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Paris, 1057. He signed his prints with his name
in full, or with the letters T. N. He etched
several plates of birds after Barlow ; these were
executed at Paris in 1659. It is very probable, too,
that he engraved some of the plates for the eighth
edition of Ogilby's ' .ffisop.'

NEALKES, one of the later painters of ancient
Greece, lived probably at Sicyon about 252 B.C.
He is regarded as the principal representative of
the later Sicyonian school. He is said to have
possessed a lively genius, and an accurate judg-
ment. Being engaged to paint a picture of a
combat between the Persians and Egyptians on
the Nile, and being apprehensive that the river
might be mistaken for the sea, he introduced a
mule drinking on the border of the Nile, and a
crocodile ready to attack it, thus rendering the
scene of the action quite unmistakable !

NEAPOLI, FRANCISCO, a Spanish historical
painter, was born at Madrid in the 15th century,
and is supposed, from the style of his works, to
have been a scholar of Leonardo de Vinci. In
conjunction with Pablo de Aregio, it is said that
he painted the doors that enclose the great altar of
the cathedral of Valencia. They represent scenes
from the life of the Virgin Mary. This work was
finished in 1506, and for it the artists received
3000 ducats. Neapoli was the founder of the
Valencian school.

NEBBIA, CESARE, was born at Orvieto about
the year 1536, and was the ablest scholar of Giro-
lamo Muziano, whose style he adopted, and whom
he assisted in the works he executed for Gregory
XIII., in the Vatican and the Capella Gregoriana.
He was himself employed by Gregory's successor,
Sixtus V., in superintending the works undertaken

by order of that pontiff in the palaces of St. John
Lateran and Monte Cavallo, in the library of the
Vatican, and at the Scala Santa, in which he was
assisted by Giovanni Guerra da Modena. He
painted several pictures for the churches in Rome,
of which the most important are the ' Resurrection,'
in San Giacomo degli Spagnuoli ; some subjects
from the life of the Virgin, painted in fresco, in
the Capella Borghese, in Santa Maria Maggiore ;
and the 'Crowning of the Virgin,' in Santa Maria
de' Monti. He died at Rome about the year 1614.

NEBEA, GALEOTTO, the author of two altar-pieces
in the church of S. Brigida, at Genoa. He was a
native of Castellaccio, near Alessandria, and the
two pictures in question are dated respectively
1481 and 1484.

NEBOT, B., painted the portrait of Captain
Thomas Coram, the founder of the Foundling Hos-
pital, which was in the possession of D. Nesbit,
and engraved by Brooke in 1751.

NECK, JAN VAN, was born at Naarden in 1636.
He was the son of a physician, who destined him
for his own profession, but yielded to the marked
disposition his son evinced for art, and placed
him under the tuition of Jacob de Backer, whose
style he followed with great success. Houbraken
speaks of his talents as an historical painter in the
most flattering terms, and particularly commends
a picture by him representing the ' Presentation in
the Temple,' in the French church at Amsterdam.
He was still more successful in painting fabulous
subjects, and was also an eminent portrait painter.
He resided chiefly at Amsterdam, where he died in
1714. The following works by. him have been
engraved :

Alpheus and Arethusa ; by A . Blooteling.

The Bath of Diana ; by the same.

The portrait of the theologian, Groeuweyen ; by C.


NEDEK, PIETER, born at Amsterdam in 1616,
was a scholar of P. Lastman, and a painter of his-
tory, portraits, and landscapes. He died in 1678.

NEE, DENIS, a French engraver, was born in
Paris about the year 1732, and died in 1818. He
was a pupil of J. P. le Bas, has engraved several
plates in the style of that artist, and first brought
himself into notice by a new edition of the ' Recueil
des Peintures antiques' of Caylus and Mariette.
Among others, he executed several vignettes for
Ovid's Metamorphoses, published in Paris, and en-
graved several landscapes after A. Van de Velde
and other Dutch masters. In conjunction with
Masquelier he engraved ' Les Tableaux pittoresques
de la Suisse ' and ' Le Voyage pittoresque de la
France.' He left some fifty-two plates, including
the following:

The Massacre of St. Bartholomew ; 'after Gravelot.

