knees of the Virgin ; after the same.
The Repose in Egypt ; after Chapron.
The Crucifixion ; after N. Poussin.
POILLY, NICOLAS DE, the younger, was born in
Paris in 1675. He was the third son of Nicolas
the elder, and studied painting under Mignard and
Jouvenet. Among his pictures are ' Calvary,' en-
graved by himself, and ' Jesus waited on by Angels,'
painted for the Refectory of the Abbey of S. Martin
des Champs. He died in 1747.
POILLY, NICOLAS JEAN BAPTISTE DE, the son of
Jean Baptiste de Poilly, was born, according to
Nagler, in Paris in 1712. He was intended by his
father for an engraver, but lie did not long follow
that branch of art. He engraved a few portraits,
after C. N. Cochin, some of which are dated 1753 ;
one of his prints bears the date 1758.
POINDRE, JACOB DE, a portrait painter of Malines,
was born at Malines in 1527, and was a scholar of
his brother-in-law, Marc Willems. He painted a
few historical pictures, but attached himself more
particularly to portraiture. He went to Denmark,
and painted imaginary portraits of some of the
kings. He died in Denmark in 1570.
POINSART, J., a French engraver, flourished
about the year 1630. He was principally employed
by the booksellers, for whom he executed several
plates of views of cities, castles, &c. Among other
prints by him is the 'Entry of Charles II. into
POINTE. See DE LA POINTE.
POISSON, Louis, a French painter, who worked
at Fontainebleau about 1610, where he was custodian
of the pictures. He was succeeded by his son
PIERRE in 1613, and in 1643 by his grandson JEAN.
POITREAU, ETIENNE, a French landscape paint-
er, born at Corbigny. He was received into the
Academy in 1739, and died in 1767
POITTEVIN. See LE POITTEVIM.
POL, , of Limburg, is the author of some
miniatures executed in 1409 in a prayer-book of
the Duke of Bern, in the Bibliotheque Ste. Gene-
vieve, and in a ' Joseplms ' of the year 1410 in
the public library of Paris. Of these miniatures
Mr. J. A. Crowe says, " They remind us of later
productions of the Van Eycks in the originality of
conception, the peculiar embodiments of form, and
the remarkable tendency to realism which they
POL, CHRISTIAAN VAN, a flower and arabesque
painter, was born at Berkenrode, near Haarlem, in
1752. In 1782 he went to Paris, where he obtained
a great reputation for his paintings in arabesque.
He ornamented in this manner the chateaux of
Bellevue, Chantilly, and St. Cloud. He also painted
flower-pieces in oil, and occupied himself occasion-
ally in painting groups of flowers on snuff-boxes,
which are of considerable merit. He died in 1813.
POLACK, SOLOMON, a miniature painter, born at
the Hague in 1757, who settled in England, and
exhibited at the Academy almost every year from
1790 to 1835. He practised for a time in Ireland,
about 1795. He designed and etched the plates
for a Hebrew edition of the Bible. He died at
Chelsea in 1839.
POLACK, MARTIN THEOPHILUS, a Pole by birth,
who gained his reputation in the Tyrol, where he
was painter to Duke Leopold, and after his death
in 1632 to Cardinal van Madruz. His masterpiece
is to be found in the church of the Servites at
Innsbruck, and a few of his works are at Trent.
POLANCO, . Two brothers of this name
are mentioned among Spanish historical painters.
Scarcely anything is recorded of them, except
that they studied under Francisco Zurbaran, and
flourished at Seville about 1646. It is said
that their works were so like those of Zurbaran,
that they were often mistaken for his. This is
borne out by the pictures in the church of San
Esteban, at Seville, where Zurbaran painted the
' St. Peter and St. Stephen,' but where the ' Mar-
tyrdom of the Patron Saint,' the ' Nativity,' and
the ' St. Fernando,' are by the brothers Polanco.
