Superiore, a village near Bergamo, seems to have
been born in 1480, and to have come to Venice
towards the close of the century to study under
Giovanni Bellini. The most recent research cor-
roborates his identity with the Andreas Bergomensis,
or Andrea Cordegliaghi (q. v.), who is mentioned in
contemporary documents, and by whom there is a
signed and dated picture, of 1504 in the National
Gallery (formerly in the Eastlake Collection). Dr.
Ludwig has found numerous records of the
Previtali family in and about Bergamo, and
concludes that Andrea on removing to Venice
adopted the name Andreas Bergomensis, or, to still
further distinguish himself from a certain Andreas
da Bergamo, a sculptor also living at Venice,
Andreas Cordegliaghi, a nickname signifying tapes
and needles. He probably adopted this curious
name from one of his forefathers, who may have
been a huckster of such wares. Numerous paint-
ings of his ars recorded in various documents, and
he appears to have been one of the most prolific
of Giovanni Bellini's followers. The earliest known
example of such work is a Madonna in the
Museo Civico at Padua of 1502, in which a home-
liness of conception is relieved by attractiveness
of colouring and charm of landscape. These two
characteristics constantly recur in Previtali's
works, and Morelli goes so far as to say that
in brilliancy of colouring he is second to no other
pupil of Bellini. Even at his best, however, he is
only a second-rate artist, reflecting the influence
of his greater contemporaries, Bellini, Cima, and
Lotto, and seldom (except in the portraits he
introduces into his votive altar-pieces) rising to
any originality of representation. His works are
fairly numerous, Bergamo alone possessing some
twenty examples, of which an altar-piece in eight
parts, a Madonna and two Saints with portraits of
Cassoti and his wife, and a Madonna with SS.
Dominic and Sebastian of 1506, are the most
important in the Gallery. We may also note
the altar-piece in the Duomo of 1524, and two
works in S. Spirito, a St. John Baptist and four
other Saints of 1515, and a Madonna between
four female Saints of 1525. This is his last dated
work, and was probably finished by another and
inferior hand. At Ceneda there is an 'Annunciation'
which Ridolfi tells us Titian never failed to stop
and admire when on his way to Cadore. In the
Palazzo Ducale at Venice the ' Christ in Limbo ' and
the ' Crossing the Red Sea ' are now generally
attributed to Previtali, although they long bore
Giorgione's name, and in the church of S. Giobbe
at Venice is a replica with variations of the
National Gallery Madonna and Saints already
mentioned. England also possesses a Madonna
in the Christ Church Gallery at Oxford, and two
capital examples in Mr. George Salting's Collection.
Other pictures are :
Bergamo. S. Alessandro
in Croce. \
,, S. Maria Maffgiore.
Bu'da Pesth. Gallery.
f , .Dr. Frizzoni.
_ Ex Bon-jmi-Cereda.
Fresco over South Door.
Madonna and four Saints.
Marriage of St. Catherine.
Madonna and Saints. 1510.
Christ in Garden. 1512.
Madonna and Donor. 1506.
Madonna and two Saints.
Head of Christ.
Portrait of a Man.
Previtali is said to have died in 1528 of plague,
but Morelli thinks his death probably occurred a
few years earlier, in 1525. H. C.
PREVOST, BENOIT Louis, a French engraver,
was born in Paris about the year 1735, and was
a pupil of Jean Ouvrier. He was a skilful en-
graver of vignettes, and the faithful interpreter of
Cochin, after whose designs he executed about
sixty pieces, including the fine frontispiece of the
' Encyclopedic, ' 1770. He also engraved the vig-
nettes after Moreau for Desormeaux's ' Histoire de
la Maison de Bourbon.' He died in 1804. The
following portraits also are by him :
Louis XV. ; medallion profile ; after Cochin. 1765.
Queen Marie Antoinette ; after the same. 1776. (His
Armand Thomas Hue, Marquis de Miromenil ; after the
Marquis de Marigny ; monumental medallion. 1781.
