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nal Virtues ' ; and for the chapel, the ' Dead Christ
with the Marys.' From 1541 to 1552 he worked at
Padua, painting in particular a series of ' Scenes
from the Life of John the Baptist,' in the Selvatico
Palace. His reputation reached Rome, whither in
1563 he was invited by Pius IV. Here he was
employed in the Sala Regia, and painted the
' Emperor Frederick I. doing homage to Alexander


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III.' Having finished these and other works for
that pontiff, for which he was munificently re-
warded, he returned in 1565 to Venice, where he
painted several pictures for the churches and public
edifices, particularly a 'Purification,' for the Church
of the Padri Servi ; and the ' Annunciation,' in
the chapel of the Incurabili. In the Church Degli
Angeli, at Murano, is one of his best works, a
' Descent from the Cross, with the Virgin, Mary
Magdalene, and St. Johu.' The date of his death
is uncertain, but it probably occurred between
1570 and 1585.

Papillon mentions Porta as an excellent en-
graver on wood. That writer asserts that he had
seen, in the possession of M. Villayer, at Paris,
about a dozen woodcuts by him, representing
' Prophets and Sibyls, 1 and a print of ' Cupid and
Psyche.' He himself possessed a print of the
' Crucifixion, with the Virgin, Mary Magdalene, and
St. John,' signed Giuseppe Salviati ; and another
representing the ' Academy of Arts and Sciences,'
signed Joseph Porta Grafagninus. Others are the
title-page to the ' Sorti' of Marcolini (1540) and a
' Lucretia.' Zani, however, is of opinion, in spite
of the above inscription, that though designed
by Porta, they are executed by an anonymous

PORTA, ORAZIO, a native of Monte S. Savino,
who was painting in 1568.

born May 1, 1818, at Vilvorde in Brabant ; a pupil
in Paris of Navez and of Delaroche ; won the Prix
de Rome in 1843 ; completed his artistic education
by travel in Spain, Italy, Hungary, and the East ;
subsequently appointed Director of the Ghent
Academy ; ten years later went to Brussels in
a like capacity. The Brussels Musee Moderns
possesses his 'Fille de Sion' and his ' Loge au
Theatre de Pesth.' Other works by him are : 'Le
Suicide de Judas,' ' Le Conteur Egyptien,' a portrait
of Rose Caron, the singer, and one of Paul
Deroulede. He gained a second-class medal in 1852,
and the Order of St. Leopold in 1851. He died at
Brussels, February 8, 1895.

PORTAIL, JACQUES ANDR, a French fruit and
flower painter. In 1742 he was appointed custodi an
of the king's pictures, and in 1746 he was admitted
to the Academy. He died in 1759.



painter, and native of Loro, in the Valdnrno. He
was a pupil of Ridolfo del Ghirlandajo. Vasari
speaks of him as an artist of ability. He painted
several pictures for the churches of Florence,
especially for Santa Maria Maggiore. On October
15, 1574, one Carlo di Galeotto Partelli da Loro
was buried in San Pancrazio.

PORTENGEN, PIERRE, a painter of Utrecht, and
scholar of Paul Moreelse. flourished about 1638.
He painted landscapes in the manner of Jan Both,
but in handling is very inferior to that master.

PORTER, Sir ROBERT KER, was born at Durham
in 1777, and passed his boyhood in Edinburgh,
whither his mother had moved on the death of
her husband, an officer in the army. Here he made
the acquaintance of the famous Flora Macdonald.
In consequence of his admiration for a battle-piece
in that lady's possession, representing some action
in the affair of '45, which she explained to him
in animated language, he determined on becoming
L 2