They also painted several large pictures for the
sacristy of the convent of St. Paul, in the same
city ; and ' The Angels appearing to Abraham,'
' Tobit and the Angel,' ' Jacob wrestling with the
Angel,' ' Joseph's Dream,' and ' St. Teresa conducted
by Angels,' the last for the church of the Guardian
Angel, belonging to the Barefooted Carmelites and
the Franciscan Friars.
POLANZANI, FELICE, (or POLANZI,) an engraver,
was born at Andale, near Venice, about the year
1700, and is believed to have been living up to
1771. He chiefly resided at Rome, where he en-
graved a set of twenty-two plates, representing the
' Life of the Virgin,' from designs which are by
some attributed to N. Poussin ; but from their
resemblance to the style of J. Stella, they are more
probably after the works of that painter. He also
engraved after Van Dyck and various other masters.
The following prints are perhaps his best :
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
The Bust of a Woman ; after C. Cignani.
The Bust of a blind Musician ; after Marco Bencjiali.
The Virgin and Infant Christ ; after G. ffogari.
An old Man holding a Money-bag ; after the same.
An old Woman warming her hands ; after the same.
POLAZZO, FRANCESCO, a Venetian painter, born
in 1683. He was a pupil of Piazetta, and painted
portraits and historical subjects, though he was
better known as a restorer of pictures. He died in
POLESTANUS, ANDREA, who was a native of
Italy, and apparently a painter, has left a slight
etching of a Bacchanalian subject, a composition
of many figures, from his own design. It is signed
with his name, and dated 1640.
POLETNICH, J. F., an engraver, resided in
Paris about the year 1760, and was still living in
1780. He executed several plates after the works
of Van Dyck, Boucher, La Grenee, and others.
POLIDORINO, IL. See RUVIALE.
POLIDORO DA CARAVAGGIO. See CALDARA
POLIDORO VENEZIANO. See LANZANI.
POLLACK, LEOPOLD, a still-life and genre painter,
born at Lodenitz in Bohemia about 1806 or 1809.
He studied in Prague, Munich, and, in 1833, in
Rome. He painted scenes of Italian life, in which
he took Eiedel for his model. Some of his pictures
have been engraved by Handel, Straucher, and
others. He died'in 1880. Works :
The Shepherd Boy.
Shepherdess with Lamb.
Zuleika (from Byron).
POLLARD, ROBERT, an English engraver, born
at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1755. He began life as a
silversmith ; then, after receiving some instruction
from Richard Wilson, he painted landscapes and
sea-pieces. He finally devoted himself to en-
graving, working in various manners, and fre-
quently reproducing his own designs. His latter
years were passed in poverty, and shortly before
his death he handed over to the Royal Academy
the records of the Incorporated Society of Artists,
of which he was the last surviving member. He
died in 1838. Amongst the plates after his own
designs the best are :
The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green.
At Fault (a hunting scene).
Lieut. Moody escaping from the Americans.
POLLASTRINI, ENRICO, was born at Leghorn
in 1817. He was a pupil of Bezzuoli, but was
also a diligent student of the old masters, as his
paintings bear witness. He had, however, much
originality of conception ; he was a good draughts-
man and a fair colourist. He was first professor
and afterwards president of the Academy of
Florence. He died in that city in 1876. Works :
The Raising of the Widow of Nain's Son. (Church of
the Soccorso, Leghorn.)
The Death of Ferruccio.
Death of Duke Alexis of Medici.
Inundation of the Serchio. (Modern Gallery, Florence.)
Pia dei Polomei.
Death of St. Joseph.
St. Lorenzo giving Alms.
The Battle of Legnano.
The Exiles of Siena.
POLLEN, JOHN HUNGERFORD, born in Old
Burlington Street, November 19, 1820, son of
John Pollen of Rodbourne, Recorder of Winchester,
and nephew of Charles Robert Cockerel!, R.A., the
celebrated architect. He was educated at Eton
and Christchurch, and became fellow of Merton
and Senior Proctor in 1851. On joining the
Catholic Church in 1852, he studied painting and
antiquities at Rome, having made two journeys
to Greece and to the East a few years before.
