after Vivien ; the same.



The Nativity; after Gaudendo Ferrari ; for the ' Collec-
tion Crozat."
The Virgin adoring the sleeping Christ ; after Garofalo ;

for the same publication.

The Martyrdom of St. Cecilia ; after Domenichino.
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after C. Maratti.
The Rod of Aaron devouring the Rods of the Magicians ;

after N. Poussin.
The Israelites worshipping the Golden Calf ; after the


The Holy Family ; after the same.
The Judgment of Solomon ; after A. Coypel.
Susannah and the Elders ; after the same.
Jupiter and Danae; after Cfiulio Romano; for the

' Collection Crozat.'
Eleven Plates from the pictures by P. Mignard, in the

saloon of St. Cloud.
The Four Seasons ; from pictures formerly in the Gallery

of St. Cloud, ly Mignard.

POILLY, NICOLAS DE, was born at Abbeville in
1626. He was the younger brother of Francois the
elder, by whom he was instructed in the art of
engraving. He executed several plates in the
style of his brother. He died in Paris in 1696.
He has left several plates from portraits and from
historical subjects, executed with the burin, in a
neat, clear manner. The following are perhaps the


Louis XIV., in a frame of laurels, with Children bearing

emblems ; after N. Miqnard.
Bust of Louis 'XIV., life-'size. 1633.
Maria Theresa, Queen of France ; the same. 1630.
Louis, Dauphin, the son of Louis XIV. ; the same.
Louis de Bourbon, called the Great CondS ; the same.


St. Augustine holding a Crucifix.

The Holy Family, with two Angels holding a Basket of

Flowers ; after S. Bourdon.
The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after the same.
The Presentation in the Temple ; after C. le Brun.
The Holy Family returning from Egypt ; after the same.
The Holy Family, with the Infant Jesus sleeping on the

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