Three Views in Martinique; after the Chevalier
d' Epernay.

Benjamin Franklin ; after Charmontel.

A View of the City of Lyons ; after Lallemand.

The Environs of Frascati ; after the same.

A View of Tivoli ; after the same.

NEEFFS, (misspelt NEEFS, NEEF, and NEFS,)
JACOBUS. This Flemish engraver, a member of a
large family of artists, was born early in the 17th
century. He was probably the grandson of the
elder Pieter Neeffs, the painter, and distinguished
himself by the plates he engraved after Rubens,
Van Dyck, and the other celebrated painters of
the Flemish school. His works, which are dated



from 1632 to 1645, are principally executed with
the burin. The year of his death is not known.
The following are some of hie best plates :


Caspar Nennius, Bishop of Antwerp; after Gerard


Gio. Tollenario, Jesuit ; after P. Fruytiers.
Frans Snyders, Painter ; after Van Dyck.
Anthonis de Tassis, Canon of Antwerp; after the

The Marchioness of Barlemont, Countess d'Egmont ;

after the same,

Josse de Hertoghe ; after the same.
Martin Kyckaert, Painter ; after the same.


The Fall of the Angels ; after Eubens.

The Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek ; after the

The Crucifixion, with the Virgin and St. John ; after

the same.

St. Augustine ; after the same.
The Martyrdom of St. Thomas ; after the same.
The Judgment of Paris, and the Triumph of Galatea,

called the Ewer of Charles I. ; after the same ; scarce.
Christ and the Six Penitents ; after Gerard Seyers.
Job and his Wife ; after the same.
The Martyrdom of St. Lievin ; after the same.
Christ appearing to Magdalene ; after the same.
Christ brought before Pilate ; after J. Jordaens.
The Satyr, with the Peasant blowing Hot and Cold ;

after the same.
St. Koch interceding for the Persons attacked by the

Plngiie ; after Erasmus Quellinus.

NEEFFS, PIETES, the elder, was born at Ant-
werp in 1577 or 1578. He was the scholar of
Hendrik van Steenwyck the elder. He painted
the interiors of the churches in Antwerp and its
neighbourhood, often introducing candle-light
effects. His mechanical skill was great, but his
hand was heavier than that of Steenwyck, and his
colour less pleasing. The figures in his pictures
were painted by F. Francken, Van Thulden,
Teniers, and Velvet Breughel. Neefisdied between
1657 and 1661. Many of his best pictures are in
England, but the museums of Paris, Amsterdam,
Rotterdam, Brunswick, Cassel, Munich, Geneva,
Vienna, and St. Petersburg are also rich in his

NEEFFS, PIETER, the younger, the son and
scholar of Pieter Neeffs the elder, was born at
Antwerp in 1601, and died after 1675. He painted
similar subjects to those of his father, but they are
greatly inferior, both in the neatness of the finish-
ing and the correctness of the perspective. Several
of his paintings are in the possession of the Mar-
quis of Hertford, and others at the Hague, in the
Vienna Academy, and the Liechtenstein Gallery.


NEELE, SAMUEL JOHN, an English engraver,
who was born in 1758, and died in 1824. His em-
ployment was principally illustrating antiquarian
works and engraving maps ; but he contrived to
do well for himself in a pecuniary sense.



NEESSA, ALONZO DE, a Spanish painter born in
the neighbourhood of Madrid in 1628. There are
pictures by him in the Monastery of the Observ-
ants in that city. He died in 1668.

NEFF, TIMOTHEUS CARL VON, a Russian painter,
born in 1805 at Korkulla, in Esthonia. He studied
at Dresden under Hartmann, and at Rome. In
1826 he returned to Russia and settled at St. Peters-
burg. He became court painter in 1832, and in


1839 a member of the Academy, in which he was
appointed professor in 1865. From 1842 he was
much employed on the decorations of St. Isaac's
Cathedral, and his picture of the patron saint there
is one of his best works. Many members of the
Imperial family sat to him for their portraits. He
died at St. Petersburg in 1877. Some of his works
recall those of Leopold Robert. At the Hermitage
there are the following by him :

La Baigneuse. 1858.

