son PEDRO, also an artist, died in America about
POZZI, ANDREA, an historical painter, born at
Rome in 1778. He painted several mythological
subjects, but one of his chief works was a 'Virgin
and Saints,' painted for the City of Camerino. In
1820 he painted for a chapel of S. Maria Rotondo,
in Rome, a 'Martyrdom of St. Stephen.' He was
President of the Academy of St. Luke at Rome
for many years.
POZZI, DOMENICO, a painter, was born at Castel
St. Pietro in 1742. After receiving instruction
from his father and Baldrighi he entered the
Academy of Milan. After some time he went to
Rome and then to Germany, where at Mannheim,
in the Library of Count von Castelli, he executed
several paintings. He afterwards worked in Solo-
thurn, Mendrisio, and in the Palace of the Marquis
Odescalchi. He died at Milan in 1796.
POZZI, FRANCESCO, an Italian engraver, born at
Rome in 1750, was the nephew of Rocco Pozzi. In
conjunction with Coppa and Perini, he engraved
some of the plates from the statues in the Clemen-
tine Gallery. He died about 1805. The following
prints also by him :
Portrait of Pope Pius VI.
Aurora; after the painting by Guercino in the Villa.
POZZI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, was, according to
Baglione, a native of Milan, where he was born
about 1560, but went to Rome when young, and
was employed by Sixtus V. in the palace of S.
Giovanni Laterano, and in the library of the Vatican.
In the Sistine Chappl in Santa Maria Maggiore, he
painted ' The Visitation of the Virgin,' and ' The
Angel appearing to St. Joseph in his Dream.' He
died at the premature age of 28 years.
POZZI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, was born at Milan
towards the end of the 17th century. He decor-
ated a large number of buildings in the Piednion-
tese with hasty frescoes. Some of his best work
is to be seen in S. Cristoforo, at Vercelli. The
dates of his birth and death are unknown.
POZZI, CARIO IGNAZIO, painter and architect, was
born at Mannheim in 1766. He was a son of Giu-
seppe Pozzi, an ornamentist, and studied at the
Academy of his native city. He travelled through
the Netherlands, and then visited Italy. At Parma
he copied the works of Correggio. He painted
historical scenes, portraits, and landscapes. In
1779 he was engaged in scene painting at Dessau.
He died in 1842.
POZZI, Rocco, was a native of Italy, who flour-
ished about the year 1750. He engraved several
of the plates for the ' Museo Florentine,' and exe-
cuted some of the prints for the 'Antiquities of
Herculaneum,' published at Naples. He was court
engraver to the King of Naples, and died about
POZZI, STEFANO, was a native of Rome, and was
first a scholar of Carlo Maratti, and afterwards
studied under Agostino Masucci. There are several
of his works in the public buildings of Rome :
in the palace of Monte Cavallo a picture of 'St.
Gregorio ; ' and in the church of il Nome SS. di
Maria, an altar-piece representing the ' Death of
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
St. Joseph,' may be named. He died at Rome in
1768. His brother Giuseppe, also a painter, died
young, in 1763.
POZZO, ANDREAS, was born at Trent in 1642.
Without the assistance of a master lie became an
eminent architect and painter. By studying the
works of the Venetian school he became an ex-
cellent colourist, and during a residence of several
years at Rome he improved his style of design.
In 1665 he entered the society of Jesus, and was
afterwards chiefly occupied in ornamenting the
churches of his order. He resided some time at
Genoa, where he painted for the Congregazione de
Mercanti four pictures of the ' Life of our Saviour,*
in the style of Rubens, which he had studied during
a previous residence at Turin. Of his works in oil,
one of the most esteemed is his picture of ' San
Francesco Borgia,' in the Jesuits' church at Rome.