\ himself a painter of battles. This occurred when
he was only nine or ten years old. From this time
he was continually sketching similar subjects, which
induced his mother in 1790 to take him to West,
the President of the Royal Academy, who, struck
with the spirit of his sketches, immediately pro-
cured him admission as a student. His progress
was rapid, and in 1793 he was commissioned to
paint an altar-piece for Shoreditch Church. In the
following year he painted a picture of ' Christ
allaying the Storm,' which he presented to the
Roman Catholic chapel at Portsea ; and in 1798
' St. John preaching,' for St. John's College at
Cambridge. These pictures showed wonderful
precocity ; but in 1800 he astonished the public by
the exhibition of 'The Storming of Seringapatam,'
a picture 120 feet in length, representing with
much animation the details of an exploit never
surpassed in its way. It is said that he was only
ten weeks employed on the work. Unfortunately
this picture was destroyed by fire, but the sketches
exist, and the engravings by Vendramini preserve
some evidence of its merits. He painted several
other fights, among which are the ' Battle of Agin-
court,' for the city of London ; the ' Battle of
Alexandria,' and the ' Death of Sir Ralph Aber-
crombie.' In 1804 he went to Russia, and was
appointed historical painter to the emperor. He
then travelled in Finland and Sweden, where the
king knighted him. In 1808 he accompanied Sir
John Moore to the Peninsula, and attended that hero
to his end at the Battle of Corunna. After this he
paid a second visit to Russia, where he married the
Princess Mary, the daughter of Prince Theodore de
Schertkofi. After his return to England he pub-
lished, in 1813, an : Account of the Russian Cam-
paign,' and was re-knighted, by the Prince Regent,
in the same year. In the course of 1817-20 he
travelled in the East, where he made numerous
sketches, which are now in the British Museum.
He afterwards published an account of his travels
in Georgia, Persia, America, Ancient Babylon, and
other places, with numerous engravings of por-
traits, costumes, and antiquities. In this work are
excellent designs, in outline, from the fine charac-
teristic sculptures of Nakshi Roustan, Nakshi
Rajab, Shiraz, and Persepolis. The book is ex-
tremely valuable, as in many cases it corrects the
statements of preceding travellers. Being in 1826
appointed British consul at Venezuela, he resided
at Caracas until 1841, and continued to employ his
pencil. He painted while there three pictures of
sacred subjects : ' Christ instituting the Eucharist,'
' Christ blessing a little Child,' and an ' Ecce Homo.'
He also painted the portrait of Bolivar. In 1841
he paid his last visit to St. Petersburg, where
the cold proved too intense for his constitution,
after being inured to the warmth of Venezuela.
He was preparing for his return to England when
he was struck by a fit of apoplexy, and expired on
the 2nd of May, 1842.

PORTIO,AN1ELLO, was an engraver, who worked
at Naples from 1690 to 1700. His name is affixed
to a few portraits :md other plates for books.

PORTMANN, WILTIELM, German painter, born
at Dusseldorf in 1819 ; studied there with Schirmer,
and travelled in Switzerland and Italy. Established
himself at Dtisseldorf as a successful genre painter,
and here he died, December 18, 1893.


PORTUGAL, , according to Strutt, was the



engraver of a small upright plate, representing a
female figure weeping, and pouring water from
a cup.

PORZEL, ELIAS, (or PORCELIUS,) a German en-
graver on wood, was born at Isny, in Swabia, in
1662. He was a pupil of Jakob Enderlein, and
about 1682 was working in Switzerland, after
which he travelled in Italy, and finally settled at
Nuremberg, where he died in 1722.' He executed
several plates for Enderlein's 'Picture Bible,' after
designs by Sandrart.

POSADAS, MIGUEL, a Spanish painter, was born
in Aragon in 1711. He was a Dominican monk
living at Valencia, and painted historical pictures.
He died in 1753.

POSCH, LADRENZ, a Swedish portrait painter,
was born in 1733, and died in 1786. At Stockholm
there is a portrait by him of Gustavus IV. as a
child, in uniform.

POSE, EDDARD WILHELM, was born at Diisseldorf
in 1812. He entered the Academy at Diisseldorf,
where after studying for some time he went with
And. Achenbach to Munich, and in 1836 to Frank-
fort, whence he visited Italy. He painted land-
scapes and figure pictures of a serious cast. His
care for details was great. He died in 1878.
Among his works we may name :

Castle Eltz. (Stadel M. Frankfort.)