Two Girls in a Grotto. 1859.


NEGRE, MATTHIEU VAN, was an historical and
architectural painter, who lived about 1620 or
1630. In the cathedral of Tournay there is a ' Holy
Family' by him, with a glory of angels, dated
1623. Descamps mentions him, but there are no
particulars of his life.

NEGRE, NICHOLAS VAN, an excellent Flemish
portrait painter ; perhaps the son of Matthieu. He
flourished about 1645. Snyderhoef engraved his
portrait of Salmasius in 1641 ; C. van Dalen that of
Spanheim in 1644 ; and there are other plates after
his work.

DE' RITRATTI, from the excellence of his portraits,
was born at Bologna in 1593. He was instructed
by Odoardo Fialetti at Venice, and was the founder
of an academy of arts, called Degl' Indomiti, in his
own house. He was also a poet, translated parts
of Tasso's works into the Bolognese dialect, and
wrote other books. His eldest son PIETRO NEGRI
painted in the style of his instructor Zanchi. There
is by him in the Gallery at Dresden, 'The Death
of the Empress Agrippina in the presence of
Nero.' He died at Bologna in 1659. His son
Bianco, who was a Canon of St. Petronio, and an
author, also painted.

NEGRI, PIER MARTIRE, was a native of Cremona,
and flourished about the year 1600. According to
Zaist, he was a disciple of Giovanni Battista Trotti,
and distinguished himself as a painter of history
and portraits. He afterwards studied at Rome,
and was received into the Academy of St. Luke.
Pictures by him exist at Cremona and Pa via.

painter, who flourished about 1660. He was one
of the founders of the Seville Academy.

NEGRONE, (or NIGRONE,) PIETRO, a native of
Calabria, was born about the year 1500. Accord-
ing to Dominici, he was a disciple of Giovanni
Antonio d'Amato, and also studied under Marco
Calabrese. At Naples, in the church of Santa
Maria Donna Romata, are two pictures by him,
representing the 'Adoration of the Magi,' and the
'Scourging of Christ,' painted in the year 1541 ;
also in the church of Santa Agnello a picture re-
presenting the Virgin Mary and Infant Christ in
the clouds, with a glory of angels, and below St.
Catharine, St. Jerome, and St. Onofrio. Negrone
died in 1565. He was sometimes called 'II giovane
Zingaro,' the young gipsy.


NEGROPONTE, FRA ANTONIO, an early Venetian,
and contemporary with Jacobello del Fiore. In
the church of San Francesco della Vigna, Venice,
there is a colossal 'Virgin in adoration' by him
which is inscribed " Frater Antonius da Negropon
pinxit," so that Boschini and Sansovino are mis-
taken in calling him Fra Francesco. To Fra
Antonio Crowe and Cavalcaselle also ascribe tenta-


lively a ' Madonna' at Legnano, in the oratory of
the Disciplina.

NEHER, BERNARD, historical painter, was born
at Biberach, Wiirteraburg, in 1806. After some
early instruction in his native place, he studied at
Stuttgart under Dannecker, and at Munich under
Cornelius, and showed so much talent in his early
essays that he was relieved from military service,
and granted a government pension for further study
in Italy. He stayed four years at Rome, and while
there painted (1831) his ' Raising of the Widow's
Son,' now in the Stuttgart Gallery. On his return
to Munich he was commissioned to paint a fresco
on a large scale over the restored ' Isarthor,' repre-
senting the entry of Ludwig of Bavaria after the
battle of Ampfing. He was afterwards engaged
on decorative paintings at the Court of Weimar,
and designed a number of cartoons for glass-paint-
ing. In 1841 he became Director of the Leipsic
Academy, and in 1854 Director of the Art School of
Stuttgart. He died in 1886. His 'Descent from
the Cross ' is in the Stuttgart Gallery.