He was more eminent in fresco, in which his
masterpiece, perhaps, is the ceiling of the church
of St. Ignatius at Rome. Such was his facility
that Giro Ferri was accustomed to say, that
the horses of other painters moved at a foot's
pace, but those of Pozzo were always on the
gallop ; and Lanzi reports, that he painted the
portrait of a cardinal in four hours. He was
invited to Vienna by the Emperor Leopold, where
he executed some works for public buildings, and
died in 1709. He also worked at Modena, Monte-
pulciano, Arezzo, and Bologna. His brother, Padre
GIUSEPPE Pozzo, a barefooted and Carmelite monk
of Venice, decorated the high altar of the church
of the Scalzi in that city during the last years of
the 17th century.
POZZO, ISABELLA DAL. See DAL Pozzo.
POZZO, MATTEO DEL. See DEL Pozzo.
POZZOBONELLI, GIULIANO, an obscure Milan-
ese, who was painting in that city in 1605.
POZZO SERRATO, LODOVICO. See TOEPDT.
PRADIER, CHARLES SIMON, a French engraver,
but a native of Geneva, was born in 1790, and was
a scholar of Desnoyers. He was the brother of
James Pradier, the celebrated sculptor, and died
in 1848. Among his principal plates are several
portraits after Gerard, and the following :
La Vierge aux Ruines ; after Rapluzel.
Titian's Daughter ; after Titian.
Cupid and Psyche ; after Gerard.
Virgil reading the ' jEneid ' to Augustus ; after the same.
Zephyr caressing Flora ; after the same.
Raphael and the Foruarina ; after Inyres.
Jesus Christ giving the keys to St. Peter ; after the same.
Virgil reading the Sixth Book of the ' JSneid ' to
Augustus ; after the same.
Antiochus ; after the same.
Portrait of Queen Hortense.
PRADO, BLAS DEL. See DEL PRADO.
PRAG, THEODOKICH VON, was an artist, who
flourished from 1348 to 1375, and was court painter
at Prague to the Emperor Karl IV. He is now
regarded as the probable author of a ' Christ on the
Cross,' and ' The Church Teachers, Ambrosius and
Augustine,' which have been removed to the Bel-
vedere from the chapel of Carlstein Castle, in
Bohemia, and which were formerly attributed to
Nicolaus Wurmser. Theodorich also painted an
altar-piece in the Raudnitz Monastery, now placed
in the Gallery of Prague.
PRAMPOLINI, ALESSANDRO, a landscape painter,
who was born at Reggio, in the Emilia, in 1827,
and died there in 1865, is known chiefly by his
views of the neighbourhood of Tivoli and of the
Roman Ruins. He was professor of painting at
born at Moscow in 1840 ; excelled in genre and
landscape ; specially fond of depicting interiors
and hunting-scenes. Among his most famous
works are the ' Gostinyi Dvor ' (Merchants' Quarter,
Moscow), and ' Fete de Village,' tlle latter being
bought by the Czar. Pranischnikoff died at Moscow
in March 1894.
FRANKER, ROBERT, was an English line en-
graver, who was much employed by the booksellers.
He married the daughter of Gerard van der Gucht,
and became in 1763 a member of the Free Society
PRATA, RANUNZIO, a native of Milan, who
painted at Pavia about 1635.
PRATERE, EDMUND DE, Belgian artist, born in
1826 at Courtrai ; studied there and at Brussels,
and also in Paris. Notably excellent as a painter
of animals; we may cite his 'Dray-horses,
Brussels,' and 'Chevaux e'ccossais,' as examples
of this excellence. He obtained a second-class
medal at Munich in 1883. He died at Brussels,
September 16, 1888. He was one of the most
industrious artists of this country and of his time.
PRATO, FRANCESCO DEL, an Italian still-life
painter. He was first a goldsmith, but afterwards
turned to painting, and put himself under the
instruction of Salviati. He died in 1562.
PRATO, GIROLAMO DEL, draughtsman, sculptor,
niellist, and goldsmith, flourished at Cremona in the
first half of the 16th century. He has been some-
times called the ' Lombard Cellini.'
PRATO VECCHIO, JACOPO DA. See LANDING.
PRATT, MATTHEW, an American portrait painter,
born at Philadelphia in 1734. He began life as a
sign painter, but afterwards studied four years with
West. He assisted Peale in establishing his
museum at Philadelphia, and died in 1805.