Castle in Tyrol. (Kiny of the Belgians.)

The Konigssee. (Grand Duke of Hesse.}

The Falls at Tivoli. (H. Hauck, Frankfort.)

The Theatre at Taorraina. (Prague Gallery.)

The Temples of Psestum. (Heydt collection, Elberfeld.)

The Hoinburg Forest.

POSSENTI, BENEDETTO, was, according to Mal-
vasia, a native of Bologna, and was brought up in
the school of the Carracci. He excelled in painting-
landscapes, seaports, embarkations, fairs, festivals,
and battle-pieces.

scholar of Benedetto Possenti, was born at Bologna
in 1618. He painted battles and attacks of cavalry,
in which he not only surpassed his father, but was
regarded as one of the ablest painters of his time
in that genre. His talents were not confined to
such subjects, and he acquired some reputation by
altar-pieces for the churches at Bologna and Padua.
One of his best productions is a picture in the
church of San Lorenzo, in the latter city, repre-
senting the martyrdom of that saint. Possenti died
in 1659.

POST, FRANS, (or POOST,) was born at Haarlem
about the year 1612. He was the son of JAN
POST, a glass-stainer of some celebrity, who died
while he was still young. It is not known how
Frans was taught, but before he was twenty years of
age he discovered sufficient ability to recommend
him to the protection of Count Maurice of Nassau-
Siegen, who took him into his service, and he
accompanied that prince in the voyage he under-
took to the West Indies and South America.
During a residence of two years, he made
numerous drawings of the most interesting views
in these countries, from which, on his return to
Holland, he painted several large pictures for the
palace of Ryksdorp, near Wassenaer. He died at
Haarlem, and was buried there on the 16th February,
1680. Among his works we may name :

Portrait of Count Maurice of Nassau-Siegen. (Amster-
dam Museum.)
View in Brazil. (The same.)
View of a Native Village in Brazil. (Hampton Court.)


There are also several etchings by him, among

which are the following:

A set of Views in Brazil ; from designs made b v himself
A View of the Gulf of All Saints ; Fr. Poost fee. 1645.
A View of Cape St. Augustine ; the same inscription
A View of the Isle of Thamaraca ; the same. '

POST, KARL BORROMADS, an engraver, was born
at Prague in 1834. He studied at the Academy at
Prague in 1852 under Haushofer, and at Vienna in
1853 under Stober. He engraved after Marko,
Achenbach, and Pausinger landscapes and animal
pieces. He was custodian of the Emperor's private
library at Vienna, where he died in 1877.

POSTL, KARL, a painter and etcher, who was
a teacher of landscape painting at the Prague
Academy, and painted panoramas, &c., was born
in 1768, and died after 1815.

POST MA, GERKIT, Frisian painter, born at
Nes (Friesland) in 1825 ; became a pupil at the
Amsterdam Academy, and subsequently travelled
in Italy and Spain. Painter of genre, as, for
instance, his ' Impfstube in Holland ' (1893). He
died in 1894 at Haarlem.

POT, HENDRIK GERRITSZ, was born at Haarlem
in 1600. It is not known under whom he studied,
but it is supposed that he received some instruction
from Frans Hals. He died in 1656. Houbraken
praises a picture by this master, representing
' Judith with the Head of Holofernes ' ; and men-
tions in very favourable terms a large picture of a
' Triumphal Car of one of the Princes of Orange,'
which is now in the Gallery at Haarlem as the
' Apotheosis of William the Silent.' The frame is
the work of a well-known sculptor, Dom. Janss.
Pot was also a distinguished portrait painter, of
which he has given proof in a large picture in the
Hall of the Archers at Haarlem, in which he has
represented the principal officers of that society.
At Hampton Court there is a curious picture by
him called 'A Startling Introduction.' It seems
to represent Charles I. making his court to a lady
into whose room he has made his way by the
chimney. Various explanations have been offered
of it, but none quite satisfactory. In the Louvre
there is a portrait of Charles I. by Pot. It is
signed and dated HP. FESIT., 1632, but was
nevertheless ascribed formerly to a mythical N.

painter and engraver, born February 10, 1828,
in Paris ; became a pupil of Brissot, Cogniet, and
Marville ; painted landscapes in the Callot style,
and completed some 300 etchings of Old Paris ;
a prolific illustrator and an authority on etching.
Died in Paris in 1883.