Charles Nicolas Cochin, the younger, engraver ; small
medallion in head-piece of Jombert's ' Catalogue de
1'CEuvre de Cochin,' 1770 ; after Pre vast's own design,
The same; medallion; after himself '. 1781.
Alinari photo] [Saint Spirito, Bergamo
ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST AND THREE OTHER SAINTS
GEORGE WASHINGTON HORACE WALPOLE, 1735
From enamels at Montagu House
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
Joseph Ignace Guillotin, physician ; after J. M. Moreau.
Voltaire walking in his Garden.
PREVOST, JACQUES, a French historical painter,
born at Gray, in the department of Haute
Saone, about 1546. He lived at Langres, where
he painted a picture of the death of the Virgin
for the church of St. Mamert. He was also an
PREVOST, JOHN, a native of Mons in Hainault,
admitted as free master into the Guild of St. Luke
at Antwerp in 1493, removed shortly after to
Bruges, and having bought the right of citizenship,
February 10, 1494, settled there. In 1498 he
purchased the freedom of the town of Valenciennes,
and shortly afterwards married Joan de Quaroube,
widow since 1489 of the celebrated painter and
miniaturist Simon Marmion. Prevost, after holding
various offices in the Bruges Guild in 1501-2,
1507-8, 1509-10, 1511-12 and 1514-15, was Dean
in 1519-20 and 1525-26. In 1521 he was at
Antwerp, where he made the acquaintance of
Albert Durer, who in his diary tells us that he
accompanied him to Bruges, was his guest for
three days, and was entertained by him at a
sumptuous banquet to which the principal artists
of the town were invited. Durer drew his portrait
and that of his third wife. Prevost's first wife
died in 1505-6 ; he re-married three times, and
died in January 1529. In the Museum of Bruges
there is a picture of the 'Last Judgment ' painted
by him in 1525 for the Town House for the sum of
2CU. 12s. (jr. A full account of other works
executed by him will be found in ' Le Bt-ffroi,' iv.,
205-215, Bruges, 1875, and a critical notice of
paintings attributed to him by M. G. Hulin in
'L'Art et la Vie,' Ghent, 1902. Prevost left two
eons, Adrian and Thomas, both painters, who settled
at Antwerp. Another pupil of his, Maximilian
Fraus, admitted to the freedom of the Guild in
1524, remained at Bruges. No work by any one
of these has been identified as yet.
PREVOST, NICOLAS, (or PROVOST,) was a native
of France, and is mentioned by the Abbe de Ma-
rolles as a painter and scholar of Claude Vignon.
He flourished about the year 1666, and is said to
have etched six small plates. Dumesnil is of
opinion that he is the artist that painted the ' De-
collation of St. John,' for the church of Notre
Dame in Paris. He describes only one print by
him, a ' Holy Family,' signed N. Preuost Jn.
PREVOST, PIERRE, a painter of panoramas and
landscapes, was born at Montigny (Eure-et-Loir)
in 1764. In the first place he worked at Valen-
ciennes, but afterwards migrated to Paris. He
painted a number of easel pictures, landscapes, and
ruins, but his principal works were panoramas,
which he, perhaps, was the first to exhibit in France.
Among these were Paris, Naples, Amsterdam
London, Antwerp, Athens, Jerusalem, and various
battles, in which he was assisted by Bouton anc
Daguerre. In 1817 Prevost visited Greece and
Asia Minor with M. Forbin. He died ii
PREVOST, ZACCHEE, an engraver, was born in
or about 1797, and became a pupil of Baron Reg-
nault and of Bervic. The first large work exhibitei
by him, which established his reputation, wat
1 Corinne,' after Gerard. About 1830 he com-
menced engraving in aquatint, executing severa
plates after Leopold Robert and Delacroix. Hi
soon, however, returned to line-engraving, an<
exhibited a large plate of the ' Mariiage of Cana,
rom the great Paolo Veronese in the Louvre. For
his he was decorated. He died in 1861.