PRATTENT, T., an engraver who practised at
the end of the 18th century, by whom there are
some etchings in the ' Gentleman's Magazine.'
PRECIADO, FRANCISCO, (or PREZIADO,) was born,
according to Lanzi, at Seville in 1713. He was a
scholar of Domingo Martinez, but he visited Rome
in 1733, where he entered the school of Sebastiano
Conca. On leaving him he painted some pictures
for the public edifices at Rome, particularly a
' Holy Family ' for the church of the Forty Saints,
which is entirely in the style of his instructor. He
was appointed painter to the camera of Ferdinand
VI., and director of the Spanish Academy at Rome.
There are few of his works in his native country,
as he resided the greater part of his life at Rome,
where he died in 1789.
PREIRA. See PEREIRA.
PREISLER, DANIEL, (or PREISSLER,) was born
at Prague in 1627, and in 1654 became a master of
the Landau Brotherhood at Nuremberg, through
his painting of 'The Death of Abel.' He died at
that city in 1665. The Brunswick Gallery possesses
a male portrait by him, and two of the churches
of Nuremberg contain his ' Descent of the Holy
Ghost' and 'The Ascension of Christ.' He was
the founder of the Preisler family of artists, being
the father of Johann Daniel, and consequently the
grandfather of four others named below, and the
great-grandfather of Johann Georg Preisler, the
last of the name.
PREISLER, GEORG MARTIN, the second son of
Johann Daniel Preisler, was born at Nuremberg
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
in 1700, and followed his brother Johann Justin
Preisier to Italy, where he resided some years.
He was one of the engravers employed by Stosch
for his work on antique gems. He died at Nurem-
berg in 1754. Huber speaks of him as a painter
of portraits ; but he is most worthy of notice as an
engraver. Besides some plates after the statues in
the Dresden Gallery, and a set of twenty-one plates
from drawings made by Johann Justin Preisler,
after statues at Rome and Florence, there are the
following prints by him :
Raphael. (His chef-d'oeuvre.)
Giovanni Domenico Ferretti, painter ; after a picture
Giovanni Domenico Campiglia, painter ; after himself.
Eglon van der Neer ; after the portrait by himself in the
PREISLER, JOHANN DANIEL, son of Daniel
Preisier, was born at Nuremberg in 1666. and died
there in 1737. He was a pupil of his stepfather,
H. Popp, and of J. Murrer, and came to be principal
of the school of design in his native city, for which
he also published a drawing-book. He painted
'The Four Evangelists' on the ceiling of the
.ffigidienkirche. He was the father of four of the
artists cited in this series of articles (Johann Justin,
Georg Martin, Johann Martin, and Valentin Daniel)
and of BARBARA HELENA PREISLER. (See OEDING.)
PREISLEH, JOHANN GEORQ, the son of Johann
Martin Preisier, was born at Copenhagen in 1757.
After receiving some instruction in engraving from
his father he entered the Academy of his birth-
place, where in 1780 he obtained the gold medal
for his plate of ' Christ and the Samaritan Woman.'
In the following year he went to Paris, where he
became a pupil of Jean George Wille. He en-
graved several plates in the style of his instructor,
and in 1787 was made a member of the Academy
in Paris. His plate of reception represented
' Daedalus and Icarus," engraved from a picture by
Vien. After his return he was in 1788 admitted a
member of the Academy of Copenhagen. He died
at Lyngby, near that city, in 1831.
PREISLER, JOHANN JUSTIN, a German painter
and engraver, the eldest son of Johann Daniel
Preisier, was born at Nuremberg in 1698. He was
instructed in design by his father, and afterwards
visited Italy, where he resided eight years. On
his return to Germany he gave proof of considerable
ability in a picture representing the ' Ascension of
Christ,' for one of the hospitals at Nuremberg,
where he died in 1771. He is, however, more
known as an engraver than as a painter. The
following prints are by him :
The Four Elements ; after Bouchardon.
The Four Quarters of the World ; after the same.
A set of fifty plates of the principal antique statues at
Rome ; from the designs of Bouchardon.
