(J. J. Merlo's, Cologne.)
Alexander's Visit to Diogenes. (Leuchtenlerg Gallery.)
Hagar ; after Post. ( Wallraf Museum.)
The Finding of the Cross. (Formerly in the Dominican
POTUYL, HENRI, was a painter of the Dutch
School, painting peasant interiors and genre pieces.
His works are seldom found. One of his best is
the ' Interieur de Grange' of 1639 in the Brussels
Museum. About his life nothing is known.
POUGENS, MARIE CHARLES JOSEPH DE, a French
painter, was born in Paris in 1755. He was chiefly
devoted to literature and philology, and was a
member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles
Lettres. In 1784 he published 'Recreation de
Philosophic et de Morale,' and, in 1821-5, ' Arche'-
ologie Francaise.' He died in 1833.
POULLEAU, , a French engraver, was born
in Paris in 1749. He engraved several plates of
ruins and architecture, among which are the
Ruins of a Temple ; after De Mafhy.
A View of the Interior of the Church of the Magdalene,
at Ville 1'Eveque ; after Contau d'lvry.
POUNCY, B. T., an English engraver, flourished
in the latter part of the 18th century. He was the
brother-in law of Wollett, by whom he was taught.
Antiquarian work first engaged his attention, but
he subsequently devoted himself to landscape, in
which he produced some excellent plates. He
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1782 to
1789, and died at Lambeth in 1799.
POURBUS, FRANCIS, son of Peter, born at
Bruges in or before 1545, was taught by his father
until 1562, when he went to Antwerp and became
the pupil of Francis De Vriendt, alias Floris. He
was admitted as free master into the Guild of St.
Luke in 1569, and on September 14 in the same
year into the Bruges Guild. He married first, in
1567, Susan, daughter of the architect Cornelius
Floris De Vriendt, who died in 1578, leaving two
children, Francis and Susan, who had for guardians
PORTRAIT OF J. VAN DER GHEENSTE, 1583
P. POURBUS THE YOUNGER
Spooner photo ] [/iiimfton Court Gallery
ISABELLA, ARCHDUCHESS OF AUSTRIA
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
grandfather, Peter Pourbus, and uncle,
Floris, the glass-painter. Francis Pourbus
married a second time, Anne Mabieu, who survived
him and became the wife of the Delft painter
Hans Jorduens, who died in 1613. Francis Pour-
bus died September 19, 1581. He painted re-
ligious subjects and portraits ; the latter are re-
markable for their golden and clear colouring.
Gallery. Three Portraits.
Gallery. Portrait of a man. 1575.
Museum. St. Matthew writing his Gospel.
Portrait of a man. 1575.
Uffi:i. Portrait of himself. 1570.
Cathedral. Triptych. Christ amidst the
Doctors, the Circumcision and
Baptism, and Viglius d'Aytta
de Zuichem kneeling before the
,, Miracles and Martyrdom of St.
Andrew, patron of the Order
of the Golden Fleece. 1572.
Panshanger. Earl \ p . -t r a man 1573
Pesth. Museum. Portrait of Maurice of Nassau.
Tournai. Cathedral. Raising of Lazarus. 1575.
Vienna. Museum. Six Portraits.
Liechtenstein Gall. Two Portraits. W. H. J. W.
POURBUS, FRANCIS, son of Francis, born at
Antwerp in 1569. It is not known who bis master
was. In 1589 he 'as at Bruges, and restored the
large altar-piece of the Passion in the church of
Our Lady, which, commenced by Bernard van
Orley and completed by Mark Gheeraerts, had
been damaged by the Calvinist iconoclasts. In
1591 he was admitted as free master into the
Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp. In 1600 he was
working at Brussels for the Archduke Albert.
Thence he went to Mantua, where he became Court
painter. In 1609 he accompanied Eleanor of
Mantua to Paris, and being appointed painter to
her sister Queen Mary de' Medici, settled in Paris,
where he died in 1622.
Berlin. Gallery. Portrait of Henry IV. of France.
,, ,, Portrait of Mary de' Medici.
Florence. Pitti Pal. Portrait of Eleanor of Mantua.
London. Hampton Portrait of Henry IV. of France.
,, Portrait of Mary de' Medici.
Munich. Gallery. Two Portraits. 1616.
Paris. Louvre. Two Portraits of Henry IV.
,, ,, Portrait of Mary de' Medici.
Portrait of W. Du Vair.
The Last Supper. 1618.