PREW, JORG, (BREU, or PREU,) was a painter
it Augsburg in the 16th century, an imitator of
Altdorfer. He was most likely identical with
1 Georg Prew von Aue, 1501," as he signs himself
on a picture at Herzogenburg, in Austria. H
">egan to work in Augsburg about 1500, and died
here in 1536. The Munich Pinakothek contains a
Battle of Zama ' by him. It is signed JORG PREW,
ind with a monogram as well. The arms of
Bavaria and the letters H.W. (Duke Wilhelm IV.)
also appear upon it.
PREWITT, WILLIAM, an English miniature
painter of considerable merit in the middle of the
18th century. He was a pupil of Zincke, and prac-
;ised in London. His works are in enamel and
Brilliant in colour. There is a good specimen of
lis art in the Kensington Museum.
PREY, J. Z., a painter, was born at Prague in
1744. He worked at Pressburg, visited Dresden
and Frankfort, and in 1770 settled at Rotterdam.
He painted portraits and historical subjects, and
died at Bois-le-Duc in 1823.
PREYER, JOHANN WILHELM, German painter,
born at Rheydt, near Dusseldorf, July 19, 1803.
Still-life painter ; studied at the Dusseldorf
Academy, and subsequently travelled in Italy,
Holland, and Switzerland. Most of his pictures
are in America. He died at Dusseldorf, February
PREZ, F. DBS. See DESPREZ.
PREZIADO. See PREOIADO.
PRICE, (I.) WILLIAM the elder, died 1722, was
the ablest pupil of Henry Gyles (or Giles) of York,
" a celebrated Glasse-Painter " (died 1709). Price,
like other glass-painters of the period, worked
more in enamelled glass than in pot-metal or
mosaic of transparent glass.
Oxford, Christchurch, 1696 : He painted for the east
window a copy of Sir James ThornhiU's ' Nativity ' ;
this work was taken down by Sir G. G. Scott.
Merton College Chapel, 1702: The east window;
six lights in grisaille, representing the ' Life of
Christ,' signed by the artist. With the donor's
name and the date MDCCII. Still in its place.
II. JOSHUA, his brother and fellow-pupil ; suc-
cessor to Gyles. Works dated 1715 and 1717.
Oxford, Queen's College Chapel, 1715 : The east window,
the ' Holy Family with Angels.'
Queen's College Hall : The round-heads of the win-
dows, containing portraits and coats-of-arms, are
probably by Joshua Price.
1717 : He was engaged to repair a number of 17th
century windows in Queen's College Chapel, the
work of Abraham van Liuge ; and he also restored
and added to the windows of
Denton Church, near Bungay, 1716-17.
III. WILLIAM, the younger, died 1765, Joshua's
son. He died unmarried in London.
Westminster Abbey, 1722-35 : He worked on several of
the windows, the money being voted by Parliament
for the work. The great west window is his finest
Oxford, New College Chapel, 1740: He repaired and
completed the Flemish windows of the school of
Rubens, adding to them a good deal.
Winchester, College Chapel : the ' Genealogy of Adam,'
Wilton House : The ' Herbert Family.'
Gloucester, the Bishop's Palace : A window, the ' Resur-
Westminster, St. Margaret's Church : One of the Price
family repaired the window, the ' Crucifixion with
Saints.' when it was still in the chapel of Copt Hall,
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
near Epping. An advertisement, quoted in the
'Arch. Journ.' xxxiv., p. 103, sets forth that:
" Whereas the ancient Art of Painting and Staining
Glass has been much discouraged, by reason of an
opinion generally received that the Red Colour (not
made in Europe for many years) is totally lost ;
these are to give notice, that the said Red and all
other colours are made to as great a degree of
Curiosity and Fineness as in former Ages by William
and Joshua Price Glasiers and Glass-Painters, near
Hatton Garden in Holborn, London; where Gentle-
men may have Church History, etc., Painted upon
Glass in what colours they please, to as great Perfec-
tion as ever . . ." C. B.
PRICKE, ROBERT. See PRYKE.
PRIEM, JOSEPH, a German painter, born at
Illestissen in Bavaria in 1776. He was a pupil of
Kellerhoven, and painted landscapes and historical
subjects. He died in 1822.