Part of the plates from the ceilings painted by Rubens,
in the church of the Jesuits at Antwerp, with the
frontispiece, containing the portraits of Kubens aud
PREISLER, JOHANN MARTIN, the third son of
Johann Daniel Preisier, was born at Nuremberg in
1715. He was instructed in engraving by his
father and his eldest brother ; but in 1739 he visited
Paris, where he received some lessons from Georg
Friedrich Schmidt. In 1744 he was invited to the
court of Denmark, and became engraver to the king,
and a member of the Academy at Copenhagen, near
which city (at Lyngby) he died in 1794. There
are several plates by this artist, among them the
Frederick V., King of Denmark and Norway, and his
Consort ; after Tilo. 1748.
Christian VI., King of Denmark ; after Wahl.
Jacobus Benzelius, Bishop of Upsal. 1751.
Otto, Count de Thot ; after Kraft.
Johan Wiedewelt, sculptor ; after P. Alst. 1772.
Klopstock; after Juel. 1782.
Equestrian Statue of Frederick V. ; after the original in
bronze by J. Sail/.
Cardinal de Bouillon ; after Riyaud.
SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.
David and Abigail ; after Guide Seni.
Semiramis putting the Crown of Ninus on her head ;
after the same.
Christ bearing His Cross ; after Paolo Veronese. This
and the preceding print were for the Dresden Gallery.
Ganymede taken up by the Eagle of Jupiter; after
A Bacchanalian subject ; after the same.
Laban seeking for his Gods ; after Gazes.
The Triumph of David ; after Trevisani.
Jonah preaching to the Ninevites ; after Salvator Rosa.
The ' Madonna della Seggiola ; ' after Raphael.
Many platps from antique statues in the galleries of
Italy and Germany.
PREISLER, VALENTIN DANIEL, the fourth and
youngest son of Johann Daniel Preisier, was born
at Nuremberg in 1717, and studied under his
brother Johann Martin. There are by him some
mezzotint portraits of the Burgomasters of Zurich,
after the designs of J. C. Fiissli, which, from some
caprice, he signed with the name of S. Walch.
He also scraped some plates of portraits and his-
torical subjects, after pictures in the collection of
the King of Denmark. He died in 1765. Nagler
enumerates twenty-six pieces by him ; one is a
' Virgin and Child,' after Correggio.
PRELLER, FRIEDRICH JOHANN CHRISTIAN ERNST,
painter and etcher, was born at Eisenach in 1804.
He came when young to Weimar, but studied for
two years at Dresden about 1820. In 1822 he
returned to Weimar, and became the close friend of
Goethe, and, through him, the protege of the Grand
Duke, Karl August. In 1827 Preller went to Rome,
where he studied under Koch. Four years later he
was again in Weimar, painting six large Thuringian
landscapes, with historical incidents, for the
Schloss, and decorating the Wieland Hall in the
Museum with scenes from ' Oberon ' in fresco, and
a Hall in Leipsic with scenes from the ' Odyssey.'
The sixteen cartoons for these latter pictures are in
the Leipsic Museum. In 1840 Preller visited Nor-
way, which provided him with subjects for many
landscapes and ' marines.' He died at Weimar in
1878. Among his pictures we may also name :
Leucothea. (The same )
Styrian Landscape. (Berlin National Gallery.)
Norwegian Coast Scene. (The same.)
About 1830 Preller became interested in etching,
and established a club for its encouragement.
Among his own plates the best, perhaps, are the
;hree following (B. M.) :
Landscape with a View of the Ellersburg.
Hiion, bound, and leaning against a Tree.
Landscape with a Stag.
PRELLER, FRIEDRICH, the younger, German
painter, born September 1, 1838, at Weimar ; son
ind pupil of his father ; studied subsequently at
Rome. Since 1867 he became resident at Dresden
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
as a Professor and Director of the Fine Art
Gallery. Travelled much in Switzerland, France,
and Italy, where he made numerous studies. The
Hoftheater at Dresden has examples of his mural
decoration. His 'Cloister of Sta. Scholastica' is
in the Dresden Gallery, and his ' Sappho ' in the
Leipzig Museum. Hereceived several distinguished
decorations. He died iji October 190K
PRENNER, ANTON JOSEPH VON, a German en-
graver, was born at Vienna about the year 1698.