NEHER, JOSEPH, a decorative painter, born at
Buchan in Wurtemburg in 1788. He painted at
Stuttgart, and must not be confounded with an
artist of the same name, the father of Michael

NEHER, MICHAEL, was born at Munich in 1798,
and the son of JOSEPH NEHER, a citizen and painter
of that city, but of a family from Biberach.
Michael received a classical education, and was
instructed in the rudiments of painting by Mitterer,
and in 1813 entered the Academy at Munich.
From 1816 to 1818 he studied nnder Matthias
Klotz, and was then employed by Angelo Quaglio
in his theatrical work. After having worked for
some time as scene-painter at the Court Theatre,
he went to Trent, Milan, and Trieste, and painted
portraits. In 1819 he was encouraged by Hierony-
mus Hess, at Rome, to devote himself to genre
painting. On his return to Munich in 1823 he
became Conservator of the Art Union. In 1839
he painted several saloons in the Hohenschwangen
Schloss, after sketches of Schwind, Gasner, and
Schwanthaler. He, however, in 1837 devoted him-
self entirely to architectural painting, and travelled
for improvement on the Rhine, and in Belgium.
He was received an honorary member of the
Academy at Munich in 1876, and died there in the
same year. His best performances are the following
views :

The Cathedral of Magdeburg.

The Minster at Fribourg.

The Town-hall and St. Peter's Church at Lowen.

The Cathedrals at Frankfort, Prague, and Mechlin.


painter of Niirnberg, and a pupil of G. Strauch,
and at Amsterdam of J. de Backer. He went into
Italy and lived long at Venice, where he painted
for the Monasterio di Santa Anna ' The Apparition
of Jan Lorenzo Giustiniani ; ' and there are other
pictures by him in that city. Neidlinger died at
Venice in 1700.



NELLI, NiccoLd, was a native of Venice, and
flourished about the middle or latter half of the
16th century. From the style of his engraving
he is supposed to have been a disciple of Marco
da Ravenna. He engraved an architectural fron-
tispiece, with figures, for a book of plans and

views of cities and fortresses, published in 1568
(it is inscribed Nicolo Nelli Venezianof.),also other
subjects and portraits.

was the son of Martino Nelli of Gubbio, and
flourished at the commencement of the 15th cen-
tury. In the church of Santa Maria Nuova at
Gubbio is preserved under glass a fresco repre-
senting the Madonna and Saints, which is signed
and dated M.C.C.C.CIII., Morelli says IV., and has
been chromolithographed and published by the
Arundel Society. He also worked for Gian Gale-
azzo, Duke of Milan, at Perugia in 1403-4, and
moved to Urbino in 1420 ; his death took place
between 1445 and 1450. The chapel of the Palace
of Corrado de' Trinci, now called the Palazzo del
Governo, was decorated by him in 1424, and the
work-can still be seen at Folij;no.

NELLI, PIETRO, was born at Massa in 1672, and
was instructed by Morandi, whose style he imitated
in his paintings for several churches at Rome.
Ho was alive in 1730, and distinguished himself
greatly as a painter of portraits, among which

Cardinal Lodovico Pico (tngrated by Fre\i).
Andrea Giuseppe Rossi (engraved by Billy).
Bishop Giovanni Francesco Tenderini (tnyravtd by Gio-
vanni Rossi).

NELLI, Suor PLAUTILLA, a lady of a noble family,
was born at Florence in 1523, and probably in-
structed by Fra Paolino of Pistoja. She became
in 1537 an inmate, and afterwards prioress, of the
Dominican convent of St. Catherine at Florence,
and painted for their church a 'Descent from the
Cross," which is said to have been from a design
by Andrea del Sarto, and is probably the same as
that now to be seen at the Florence Academy ;
also a picture of the ' Adoration of the Magi.' In
Vasari's time a large collection of drawings by
Fra Bartolommeo was in her possession, and at
Dresden is a drawing by her of ' St. Anthony
tempted by a beautiful woman,' which appears
to bo an imitation of the Frate's work. She died
in 1588. There are by her :

Berlin. May. of fifus. A painting of 1524.
Florence. Academy. A Descent from the Cross.
S. M. Novella. A Last Supper.