In 1855 he became Professor of Fine Arts at
the Catholic University, then just founded by
Dr. (afterwards Cardinal) Newman. It was on
leaving Oxford that he gave his attention seriously
to the pursuit of art as a profession. He had no
technical training, and, although in a very few
years he attained a high proficiency as a water-
colour painter, he did not pursue this branch of art,
and his works are comparatively little known. It
is as a decorative artist and architect that he will
be best remembered as a producing artist. He
undertook the decoration of the Merton Chapel,
Oxford, in the year 1850, and was practically the
first to re-introduce fresco painting into England.
In 1856 he designed and decorated the University
Chapel at Dublin in the Byzantine style, and in
1857 collaborated with Rossetti, Burne-Jones, and
others in decorating the Oxford Union. It was in
1850, while carrying out the decorations and
painting of the Chapel at Merton, that he made
the acquaintance of young Millais, whose success
he very confidently prophesied. During the years
1862, 1863, and 1864 he carried out the building
of the Catholic Chapel at Rhyl, the decorations at
Blickling Hall for the Marquess of Lothian, and
the decorations at Alton Towers for Lord Shrews-
bury. In 1862 he won a prize in a competition
for the decorations for the new War Office. These
decorations were never carried out, owing to the
style of the building being changed from Gothic
to Palladian. From 1863 to 1876 he was one of
the keepers of the South Kensington Museum,
and drew up the catalogues on furniture and
woodwork and gold and silversmiths' work, on
which the reputation he enjoyed for many years
as the leading authority on these subjects was
based. In 1862 he served on the jury of the
Great Exhibition, and completed the decorations
for the Marquess of Ormonde at Kilkenny Castle.
In 1876 he built a house for Lord Lovelace on
the Thames Embankment.
Pollen's artistic production divides itself into
three heads. First, his water-colours, characterized
by a delightful simplicity and freshness in colour,
resulting in his rendering certain effects of
Italian sky and landscape with extraordinary
success. His oil-colour only attained a high
degree of success on rough canvas, on which he
obtained effects akin to those of tapestry. The
best of these works is the series at Alton Towers,
which are marked by great skill and movement
in the composition, archaeological fidelity, a high
standard of drawing, and a rare sympathy of treat-
ment in the sense that he successfully preserves,
without any false archaism, the naivete of mediseval
treatment ; the charm of the complex ornamen!
in the borders of these so-called tapestries is
very marked ; and in the decorations at Rhyl,
Blickling, Dublin, and Kilkenny are an extra-
ordinary wealth of fancy in the treatment of ara-
besques and in the use of children, animals, and
flower forms in decoration. In the Blickling
ornaments will be found the germ of much that
later on successfully developed in the Arts and
Crafts Movement of thirty years later. There can
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
be little doubt that, in spite of the technical
shortcomings due to want of early training, the
influence of Pollen, exerted through his abundant
fancy and invention, and still more from the rigid
and correct taste which governed all his produc-
tion, was very great on his contemporaries, and
the effect of his influence as a producer, and
later as a tutor and examiner, is to be seen far
beyond Great Britain. The Art Nouveau Move-
ment abroad, while productive of much that is
pure abortion, owes its finer results largely, first,
to the pre-Raphaelite Movement in England, and,
next, to the Arts and Crafts Movement of a genera-
tion later. It was to the recognition of the restrain-
ing standard in mediaeval and Renaissance art that
the merit of Pollen's work was largely due. He
seemed to work with equal ease and certainty
whether producing original work, as at Blickling
and Kilkenny, in the Renaissance spirit of
Holbein, as at the Reigate Priory, or the Jacobean
and Tudor style, as at Ingestre and Studley.