After the death of Jacob Mannl, he undertook,
conjointly with Andreas Altamont, Franas, Stam-
part, Johann Adam Schmutzer, and other artists to
engrave all the pictures in the Imperial Collection.
The plates, consisting of 160, were published at
Vienna in four volumes, under the title 'Theatrum
Artis Pictoric-E,' in the years 1728 to 1733. He died
in 1761. He has scraped a few plates in mezzotint,
but they are inferior to his other works. He also
engraved some portraits, among which are the
Johann Gottfried Auerbach, Paiuter to the Emperor
Count d'Odt, Governor of Vienna; after J. G. Auer-
PRENNER, GEORG CASPAR VON, the son of Anton
Joseph von Prenner, was born at Vienna about the
year 1722. He went young to Italy, and studied
painting at Rome for several years. In the church
of Santa Dorotea there is an altar-piece by this
artist. There are a few etchings by him, some of
which are neatly finished with the graver. He
engraved some of the plates for the ' Museo Fioren-
tino ; ' and also those for the ' Illustri Fatti Farne-
siani,' published at Rome in 1744 and 1746. He
died in Italy in 1766.
PRENNER, JOHANN JOSEPH VON, was the younger
son of Anton Joseph von Prenner, and was in-
structed in engraving by his father. He resided
some years in Italy, where he executed some plates
for the ' Museo Florentine.' He also engraved a
set of forty-five prints from the paintings by
Taddeo Zuccaro, in the Castle of Caprarolla, repre-
senting the most memorable actions of the Farnese
PRENTIS, EDWARD, an English subject painter,
born in 1797. He was one of the earliest members
of the Society of British Artists, where he exhibited
from 1829 to 1850. In 1823-4 he exhibited at
the Royal Academy. His works were generally
of a domestic and humorous character, conveying
some moral, and several of them were engraved.
He died in 1854, leaving a widow and a large
family. Works :
The Prodigal's return from the Alehouse. (1829.)
Valentine's Eve. (1835.)
The Hypocrite. (1838.)
Morbid Sympathy. (1843.)
The Folly of Extravagance. (1850.)
PRESTEL, JOHANN AMADEUS, (called also J.
GOTTLIEB and J. THEOPHILUS,) a German painter
and engraver, was born at Grb'nenbach, in Swabia,
in 1739. He was at first a carpenter, but during
the restoration of the abbey of Ottobeuren he
learned drawing under F. A. Zeiller, and in 1760
went to Venice, where he studied painting under
Giuseppe Nogari, and was instructed in engraving
by Joseph Wagner. In 1767 he proceeded to
Rome, where he spent four years in studying the
antique and copying Pompeo Baton!. Two years
later he settled at Nuremberg and married the
engraver Maria Catherina H611 (see next article).
In 1775 he spent some time in Zurich drawing
portraits, after which he returned to Nuremberg,
and devoted himself to reproducing drawings by
the best masters among other works executing
the thirty plates of the ' Schmidt Cabinet,' and
the forty-eight of the ' Braun Cabinet.' In 1783
he returned to Frankfort, where he died in 1808.
In 1814 his son published fifty more of his plates.
He worked in various styles ; and left a great
number of plates, most of which are first etched, and
then finished in aquatint. He also engraved several
plates in the crayon manner. Among others, we
have the following prints by him :
The Portrait of himself, sitting at an easel ; from his
The Descent from the Cross; after Raphael; in chiaro-
The Virgin with the Dead Christ ; after Van Dyck.
The Holy Family ; copied from Albrecht Diirer.
PRESTEL, MARIA CATHARINA, (nee HO'LL,) was
the pupil and afterwards wife of Johann Amadeus
Prestel, whom she aided in some of his best plates,
particularly in landscape. In 1786 she separated
from him, and came with her daughter to Eng-
land, where she engraved some prints, which are
etched with spirit, and finished in a picturesque
manner in aquatint. She died in London in 1794.