POTENZANO, FRANCESCO, painter, poet, and
improvisatore, called ' The Great,' was a native of
Palermo. He travelled to Rome, Naples, Malta, and
through a large part of Spain. He died in 1599.

POTERLET, a French painter, born at Epernay
in 1802. He was a pupil of Hersent and a student
of the Flemish School. He painted historical and
still-life subjects, but devoted most of his time to
making sketches from the most remarkable pictures
in European collections. He died in Paris in 1835.
The Louvre possesses a ' Dispute of Trissotin and
Vadius,' from the 'Femmes Savantes,' by him.

POTHEUCK, JAN, was a member of a Protestant
family, which left Verviers and settled at Leyden
at the ibeginning of the 17th century. Born in
1626, he was admitted in 1652 into the Guild of
St. Luke at Leyden, of which he became the head.












. -1









He died in 1 669. His portraits of the ' Four Regents
of the Pesthuis,' in the Leyden Museum, is perhaps
his best work. (See Obreen's ' Archief voor Neder-
landsche Kunstgeschiedenis.' )

POTHOVEN, HENDRIK, was born at Amsterdam
in 1725, and was a scholar of Philip van Dyk.
He painted portraits and cabinet pictures in the
manner of his master. He imitated satin, velvet,
lace, and carpets very successfully, and the other
accessories which he introduced in his small family
pictures. It is said that as late as 1791 he painted
the portrait of Professor David Huhnkenius. He
also engraved, in mezzotint, an ' Old Man reading
a Book by the light of a Candle ; ' and, if Balkema
is correct, many other plates. He died about 1795.


POTMA, JACOB, was born at Workum, in Fries-
land, about the year 1610, and was a scholar of
Wybrandt de Gheest. He painted history and por-
traits, but was most successful in the latter. The
greater part of his life was passed at the different
courts in Germany, where he was much employed
as a portrait painter. He died at Vienna in 1684.

POTRELLE, JEAN Louis, a French engraver,
was born in Paris in 1788, and was a scholar of
David, Tardieu, and Desnoyers. He gave early
proof of his talents, and in 1806 obtained the
second grand prize for engraving. He exhibited
for the last time at the Salon of 1824, and died
probably about that date. He has produced
several plates of subjects by the Italian masters,
and also of portraits of distinguished persons.
Among them are :

Portrait of Giulio Romano ; after himself.

Portrait of Michelangelo.

Louis XVIII. ; after Gerard.

Cupids ; after the same.

Portraits of Raphael anil N. Poussin.

Portrait of David ; after A'avet.

Prince Schwartzenberg ; after Gerard.

Cupid and Pysche ; after David.

Portrait of Dr. Dubois.

The Course of Love, in six plates ; after Gerard.

POTT, JOHN, is said to have been a mezzotint
engraver, who practised in London towards the end
of the 18th century. There is a good plate of
Lady Charles Spencer after Sir Joshua Reynolds,
which bears his name, but as it is very similar
to that by Finlayson, Mr. Chaloner Smith sug-
gests that it may be a retouched plate, and that
the engraver's name may be fictitious. This sus-
picion is strengthened by the fact that the name
of Pond has been found substituted for that of
Benjamin Green upon later impressions of that
engraver's plate of Miss Baldwin after Kettle.

POTT, LASLETT JOHN, English painter, born
in 1837 at Newark ; began life as an architect,
but subsequently studied art under Carey and A.
Johnstone ; painted historical subjects, such as
'Charles the First after his Trial,' 'Don Quixote,'
&c. He died 1901.