Some of Pollen's work as a writer on furniture
and woodwork has been superseded as to details
of historical accuracy and scholarship by the more
elaborate researches of later scholars, but the main
lines of tastes and classification of merit laid
down in his earlier works have been generally
accepted as final, and are not likely to be upset
Pollen was an occasional exhibitor at the Royal
Academy and Grosvenor Gallery. A H P
POLLET, VICTOR FLORENCE, painter and en-
graver, was born in Paris, November 22, 1811.
He was a pupil of Paul Delaroche and of Richomme.
In 1838 he won the grand prize of Rome and went
to Italy, where at first he painted more in water-
colours than he engraved. Later on, however, he
completed several excellent plates. He gained
honours at the Salon both as painter and engraver,
being decorated with the Legion of Honour in
1855. He died in 1883. Works :
Venus ; after Titian.
Artless and Worldly Love ; after the same.
II Suouatore ; after Raphael.
Birth of Venus ; after Delaroche.
Maid of Orleans ; after the same.
Bonaparte in Italy'; after Raffict.
Emperor of Austria ; after Winterhalter,
Empress of Austria ; after the same.
POLLINGER, FELIX, an animal painter, born at
Munich in 1817. His pictures of birds had some
merit. He died at Funfhaus, near Vienna, in 1877.
POLMARES. See SANTIAGO PALOMARES.
POLO, BERNARDO, a painter of fruit -and flower
pieces, resided near Saragossa towards the end of
the 17th century. He painted his subjects from
nature, and his pictures were highly esteemed both
at Saragossa and Madrid. According to Zani, he
worked in 1680 and died about 1700.
POLO, DIEGO, 'the elder,' was born, according
to Palomino, at Burgos in 1560. He studied at
Madrid, under Patricio Caxes, and was a reputable
painter of history. There are some of his works
in the Escorial, and in the palace at Madrid, in
which city he died in 1600. The pictures by
which he gained his reputation are the portraits
of the kings of the Goths ; a painting of ' St.
Jerome chastised by an Angel for taking too much
pleasure in reading Cicero ' ; and a ' Penitent
POLO, DIEGO, ' the younger,' the nephew of the
elder Diego, was born at Burgos in 1620, and was
a scholar of Antonio Lanchares. He acquired an
admirable style of colouring by studying the works
of Titian, in the royal collection ; and painted
several pictures for the churches at Madrid, of
which the most esteemed are the ' Baptism of
Christ,' in the church of the Carmelites ; and the
' Annunciation ' in Santa Maria. He also excelled
in portraiture. He died in 1655.
POLONY, ZAKARIA, was an obscure engraver,
who resided in Paris about the year 1615. Among
other prints we have by him a slight etching,
representing 'Queen Margaret lying in state, in
the Faubourg St. Germain,' Paris.
POLYDOR. See GLAUBER, JOH.
POLYGNOTDS, the earliest of the greater mas-
ters of ancient Greek painting, was a native of
the island of Thasos, and a younger contemporary
of Panaenus. He flourished from 480 to 430 B.C.,
and came to reside at Athens about 463. He was
the son and pupil of Aglaophon the elder, and was
the first painter who raised the art into an inde-
pendent position, instead of one of subordination
to architecture and sculpture. Endowed with a
taste for poetry as well as painting, he had not
only stored his mind with the beauties of the
' Iliad ' and the ' Odyssey,' but had studied all the
epic poems then extant, which furnished him with
the mythological subjects with which he adorned
the temples and porticoes of Athens, Delphi, and
other cities of Greece. The Amphictyonic Council
decreed by way of recompense that Polygnotus
should be maintained at the public expense when-
ever he came ; and the Athenians voted him their
Pliny is lavish in his eulogies on the powers of
this painter. According to that writer, he was the
first artist who gave an air of ease and grace to his
figures, dressed his females in rich and elegant
vestments, and, above all, characterized his heads
with an expression which was entirely unknown
before him. There undoubtedly remained in his
work much crudity and deficiency as compared
with the freedom of nature ; but his style was
idealistic and grand, and Aristotle assigns to him a
similar position in art to that occupied by Homer
in poetry. He repeats the designation ij0oypa<f>oe
('mind-painter'), which had already been applied
to him, and says that he painted men better than
they are. He gave proof of his extraordinary
capacity in vanquishing difficulties in his cele-
brated picture of ' Cassandra.' He represented the
daughter of Priam at the moment she had been
brutally outraged by the Telamonian Ajax. The
face of the unfortunate captive was partially
covered with a veil, but the glowing blush of con-
fusion was visible in her countenance, which dis-
played all the symptoms of insulted modesty. This
performance is alluded to by Lucian in discussing
the features of his perfect woman. " Polygnotus,"
he says, " shall open and spread her eyebrows, and
give her that warm, glowing, decent blush which
so inimitably beautifies his 'Cassandra.' He like-
wise shall give her an easy, tasteful, flowing dress,
with all its tender and delicate folds, partly
clinging to her body, and partly fluttering in the
wind." The picture in question was the part of a
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
larger one, or perhaps of a series, representing the
'Trial of Ajax by the Greeks'; it adorned the
Poecile (ironciX?; area, or 'painted portico') of the
Agora at Athens.