St. Francis receiving the Stig-
St. Petersburg. ) , .,
Hermitage. \ fmimis '
Vienna. Gallery. Two Portraits.
Valenciennes. Museum. Portrait of Dorothy Duchess de
Croy d'Aerschot. 1615.
W. H. J. W.
POURBUS, PETER, (or POERBUS,) son of John,
born at Gouda in 1513, travelled in Italy, came to
Bruges in 1543, and was admitted as free master
into the Guild of St. Luke on August 26, and into
the Guild of St. George (cross-bowmen) on March
30, 1544. He married Anne, only daughter of
Lancelot Blondeel. He occupied a house in the
'sheer Ian Mirael street to which he gave the name
of Rome ; his studio was, according to Van Mander,
the most spacious and beautiful he had ever seen.
He held minor offices in the Guild of St. Luke in
1550-51, 1552-53, 1555-56, 1561-62, 1565-66,
1573-74, and 1579-80, and was Dean in 1569-70,
1580-81, and 1583-84. He was a good geome-
trician, topographer, and civil engineer. In 1564
he painted for the magistrates of the Franc or
Liberty of Bruges a large bird's-eye view on
canvas and in oil of the whole of the territory
within their jurisdiction. This immense work
(40 feet square) has perished, but a copy of it by
Peter Claeis is preserved in the Town House. He
was constantly employed by the magistrates of
both the town and the liberty of Bruges in
devising and superintending the decorations on
public festivals, in designing fortitications and
making plans and maps. He died January 30,
1584, leaving one son, Francis. The municipality
granted his widow a monthly pension of 10 s. g.
His portraits are of rare perfection, and his re-
ligious compositions often very fine. His best-
known pupils are Anthony Claeis and his son
London. Wallace Coll.
Portraits of J. Fernaguut and
The Last Judgment. 1551.
Triptych. The Carriage of the
Cross, Descent from the Cross,
Predella. The Annunciation,
Adoration of the Shepherds,
Bird's-eye view of the Cistercian
Abbey of Our Lady of the
Triptych. The Last Supper,
Abraham and Melchisedech,
Ellas under the Juniper Tree,
the Miracle of Bolseua, and
portraits of the members of
the confraternity of the Blessed
Portraits of the members of the
confraternity of the Holy
The Last Supper. 1562.
Portraits of Ansehn De Boot and
family, with Saints. 1573.
(shutters added to a picture
attributed to Gerard David).
Triptych. The Adoration of the
Shepherds, J. De Damhoudere
and family, with Saints, the
Circumcision, and Adoration of
the Magi. 1574.
Polyptycn. The Adoration of
the Shepherds, Circumcision,
Adoration of the Magi, and
Flight into Egypt, with por-
traits of an abbot and abbess.
Triptych. Our Lady of Seven
Dolours, donor and family, and
The Resurrection, with portraits
of Siger van Male and family.
Portrait of J. Van der Gheenste.
An allegorical love feast.
The Resurrection. 1566.
Portrait of Don Pedro Guzman.
Four Male Portraits. 1550-68.
According to Van Mander his finest work was a
triptych with scenes from the life of St. Hubert
painted for the church of Gouda, which he saw at
Delft. W. H. J. W.
POUSSIN, GASPARD. See DUGHET.
POUSSIN, LAVALLEE. See DE LA VALISE,
POUSSIN, LEMAIRE. See LEMAIRE, PIERRE.
POUSSIN, NICOLAS, painter, who has been
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
called the head of the French school, was born in
June, 1594, at Villers, a hamlet in the district of Les
Andelys, in Normandy. It was at one time sup-
posed that his father, Jean Poussin, was of gentle
birth, and had served in the wars of the League,
but recent researches have thrown much doubt
upon that idea. Although not encouraged by his
parents, the young Nicolas early showed a predi-
lection for art. After some opposition he succeeded
in obtaining their consent to his receiving in-
struction from an artist named Quentin Varin.
This painter, a native of Beauvais, passed some
time, about 1610, at Les Andelys, where he left a
reminiscence of his sojourn in two pictures, still to
be seen at the church of Le Grand Andely. From
him Poussin learnt to paint in distemper, and also
in oils. This instruction only served to whet his
appetite for art, and to render him desirous of con-
tinuing his studies in Paris. Accordingly, at the
age of eighteen, he quitted his home secretly, and
managed to reach the capital, unaided by friends,
and with the slenderest resources.
In Paris he continued his training under Ferdi-
nand Elle, a Flemish portrait painter, and afterwards
under L'Allemand, a Lorrainer. Though doubtless
he received some assistance from these masters, his
progress was due rather to the study of Marc An-
tonio's engravings after Raphael and Giulio .Romano.