NELLO DE DINO, an unimportant Tuscan painter
of the 14th century. He was a friend of Buffal-

painter of the 14th century, who is known by
report only, as no authentic work by him is in
existence. He studied under Orcagna, and painted
much in Pisa, in the cathedral and in the Campo
Santo, where there is a fresco said, by some, to be
by him. Lanzi says he is supposed to be the same
artist as Nello di Vanni.

NENCI, FRANCESCO, was born about 1782, and
studied at the Academy at Florence. He at first
painted portraits, but abandoned that branch of
art for historical painting. His chief performance
is at Florence in the Villa Poggio, and represents
the ' Assumption of the Virgin.' In 1821 he made
a series of designs for Dante's ' Divina Cornmedia.'
He was for a time director of the Academy at

Utrecht in 1782. He was a politician, and only
practised painting as an amateur. His master in
art was B. van Straaten. Nepveu died in 1839.


NERANUS, A., painter, flourished about the
middle of the 17th century, and imitated the
manner of Rembrandt. In Cardinal Fesch's col-
lection there was a pictuie by him representing
'Pilate washing his hands.'

NERENZ, WILHELM, genre painter, was born
at Berlin in 1804, first studied under Wilhelm von
Schadow, until the removal of the latter to Diissel-
dorf. In the nest year he was employed as picture-
restorer in the Royal Museum, but in 1833 followed
his master, von Schadow, to Diisseldorf, where he
remained three years. He then returned to Berlin,
where he resided for the remainder of his life, with
the exception of a short time in Dresden and Italy.
He died at Berlin in 1871. Of his works may be
mentioned :

Berlin. Nat. Gallery. At the Armourer's. 1840.
The Goldsmith's Daughter (from Uhland).
Kathchen von Heilbronn (from Kleist).
The end of the Wanderjahre.

Bolognese artist, celebrated for his paintings in
miniature of animals, birds, and fishes. Ulysses
Aldrovandi had seven books full of his works.
He died in the year 1575.
NERI m BICCI. See Bicci.
NERITO, JACOPO DI, lived early in the 14th
century. He was probably born at Padua, and
a pupil of Gentile da Fabriano. According to
Rossetti, he painted a 'St. Michael and Lucifer'
of gigantic proportions, once in the church of
San Michele, Padua. In the Communal Gallery
of that city there are some panels by him. No
dates can be given of his birth or death.

Maestro RICCIO, was a native of Siena, and flour-
ished from 1550 to 1573. He was a pupil, and
afterwards son-in-law and assistant, of Bazzi
(Sodoma). He painted history, but was more
celebrated for his perspective and architectural
views. At the Osservanti at Siena is a Crucifixion,
with a great number of figures ; and in the church
of the Derelitte, a ' Descent from the Cross,' which
is painted entirely in the style of his master. Two
large paintings by him in the Academy of that
city are Florentine in style. He was also dis-
tinguished as a sculptor, architect, and painter of
scenery. One of his scenes has been engraved by

DETTO LANDI was equally celebrated both
as sculptor and painter. He belonged to the
noble family of Landi, who are described as
of Poggio Malevolti, to distinguish them
from the family of Landi Sberghieri. He
was born in 1447, and died in 1500. He was
twice married : first, to Elizabetta, daughter of
Antonio Cigalini, who died in 1483 ; and secondly,
in 1493, to Lucrezia, daughter of Antonio Paltoni,
who bore him several sons, one at least of whom
was a painter like his father. He was a contem-
porary of Francesco di Giorgio, and probably a
pupil of Lorenzo di Pietro (Vecchietta). Like both
those artists, he left behind him works in both
mediums of surpassing loveliness, and is one of
the greatest and most typical of the Sienese artists
of the 15th century. Mr. Berenson, in ' The Cen-
tral Italian Painters of the Renaissance,' says of
him: " He was Simone (Martini) come to life again.
Simone's singing line, Simone's endlessly retined
feeling for beauty, Simone's charm and grace you