April 25, 1845. His father, George W. K. Potter,
a solicitor, was secondary of the city of London
for fifty years. His uncle, Cipriano Potter, was a
well-known musical composer, sometime President
of the Royal Academy of Music. Frank Potter
did not take up art as a profession for some years
after leaving school, when he joined Heatherley's
School of Art in Newman Street, and remained
there till he gained admittance to the Royal
Academy Schools. On leaving he went to
Antwerp with the idea of continuing his studies,

but finding that the system there did not accord
with his ideas, he returned to London in a few
months. From that time he worked in an inde-
pendent manner. His first picture was exhibited
at the Royal Academy in 1870. This ' Study of
a Girl's Head' was well hung, hut failed to attract
attention. In the following year he exhibited a
'Girl's Head,' but not till 1882 is he again repre-
sented there. From 1871 to 1885 he exhibited
fairly regularly at the Society of British Artists,
and in 1877 became a member of that body.
Frank Potter was an unwearying and most con-
scientious painter, but his work, though recognized
by his fellow-artists, did not at any time meet with
the appreciation it deserved. He was never robust,
and for some time before his death on May 3, 1887,
his health had been failing. A 'Quiet Corner' was
on exhibition at the Grosvenor Gallery in 1887,
and attracted much notice, but unfortunately the
artist did not live to enjoy the appreciation which
had so long been denied him. He died on the
opening day of the Exhibition. In November of
the same year a collection of thirty-four of his
works was exhibited at the Royal Society of
British Artists. j 3

POTTER, PADLUS, was baptized at Enkhuizen
on November 20, 1625. In 1631 Pieter Potter,
his father, left Enkhuizen and settled at Amsterdam,
where he bought the right of citizenship. He
instructed his son, who in 1642 also studied at
Haarlem under Jacob de Wet the elder. Perhaps
also other painters of Amsterdam, like Moegaert,
have influenced him. Potter was a precoce artist.
To 1643 belongs his first signed picture, called
'The Herdsman.' It was to a constant study of
nature that Potter chiefly owed his success, and
he devoted himself especially to the study of
animals. In 1646 Paul Potter went to Delft, where
he was received as a member of the Corporation of
St. Luke. There he seems to have studied to the
utmost of his power, and in 1647 he produced 'The
Young Bull.' In 1649 he removed to the Hague,
as appears from the registers of that town. In
1650 he married Adrians Balckeneynde, the
daughter of an architect in the Hague. To this
period belong 'Orpheus' and the ' Shepherds and
their Flocks.' In 1652 he left the Hague and
returned to Amsterdam, where he was protected
by the " Maecenas" burgomaster Tulp. This and
the following year saw the production of many
famous works, but his unremitting attention to his
art exhausted a constitution naturally weak, and he
died in 1654 (buried on January 17), in the twenty-
ninth year of his age. As an artist Paul Potter by
no means deserves the universal fame he has won.
But as a sincere and patient student of nature few
men can be placed before him. He painted for
ten years, with an " einem erhortem Fleiss." His
best works are in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg,
Amsterdam, the Hague, Cassel, and London. He
seldom painted on a large scale, but his Bull, more
famous than fine, is almost life-size, and in the Six
Collection there is an equestrian portrait of Tulp
on the same scale.

Among his principal pictures are the following:

The Shepherd's Hut. 1645.
The Bear Hunt. 1649.
Shepherds and their Flocks.


Orpheus and his Lute. 1650.
Horses in a Field. 1649.
Cows hi a Field. 1651.


Amsterdam. Museum.


Amsterdam. Six. Coll.

Berlin. Royal Museum.
Brussels. Arenberg Coll.


Wilhelmshohe \
Gallery. J



Gotha. Gallery.

Hague. Royal Museum.

,. Steenaracht Coll.

London. Buckingham


Nat. Gallery.



Duke of. J


Petersburg. Hermitage.