These belonged to an amateur, to whom he was
introduced by a young Poitevin, of good family,
with whom he had formed a friendship. His studies
were interrupted fora short time by atrip to Poitou
with his friend ; but his reception by his friend's
mother, who treated him as a domestic, disgusted
him, and he painted his way on foot back to
Paris. There he stayed but a short time, for an
illness, brought on apparently by the fatigues of
his journey, compelled him to seek his home at
Les Andelys, where he remained for about a
year. On his return to Paris, the desire to visit
Rome, which he had always entertained, increased
BO much that in 16'20 he resolved to make the
attempt. But he only got as far as Florence, when
he wag compelled to turn back. Settling again in
Paris, he formed an acquaintance with Philippe de
Champaigne, like himself a pupil of L'Allemand,
and the two worked for some time under Duchesne
on the decorations of the Luxembourg. But this
employment soon became irksome, and Poussin
again endeavoured to reach Rome. On this occasion
his resources failed him by the time he arrived at
Lyons, and he had to exercise his brush to procure
the means to return to Paris. Here a series of
pictures which he executed for the Jesuits attracted
the notice of the Italian poet, the Cavaliere Marini,
then in Paris. This patron gave him lodgings in
his house, and on Marini's return to Koine Poussin
followed him there in the year 1624, having re-
mained in Paris to complete a picture, 'The Death
of the Virgin,' commissioned by the Goldsmiths for
He now began a course of study of the classic
remains around him, which continued during the
whole of his life, and rendered him the best inter-
preter of antiquity among the painters of his
country. He became intimate with Duquesnoy, the
Flemish sculptor, 'il Fiammingo,' and the two
artists worked together with a congenial ardour in
their study of ancient art. The rules of perspective
Poussin studied in the treatises of Matteo Zoccolino
and others. His knowledge of anatomy he improved
under the guidance of Nicholas Larcher, a surgeon
then practising in Rome. Among modern painters
Raphael perhaps exercised the greatest influence
over him, but he also received very substantial
profit from working in the studio of Domeni-
chino. So great was his ardour for work, that his
friends could with difficulty lure him away from
his studio even on holidays. His sojourn in Rome
opened brightly and with good promise. Besides
the patronage of Marini, he was also introduced to
Cardinal Barberini, the nephew of the reigning
Pontifi. But the death of the first, and the
departure of the Cardinal from Rome, wrought a
change in his prospects, and he had to fight a
hard struggle for the bare necessities of existence.
The prices he received for his works at this time
scarcely sufficed to procure his daily bread. He
has left it on record that he sold two battle-pieces
for fourteen crowns, and a ' Prophet ' for less than
two. And hi's troubles were not confined to narrow
means. The national jealousy between the Italians
and the French was just then at fever-heat, and his
French costume caused him to be attacked by some
wandering swash-bucklers in the street. He was
fortunate enough to escape with a wound in the
hand, and thenceforth adopted the Italian dress.
Shortly afterwards he was prostrated by a serious
illness. Thanks to the care of a compatriot, Jacques
Dughet, by whose family he was carefully nursed,
his recovery was complete. The gratitude of the
painter was not evanescent. In 1630 he married
Anna Maria, the eldest daughter of his host.
Having no children, he subsequently adopted his
wife's brothers, Jean and Gaspard, the former of'
whom became an engraver, and the latter, under
his fostering care, more than rivalled him in pure
landscape. With his wife's marriage portion
Poussin bought the house on the Pincian which
became his home, and with which his name is
inseparably connected. On the return of Cardinal
Barberini to Rome, the star of the painter began to
be in the ascendant. For this patron he painted
' The Death of Germanicus,' and ' The Taking of
Jerusalem by Titus.' Through him he also obtained
the commission to paint ' The Martyrdom of St.
Erasmus,' for St. Peter's. For the Commander
Cassiano del Pozzo, of Turin, who was among the
first to recognize his genius, and who always con-
tinued one of his chief friends and patrons, he
produced many works, notably the first series of
the 'Seven Sacraments.' To this period of his
career belong several other important works, such
as ' The Sabines,' ' The Philistines struck by the
Plague,' 'The Manna,' ' Moses striking the Rock,' &c.
Poussiu's reputation was by this time so well
established in his own country that in 1639 M. de
Noyers, the superintendent of the royal buildings,
made overtures to induce him to come to Paris.