PRIEST, THOMAS, was an English landscape
painter, who resided at Chelsea about the year
1738. He chiefly painted views of the Thames,
and published a set of eight etchings of Chelsea,
Mortlake, and other places on the river.
PRIETO, THOMAS FRANCISCO, engraver, was
born at Salamanca in 1716. He was a pupil of
Lorenzo Monteman y Cusens, and Director of the
Academy of San Fernando. His daughter MARIA
DE LORETTO, a Spanish amateur engraver, was born
at Madrid in 1753. She was received an honorary
member of the Academy of San Fernando, and
died in 1772.
PRIEUR, P., a great enamel portrait-painter of
the seventeenth century, of whom very little per-
sonal history is known. He was in England in
1669 painting Charles II. ; in 1670 in Poland, and
in 1671 in Denmark. He also visited France and
Spain, and it is believed Russia. There are fine
portraits by him in Windsor Castle, the Dartrey
Collection, London, Rosenberg Palace, Copen-
hagen, and the Hermitage, St. Petersburg.
PRIEUR, ROMAIN ETIENNE GABRIEL, a French
landscape and historical painter, born at Forte"
Gaucher, Seine et Marne. He was a pupil of V.
Bertin in landscape. He died in 1879.
PRIMATICCIO, FRANCESCO, was born at Bo-
logna in 1504. He was of good birth, and his
family, perceiving his strong inclination for art,
placed him first with Innocenzo da Imola, and
afterwards with Bagnacavallo. Thence he migrated
to the studio of Giulio Romano, who had more
influence on his style than his earlier masters.
Primaticcio worked with Giulio at Mantua, in the
Palazza del T. On the Duke of Mantua being
asked to recommend an artist to Francis I., he sent
him Primaticcio, who for a time collaborated with
II Rosso at Fontainebleau. A quarrel arising,
however, Primaticcio was sent back to Italy to
collect works of art for the French King. During
his absence his rival died, and he succeeded to
the vacant post of Director of the Works at Fon-
tainebleau. In this office Primaticcio was suc-
cessively confirmed by Henry II., Francis II., and
Charles IX. He died in Paris in 1570. Much of
Primaticcio's work at Fontainebleau, (most of it,
however, actually painted by Niccolo dell' Abate
from his designs,) was destroyed in 1738, when
some structural alterations were made in the palace.
All that remains is the decoration of the guard
chamber, now called the " Salle de Madame
d'Etampes," a series of frescoes illustrating the
career of Alexander the Great, painted by Niccolo
after bis master's designs, and various scenes from
classic mythology, painted by Primaticcio himself
All these works have undergone much " restor-
ation," and now the art of their author is perhaps
to be best appreciated through the fine series of
his drawings in the Louvre. His easel pictures
are very rare. At Fontainebleau there is a full-
length nude figure of 'Diana,' and at Castle
Howard a fine ' Return of Ulysses.'
PRIMAVESI, JOHANN GEORQ, painter and en-
graver, was born at Heidelberg in 1776. He drew
a series of landscapes illustrating the Rhine from
its source downwards. He became court-painter
at Heidelberg. Twelve etchings by him of ' Heidel-
berg Castle,' and some of views from Mannheim
and Baden, are extant. The date of his death is
PRIMI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, a marine and por-
trait painter, was a pupil of A. Tassi and a native
of Rome. He resided a long time at Genoa, where
he died in 1657.
PRIMISSER, JULIE. See MIHES.
PRIMO, Luis, known as GENTILE on account of
his gentle manners, was born at Brussels in 1606,
and went when young to Rome, where he spent
thirty years, and was in 1650 received into the
Academy of Saint Luke. He was employed by
Pope Alexander VII., whose portrait he painted.
In the church of San Marco a painting exists by
him of 'St. Anthony,' and in the Cappuccini at
Pesaro there are a ' Nativity ' and ' St. Stephen.'