Rome. JSorghese Palace.
Turin. Pinacoteca.

Vienna. Gallery.

Equestrian portrait of Tulp.
Dairy Maid washing her Milk

The Wood and Hunters at the

Hague. 1652.
Cattle with Peasants, dated

1654 (the year of his death).

Landscape and Cows. 1644.

Landscape and Cattle. 1648.

Figures and Cattle.


ForestandHunters. 1652. (An

infe rio rrepetitionofthep ic-

ture at Berlin.)
Cattle at Pasture. 1652.
Cattle, Sheep, and a Horse.


Sheep in a Field.
The Young Bull. 1647.
Meadows and Cattle (oxen and

swine). 1652.
A Small Example.
A Country Scene,representing

two Cows and a young Bull

in a Pasture.
The Halt.
Cows in a Field.
Landscape with Cattle. 1651.
The old Grey Hunter.
Cows and Sheep.

And several other pictures.
Landscape with Cattle.
Animals in a Landscape (three

oxen and three sheep). 1652.
The Field.
A Grey Horse.
Cattle under Trees.
Dog and Kennel. 1650.
Landscape. 1650.
Cows. 1651.
The Life of a Huntsman (in

fourteen compartments).
Huntsmen Halting. 1650.
The Cow. 1649. With cows,

horses, asses, sheep, hens, a

cat and a dog, and human


A Bull in a Meadow.
The Stable Boy.
Landscape and Cattle.
Cattle in a Landscape.
Landscape and Cattle. 1647.
Field and Cattle.

The works of this artist have been engraved by
Bartolozzi, Le Bas, Danckerts, Visscher, Huygens,
Couch6, Zeelander, and others. We have some
charming etchings by Potter, drawn with great
spirit and correctness, and executed in a very
masterly style ; they are as follows:

A set of eight plates of Cows, Oxen, and other animals,
with a Bull on the title ; Paulus Potter, f.

A set of five plates of Horses ; the same inscription.

A Mountainous Landscape, with cattle and a herdsman ;
Paulus Potter, in etf. 1649.

A Landscape, with a shepherd playing on a pipe, and a
nock of sheep and goats.


' Paulus Potter, Sa Vie et ses CEuvres," par I. van West-

rheene. La Haye. 1867.
' Journal des Beaux Arts.' 1870.
' Kunstkronijk,' II. xiv.
' Eaux-fortes de Paul Potter,' Textepar Georges Gratet

Duplessis. Paris.

POTTER, PIETER, father of Paulus, was born
at Enkhuizen in or before 1600, and was buried
October 4, 1652, at Amsterdam. He lived at


Leyden from 1628 till 1630. In 1631 he came
to Amsterdam. In 1647 he was for a short time
in Delft and the Hague. He painted landscapes,
animals, history, genre, and still-life. Little is
known of this artist. He painted a series of
landscapes, with figures, which, if we may judge
from the prints engraved from them by Pieter
Nolpe, must have possessed considerable merit.
They represent the ' Four Seasons ' and the ' Four
Elements,' the ' Prophet Elias speaking to the
Woman of Sarepta,' and 'St. Paul the Hermit
nourished in the Desert by an Eagle.' Among
his better pictures we may also note :

Amsterdam. Museum. Straw-cutters.

Berlin. Museum. Still Life. (P. POTTER, 1636.)

Copenhagen. Gallery. Players at Tric-trac. (P.

POTTER, 1629.)
London. Nat. Gallery. Stag Hunt. (P. POTTER, 165-.)

POTTEY, JAN, a Dutch portrait and historical
painter, born at Haarlem in 1615. In 1641 he
came to England, but seems to have returned to
Haarlem in the following year. He was also an
engraver, and one plate by him is known.

son and pupil of DIETRICH POTTGIESSER, was
working at Cologne in the second half of the
17th century, being in 1656 upon the Guild, and
in 1683 a town councillor. There remain by him :

A young Woman handing an Orange to her Child.

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