She has left some seventy-three plates after Italian,
Dutch, and German masters. Among others, the
following prints are by her :
Ceres ; an oval ; after Cipriani.
Four Views from the designs made by Webber, in his
voyage with Captain Cook.
Two other Views ; from the same.
Two Landscapes, with Horses ; after Wouwerman.
A pair of Views, with Horses and figures ; after Casanova.
Hobbema's Village ; after Hobbema.
Evening, with Cattle reposing ; after Rosa di Tivoli.
Two Landscapes ; after Gainsborough.
View of a Tin Mine ; after Loutherboury.
Her daughter, URSULA MAGDALENA PRESTEL,
afterwards REINHEIMER, was born at Nuremberg in
1777, and after residing with her mother some time
in London, went on her marriage to Brussels, where
she died in 1845. She painted portraits, land-
scapes, and flowers, and etched in aquatint.
PRESTON, THOMAS, called ' Captain Preston,'
was an English engraver, who flourished in the
reign of George II. He was an artist of little
celebrity, whose name is affixed to a slight etching
of a bust of Pope. There are also by him mezzo-
tint portraits of Admiral Blake and James Naylor
the Quaker. Preston is said to have died in 1759.
PRETE GENOVESE, IL. See GALANTINI ; also
PRETI, GREGORIO, the brother of Mattia Preti.
There is a fresco by him in the church of S. Carlo
de' Catinari, at Rome.
PRETI, Cavaliere MATTIA, called IL CALABRESE,
was born at Taverna in Calabria, or Ravenna, in
1613. After passing some time at Parma and
Modena he went to Rome, to work with one of his
brothers, GREGORIO, and was for a short time a
scholar of Giovanni Lanfranco. The reputation
Guercino had acquired by the novelty and grandeur
of his style induced him to visit Cento, where he
studied under that master for several years. He
afterwards went to Venice and Bologna, where he
painted some pictures for the public edifices, by
which he acquired a considerable reputation. He
returned to Rome about the year 1657, where he
was employed to paint three pictures for the
church of Sant' Andrea della Valle, representing
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
subjects from the Life of that Saint. These, un-
fortunately for his fame, were placed immediately
under the ' Four Evangelists," painted by Domeni-
chino. His repute reached Malta, whither he was
invited by the grand master Cotoner, who com-
missioned him to ornament the cathedral with
some frescoes, representing subjects from the life
of St. John the Baptist ; for these works Popp
Urban VIII. conferred on him the knighthood of
the order. He afterwards passed some time at
Naples, where he painted some considerable works
in fresco, in the church of the Carthusians. Preti
was of a violent disposition, and was under the
continual necessity of shifting his quarters to avoid
the consequence of his quarrels. He usually chose
the most terrific and gloomy subjects ; and his
pictures, which are in the style of Caravaggio and
Ribera, frequently represent martyrdoms and scenes
of death, to which his sombre style of colouring
was particularly appropriate. Disgusted at the
admiration bestowed on the works of Luca Gior-
dano, he left Naples and returned to Malta, where
he died in 1699, his death being caused, it is said,
by a wound received from his barber. The paint-
ings from his hand are innumerable ; the following
list contains some of the more remarkable :
'$-* His own Portrait.
Academy. St. John the Evangelist.
rera. Christ Blessing the Children.
<S. Pietro a ) Legend of St. Catharine
Majella. $ Frescoes.
Museum. The Return of the Prodigal.
Paris. Louvre. Martyrdom of St. Andrew.
Borne. St. A ndrea della ) Scenes from the Life of St.
Valle. $ Andrew Frescoes.
Doria Pal. The Magdalene.
PRETO GALLO, IL. See GUILLAUME, Le Frere.
PREU. See PREW.
PREUSSER, KARL Louis, German painter, born
at Dresden, July 10, 1845 ; studied at the Academy
there under Schnorr and Groose. He painted
' Ulysses and Calypso,' ' The Fisherman ' (after
Goethe's poem), ore. He died at Dresden, December
PREVITALI, ANDREA, a native of Brembate