The particular work which induced the Athenians
to receive Polygnotus into citizenship has been
conjectured to have been a portion of the decoration
of the Temple of Theseus. In that of the Dioscuri
(Castor and Pollux) he depicted 'The Story of the
Daughters of Leucippus.' But the works which
brought him the greatest renown were those repre-
senting scenes from the ' Iliad ' and ' Odyssey,'
which he painted in the Temple of Apollo at Delphi,
which Pausanias so admired six hundred years
after, and which have gone by the name of ' The
Iliad and Odyssey of Polygnotus.'
In the Poacile at Athens he painted also the
' Battle of Marathon.' In the foreground of the
picture the Greeks and Persians were represented
combating with equal valour; but in the middle
distance, the barbarians were seen flying to the
Phoenician ships, which were visible in the distance.
In this painting Polygnotus allowed himself all the
license of the Grecian poets. Minerva, the tutelary
goddess of the Athenians, and Hercules, are made
to descend from heaven ; the town of Marathon is
personified by a genius, and Theseus is drawn from
the shades of death to witness the battle. This
master was fond of compositions which admitted of
a great concourse of figures. It was probably the
taste of the period at which he lived, a taste which
did not long survive.
POLZONB, SOIPIO, a painter born at Gaeta in
1556. He studied at Naples, and then went to
Rome, where he gained some repute as a por-
trait painter. Among his portraits were those of
Gregory XIII., Sixttis V., and many of the Car-
dinals. He died at Rome in 1594.
POMARANCE, CRISTOFORO DALLE. See RON-
POMARANCE, NiocoL6 and ANTONIO, (or IL
POMAKANCIO). See ClECIGNANO.
POMAREDE, SILVIO, was a native of Italy, who
flourished from 1736 to 1768, and engraved some
plates, which he marked with his initials. Among
them were four of the ' Triumphs ' of Petrarch, viz.
those of ' Time,' ' Fame,' ' Death,' and ' Religion,'
after Bonifazio Veneziano ; and some of the por-
traits of painters for the Florence Gallery. He
engraved also some plates for the ' Museo Capito-
lino,' and many of those for Ficoroni's ' Maschere
sceniche e Figure comiche d'antichi Romani,' pub-
lished at Rome in 1736.
POMEDELLO, GIOVANNI MARIA, who was a
goldsmith and medallist, besides painter and en-
graver, belonged to the school of Vittore Pisano,
and lived at Verona from 1519 to 1534. He
painted a ' Virgin before the Cross,' in the Church
of San Tommaso in that city (1524), and there is
a pen-and-ink sketch by him of ' The Ruins of the
Coliseum,' in the Vienna Belvedere. Among his
engravings are ' Hercules strangling the Lion,'
and ' The Abduction of Deianeira.'