The painter hesitated ; he preferred the serene
artistic atmosphere of Rome to the intrigue and
disquietude of a court. Then Louis XIII. expressed
his royal wishes, and although Poussin yielded, it
was not until 1640 that he arrived in France, in the
train of his friend De Chantelou, who had taken a
leading part in the negotiations. At first all went
well. He was presented to the great Richelieu
and to the king, and was received with great
favour. His travelling expenses were paid, a pen-
sion was bestowed on him, a residence was assigned
him for life in the garden of the Tuileries, and he
was appointed first painter in ordinary. In spite
of these advantages the reluctance which he had
shown to quit Italy again appears in the fact that
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
he would not bind himself for a longer period than
five years. His sojourn in France was marked by
great activity. He produced eight cartoons,founded
on sacred subjects, for tapestry, pictures for the
chapels of the' palaces at Fontainebleau and St.
Germain, and an important series of works illus-
trating the ' Labours of Hercules,' for the great
gallery at the Louvre, besides designs for book
illustrations, &c. But the two years passed by the
painter in Paris were a period of much disquiet.
The advent of such a star into the artistic firma-
ment of Paris could not fail to excite much jealousy
amongst those whose light was in danger of eclipse.
Poussin had to suffer many annoyances from their
intrigues. His chief opponents were the hitherto
all-powerful Vouet, Feuquieres, and the architect
Lemercier. Wearied at last of their cabals, he ob-
tained leave, under the pretence of fetching his wife,
to return to Rome. Thither he set out in the autumn
of 1642, and never returned to his native country.
The remainder of his life was spent in Italy, in
the tranquil pursuit of his beloved art. His sub-
sequent career contains no events of importance to
record. It might be summed up in a list of the
works which he produced. Of these, the following
are some of the most important. In 1648 he com-
pleted a second series of pictures of the ' Seven
Sacraments,' which had occupied him since 1644,
for his friend De Chantelou. At the repeated
request of his old friend, he painted, in his fifty-
sixth year, his own portrait, now in the Louvre.
Amongst other works executed during what is
called his middle period, when he was in the
maturity of his power, are the well-known ' Shep-
herds of Arcadia,' ' Diogenes, ''Eliezer and Rebecca,'
'The Judgment of Solomon,' and 'The Vision of
St. Paul.' Of works produced in his third and
latest period, mention should be made of ' The
Woman taken in Adultery,' 'The Adoration of the
Magi,' and the series of pictures of the 'Seasons,'
painted for the Duke of Richelieu in 1660-64. In
the year which saw the completion of this com-
mission he lost his faithful wife, after an illness of
nine months. He touchingly expresses his grief
and bewails his lonely condition in a letter to De
Chantelou, with whom he had maintained an in-
timate correspondence for nearly thirty years. He
did not long survive her loss ; he died in Rome
the 19th November 1665, and was buried in the
church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. His property,
amounting to 10,000 crowns, was left to his poor
relations in Normandy.
The most striking characteristic of Poussin is
his intimate knowledge and appreciation of classic
art. His composition and drawing are but little
obnoxious to criticism, though it must be owned
that there is an occasional stiffness in the latter,
the result of incessant study of statues and friezes.
His colour, especially in his later works, is the
point in which he is most open to reproach. It is
generally heavy in tone, and the flesh tints are
frequently painfully hot. His failure as a colourist
is to be largely ascribed, however, to his practice
of painting upon a red ground. With the passage
of time this ground begins to assert itself through
the pigments laid upon it, and to produce heat and
opacity even in works that, when painted, were
fx>d enough in colour. The etching, ' Children
laying,' attributed to him, dates, most likely, from
the 18th century. There is a fine collection of
Poussin's drawings in the Royal Collection at
The following is a list of some of Poussin's
pictures in the public galleries of Europe ; a few
of the more important in private collections are
Berlin. Nat. Gallery.
Copenhagen. Chris- "
Dublin. Nat. Gallery.
Hampton Court. Pal.
London. Nat. Gallery.
~ 'al Museum.
Stockholm. Nat. Gall.
Armida and Rinaldo.
Education of Jupiter.
lieath of Adonis.
Satyrs and a Bacchante.
Pyramus and Thisbe.
Christ healing the Blind.
The Burning Bush.
Sacrifice of Noah.
Adoration of the Magi.
Martyrdom of St. Erasmus.
Phineus and the Gorgon's head.
Theseus at Troezene.
Venus and Adonis on Mount Ida,
Nymph and Satyrs.
The Dead Christ.
Virgin and Child.