lose but little of them in Neroccio's panels, and
you get what to most of us counts more, ideals
and emotions more akin to our own, with quicker
suggestions of freshness and joy." There are
many records extant of commissions given to him
for statues and monuments still existing in Siena,
the most celebrated of which are a St. Catherine of
Alexandria in the chapel of St. Giovanni in the
Duomo ; the tomb of Tommaso del Testa Piccolo-
mini in the same place, and a wooden effigy of St.
Catherine of Siena in the Oratory of that Saint in
Fontebranda. In 1483 he designed the fine figure
of the ' Hellespontine Sibyl ' for the cathedral
pavement. His pictures are rarely to be found
outside Siena, but the Academy there contains
some beautiful examples. The collection in the
Palazzo Saracini in Siena boasts of two good
' Madonnas with Saints ' by him, and a particularly
charming 'Virgin and Child with SS. Michael and
John the Baptist' is in the upper sacristy of the
Confraternity della SS. Triniti in the same city.
We gather from documents dealing with commis-
sions for work given him that he died at some
date between 1488-1502, but the exact year of his
death is not known. Among his pupils were
Giovanni Battista di Bartolommeo Alberti, Gio-
vanni di Tedaldo, Leonardo di Ser Ambrogio de'
Maestrelli (called Mescolino), Taldi di Vittore, and
Achille di Pietro di Paolo del Crogio.


... G "" e } Madonna.
Morelli, 47. J

Madonna and Saints.

Berlin. 63A. ___.

Florence. U_ffi:i, 1304. Predella. Episodes from the

Life of St. Benedict.

Frankfort- StSdel j Madonna and two Saints.

on-Main. Institute, 4. )

n 5A. Madonna with SS. Catherine

and Sebastian.

London. Mr. C. Butler. Madonna.
Meiningen. Holy Family.

Newhaven y S.A. I Annunciation.

Jams Collection, 6!>. J
Paris. M. G. Drevfvs,65. Claudia.

M. Martin' Le Roy. Tobias and the Angel.
Siena. Sala VI. 8. Madouna with six Saints. 1492.

11. Madonna with SS. Bernardino

and Jerome.
13. Madonna with SS. Catherine

and Bernardino.
14. Madonna with SS. Catherine

and Jerome.
19. Triptych. 1479.

22. Madonna with two Saints.
Sala. "ril. 2. Cassone. Triumph of David.
8. Fragment of an Annunciatiou.
Archivio. Book cover : Madonna protect-
ing Siena. 1480.
Palazzo Saracini. Madonna with St. Catherine

and the Magdalen.
Madonna with Baptist and the

Confraternita delld^ Ma(lolma with st . Michael and

SS. Trimttl. V the B tist .
(Sacristy upstairs.) J

Duomo I'arement. ) HellesDon tine Sibyl. 1483.
(frondesiyn.) } ^^

NERVESA, GASPARO, painter, a native of Friuli,
and, according to Ridolti, a pupil of Titian. No
picture by him can now be pointed out, but he is
known to have painted at Spilimbergo, and perhaps
at Trevigi, about the middle of the 16th century.

NES, JAN VAN, (or NEES,) was born at Delft
probably about the year 1600, and was one of the
best scholars of Michiel J. van Mierevelt. He
travelled in France and Italy, and studied some
time at Rome and at Venice. On his return to
Holland he painted some historical pictures, which


H. Burton



//. Burton pkoio\ _Church of the lnmnents t Siena



were deservedly admired ; and he would probably
have distinguished himself in that branch of the
art, had not the general demand for his portraits
induced him, for the sake of emolument, to devote
himself entirely to them. The date of his death
is uncertain, but he is said to have worked as late

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