POMEY, Louis, French painter, born in Paris
in 1825 ; became a pupil of Gleyre ; also of
Willems and Lobrichon. Since 1867 was a
regular contributor to the Salon, his work in
genre and portraiture being careful and scholarly.
He obtained an honourable mention in 1889. He
died at Gerardmer, September 7, 1891.
POMMAYRAC, PIERRE PAUL DE, a miniature por-
trait painter, was born in 1818 at Porto Rico, of
French parents. He was a pupil of Gros, and also
studied miniature painting under Mine. Lizinska
de Mirbel. He died in 1880. Among his portrait
miniatures the following may be named :
The Empress Eugenie.
The Prince Imperial.
The Princesse Mathilde.
Queen Isabella of Spain.
Cardinal Guibert (oil).
Mdlle. Chancy (oil).
POMMERENCKE, HEINRICH, was a successful
portrait painter of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. He was
born and brought up in poverty, but exercised his
talent for art so ably that he was enabled to pur-
sue his studies at Berlin. He went to Paris also,
and had the good fortune to paint the portrait of
Helena, Duchess of Orleans, by which he gained
the protection of the reigning Royal Family. After
'the Revolution of 1848 he returned to Schwerin,
where he painted many excellent pictures for the
Grand Duke. He died in 1873.
POMPADOUR, JEANNE ANTOINETTE POISSON,
Marchioness of, was born in Paris in 1721, and in
1741 married M. Le Normand d'Etioles. In 1745
she became the mistress of Louis XV., who created
her Marchioness of Pompadour, and over whom
her influence was paramount until her death, which
took place at Versailles in 1764. She was one of
the most accomplished amateur etchers of the 18th
century. Having commissioned Jacques Guay to
engrave from the designs of Vien and Boucher a
series of gems with symbolical and allegorical
subjects commemorative of the victories of Louis
XV., she etched them for distribution among her
friends. The original series consists of fifty-two
plates, entitled ' Suite d'Estampes gravees par
Madame la Marquise de Pompadour, d'apres les
pierres gravies de Guay,' and includes the por-
trait of Louis XV., and that of Madame de Pom-
padour as ' Minerve protectrice de la gravure en
pierres pre'cieuses.' To the collection was after-
wards added 'Les petits Buveurs de lait,' 'Le
petit Faiseur de boules de savon,' and ' La petite
Mendicante,' after the designs of Boucher, three
plates of ivories, and a frontispiece to an edition
of Corneille's tragedy of ' Rodogune,' which was
printed in 1759 in her apartments in the palace
of Versailles. This last was designed by Boucher,
and the plate was retouched by C. N. Cochin. The
whole of the plates afterwards passed into the
hands of Basan, and were published in 1782, after
having been touched probably by Cochin. They
are fully described in Leturcq's 'Notice sur Jacques
Guay,' Paris, 1873.
PONCE-CAMUS, MARIE NICOLAS, was born in
Paris in 1778. He was instructed by David, and
painted historical subjects, among which were
' Napoleon at Ostend ' in 1810 ; ' Napoleon and
Prince Charles,' 1812, now at Versailles ; ' Alex-
ander and Apelles,' and others. He died in 1839.
PONCE, NICOLAS, a French engraver, was born
in Paris in 1746, and died there in 1831. He was a
pupil of M. Pierre, the painter, and of Fessard and
Delaunay, the engravers. His works are rather
numerous, as he was enployed on several of those
grand publications which do honour to the French
nation : such as ' Le Muse'e Laurent,' ' Le Cabinet
de Choiseul,' ' La Galerie du Palais Royal,' ' Les
Campagnes d'ltalie ; ' the folio edition of ' Racine,
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
by Didot ; ' Lee Illustres Frangais,' with fifty-six
plates ; ' Les Bains de Titus et de Livie,' in seventy-
five plates; and ' La Guerre d'Amerique,' conjointly
with Godefroy. He was the editor of the Bible
with 300 engravings after Marillier ; and dedicated
to Louis XVIII. the beautiful edition in quarto of
the ' Charter.' He also wrote and translated several