Landscape with Shepherds.
The Plague at Ashdod.
Cephalus and Aurora.
Bacchanalian Dance. (A master-
> The Seven Sacraments. (The set
painted for M. Chantelou.)
Moses striking the Rock.
Education of Jupiter.
Triumph of David.
David, the Conqueror of Goliath.
Ruins, with Hermit.
Meleager and Atalanta, &c., &c.
Death of St. Cecilia.
Baptism of Our Lord.
Midas and Bacchus.
Portrait of Himself.
Entry of Our Lord into Jeru-
Camillus and the Schoolmaster.
St. John baptizing in the Jordan.
The Israelites attacked by Fiery
Moses striking the Rock.
Eliezer and Rebecca. 1648.
The Finding of Moses.
The Israelites fed by Manna.
The Philistines struck by the
The Judgment of Solomon. 1649.
The Holy Family. 1651.
The Blind Men of Jericho. 1651.
The Assumption, lb'50.
The Ecstacy of St. Paul.
Diogenes. 1848. &c., &c.
Moses striking the Rock.
Victory of Joshua over the
Victory of Joshua over the
Finding of Moses.
Ruins of a Triumphal Arch.
Martyrdom of St. Erasmus.
Laban searching for his Idols.
St. John Baptist in the Desert.
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
Turin. Gallery. A Hunter.
,. St. Margaret.
Vienna. Gallery. The Sack of the Temple at Jeru-
salem by Titus. Q. J. D.
POWELL, C. M., an English marine painter,
flourished during the first twenty years of the
present century. His works are numerous, as lie
was principally employed by the dealers, but little
of his history is known, further than that he was
originally a sailor, and self-taught in the art of
painting. Many of his pictures are injured from
being varnished imprudently. Powell was a clever
artist, but a careless man ; hence he was always
in a state of thraldom, and had frequently the
mortification of seeing his pictures sold at once by
his ' patrons ' for five times the sum he had received.
He exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1809, and
repeatedly afterwards up to 1820. He died in
POWELL, GEORGE WILLIAM H., a portrait and
historical painter, was born in the State of Ohio,
U.S., in 1824. He was an associate member of the
National Academy, and worked in New York, where
he died in 1879. Among his works are :
The Discovery of the Mississippi by De Soto (Rotunda
of the Capitol, "Washington).
The Battle of Lake Erie. ( Painted for the State of Ohio.)
The Landiug of the Pilgrims.
Portraits of General McClellan, Major Anderson, and
POWELL, JOHN, an English portrait painter and
copyist of Reynolds, of whom he was an assistant.
He exhibited at the Academy from 1778 to 1785.
There is a portrait of the Duke of Cumberland by
him in the National Portrait Gallery. It is a copy
POWELL, JOHN, an English landscape painter,
chiefly in water-colours, born about 1780. On the
foundation of the old Water-Colour Society, he was
an unsuccessful candidate for membership. He
had a large practice as a drawing-master, and ex-
hibited at the Royal Academy from 1797 to 1829.
There are some landscape and tree etchings by
him, and the South Kensington Museum possesses
four of his water-colour drawings.
POWELL, JOSEPH JOHN, an English historical
painter, born in 1834 at Uouai, where, and at Lille,
he received his first instruction in art. Coming
to England in 1851, he entered the schools of the
Academy and obtained various honours, culmin-
ating in 1855 with the gold medal for his 'Death
of Alcibiades. ' He suifered much from poverty
and ill-health, and his career was cut short in the
midst of much promise. He died at Southampton
POWIS, WILLIAM HENRY, an English wood-
engraver, was born in 1808. He rapidly made him-
self a position, but his unremitting labour sapped
his health, and he died in 1836. Specimens of his
work are to be found in :
' Illustrations of the Bible.' 1833.
Scott's Bible. 1834.
' Solace of Song.'
POWLE, GEORGE, was an English engraver, who
flourished in the middle of the 18th century. He
was a pupil of Worlidge, and has engraved por-
traits, some of which he exhibited in 1776 with the
Free Society of Artists. Among them, in the style
of his instructor, is that of Sir Robert Berkeley,
Chief Justice of the King's Bench. His only known
mezzotint plate is a portrait of Mrs. Worlidge, after
a painting by her husband. He also designed some
views of'the City of Hereford, which have been
engraved by James Ross.
POZO, PEDRO, an historical Spanish painter, born
at Lucena in 1700. He studied under Luis Cancino,
and afterwards went to Rome. He, however,
eventually abandoned painting for literature. His