One of his best works is the ' Crucifixion,' in the
church of St. Michael at Ghent. Others are,
' Phoebus in the Chariot of the Sun ' (engraved
by Bloemaert), ' St. Raymond,' and ' S. Carlo
Borromeo healing the Plague-stricken.' Primo
painted many portraits, which are remarkable for
their finish. He died at Rome in 1668.
PRINA, PIER FRANCESCO, a native of Novaro,
who is commended by Orlandi for his decorative
frescoes. He was living in 1718.
PRINCE, LE. See LEPRINCE.
PRINETTI, CONSTANTINO, landscape painter,
was born at Canobbio in 1830. After studying at
the Milan Academy under Canella he travelled in
Germany, Holland, Paris, Normandy, England, and
Scotland. He died at Milan in 1855. Among his
paintings we may name :
The Brienzer See.
The Battle-field of Naf els ; engraved ly Salatlie.
The Thames and Houses of Parliament.
Street iu Edinburgh.
PRINS, B. M., a painter of landscapes and sea-
pieces, was living at Amsterdam about 1824.
PRINS, JOHANN HUIBERT, a painter of views of
the interiors of cities, was born at the Hague in
1757. He was intended for the medical profession,
but his predilection for painting induced him to quit
his home and the university in order to avoid his
friends, who were strongly opposed to his inclin-
ation. He rambled, as an artist, through Brabant
and France, where he made numerous sketches and
drawings, with which, after two years' absence, he
returned to his own country. He visited Amster-
dam, Utrecht, and Leyden, and painted views in
each of those cities. The Dutch writers say he
painted in the manner of Berck-Heyden and Van
der Heyden, but his pictures resemble theirs only
in subject. His pictures, which are generally
small, are representations of the cities of Holland,
with landscapes and marine views. Besides oil
[Collection of the Earl of Dart rey
PROBABLY NICOLAS FOUQUET, FINANCE MINISTER TO LOUIS XIV . 1658
\CoUecfion of the King of Denmark
FREDERIK III.. 1663
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
paintings, he executed numerous drawings, aqua-
relles, and etchings. He was drowned in a canal
at the Hague in 1806.
PRIOR, THOMAS ABIEL, an English line en-
graver, was born on November 5th, 1809. He
practised the severest form of engraving in line,
and in that method interpreted Turner with rare
skill. He merits a place among what are called
' Turner's Engravers ' by the fact that he engraved
one plate during the painter's life, and under his
supervision, the 'Heidelberg.' He resided for
many years at Calais, where he was engaged as
drawing-master in one or two of the public colleges.
His plates were done in his spare time. He died
at Calais, November 8, 1886. The list of his plates
is not long :
Heidelberg ; after Turner. (1846.)
Zurich ; after the same. (1854.)
Apollo and the Sibyl ; after the same. (1873.)
The Golden Bough ; after the same.
Venice, the Dogana ; after the same. (1859.)
The Goddess of Discord ; after the same. (1860.)
Dido building Carthage ; after the same. (1863.)
Heidelberg Castle in the olden Time ; after the same
The Sun rising through Mist ; after the same (1874) ;
begun by Chapman.
Crossing the Bridge : after Landseer.
The Fighting Temeraire ; after Turner. (1886.)
And three plates for ' The Turner Gallery.'
PRIWITZER, JOHANN, was a Danish artist, who
visited England in the time of James I., and
probably had court favour, as it is said that he
painted the portraits of many of the nobility. The
only one, however, on record, is that at Woburn
Abbey, of Sir William Russell, in the robes of the
order of the Bath, and attended by a dwarf (dated
PROBST, JOHANN BALTHAZAR, a German en-
graver, was born in 1673, and died in 1748. He
worked chiefly with the burin, in a neat, formal
style. Among other prints, he engraved several
of the plates after antique statues in the ' Dresden
Gallery.' We have also by him some prints after
Luca Giordano, Bernardino Poccetti, Rugendas,
and Ridinger. He also engraved several plates of
birds and beasts in the menagerie of Prince Eugene,
published in 1734.
PROCACCINI, ANDREA, was born at Rome, Jan.
14th, 1671, and was brought up in the school of
Carlo Maratti. He painted historical subjects in
the style of his master, and among his other
works in the public edifices at Rome, is his picture
of _ Daniel, in the series of the twelve prophets
painted by order of Clement XL, in San Giovanni
Laterano. He assisted the same pontiff with his
advice on the establishment of his tapestry factory.
He was invited to the court of Spain, where he
resided fourteen years, and was appointed cabinet
painter to Philip V. He executed many im-
portant works in the palaces and churches of
Spain, but his smaller pictures are very few. He
etched gracefully, and in this branch of art there
are by him a half-length of ' San Vincente Ferrer,'
an 'Infant Bacchus,' 'Diana in the Chase,' 'Clelia
passing the Tiber,' the 'Supper at Emmaus,' and
' The Transfiguration ' (after Raphael) ; and other
pieces, after Carlo Maratti. He died at San Ilde-
fonso in 1734, and was buried with great pomp in
the conrent of San Francisco de Segovia.
PROCACCINI, CAMILLO, the son of Ercole Pro-
caccini the elder, was born at Bologna in 1546, and
was first instructed by his father ; but he afterwards
VOL. IV. ft
visited Rome, where he particularly applied him-
self to studying the works of Raphael and Michel-
angelo. Correggio and Parmigiano were also the
objects of his imitation. Finding the presence of
the Carracci an obstacle to his success at Bologna,
he removed to Milan, where most of his works are
to be met with. He died at that city in 1625.
Among the most remarkable of his pictures are
those of the ' Martyrdom of St. Agnes,' painted in
ftesco, in the sacristy of Milan cathedral ; a ' Ma-
donna and Child,' in Santa Maria del Carmine ; an
' Adoration of the Shepherds,' in the Brera ; and
the ceiling of the church of Padri Zoccolanti, repre-
senting the ' Assumption of the Virgin ' all in the
same city. But his best known performances are
his ' Last Judgment,' in the church of San Prospero
at Reggio ; and his ' St. Roch administering the
Sacrament to the Plague-stricken,' a really ad-
mirable work, to which Annibale Carracci paid
a tribute of admiration when he expressed his
reluctance to paint a companion picture to it, repre-
senting St. Roch distributing Alms to the Poor.
Procaccini was commissioned by the Duke of
Parma to execute some frescoes in the cathedral at
Piacenza, in competition with Lodovico Carracci,
and accordingly he painted the ' Coronation of the
Virgin,' with a beautiful choir of angels. The Parma
Gallery possesses also a 'Plague' by him. In the
UfEzi there is a small ' Madonna and Child.' Of his
works at Bologna, the most important are the
' Adoration of the Shepherds,' in the church of San
Francesco ; the ' Nativity,' now in the Pinacoteca ;
the ' Crucifixion of St. Peter,' in San Petronio ; and
the ' Annunciation,' in S. Clemente. Camillo Pro-
caccini possessed a fertile invention, and great
facility of hand. His colour is fair, and his
draperies are cast with judgment and taste ; but
his facility often led him into extravagance and
mannerism. He has left several etchings, among
which are the following :
The Holy Family reposing, in which St. Joseph is repre-
sented lying on the ground, resting on the saddle of
Another Holy Family, in which St. Joseph is presenting
an orange to the Infant. 1593.
The Virgin suckling the Infant, St. Joseph standing
The Virgin and Child with St. Peter and St. Anthony.
The Transfiguration, of which there are two impressions ;
the second retouched by another hand, but in a very
St. Francis receiving the Stigmata. 1593.
PROCACCINI, CARLO ANTONIO, the third son of
Ercole and the brother of Camillo and Giulio Cesare
Procaccini the elder, was born at Bologna about
the year 1555, and is said to have been instructed
in art by his father, though he practised a different
genre. He excelled in painting landscapes, flowers,
and fruit, and his pictures possessed sufficient
merit to secure them a place in the best collections
in the Milanese. He was also much employed in
commissions for Spain.
PROCACCINI, ERCOLE, the elder, was born in
1520 at Bologna. His principal works are in
that city. The following are the most worthy
of notice : in the church of San Benedetto, a