picture of the 'Annunciation ;' in San Giacomo
Maggiore, ' The Conversion of St. Paul,' and ' Christ
praying in the Garden ; ' in San Bernardo, ' St.
Michael discomfiting the rebel Angels ; ' and in St.
Stefano, a ' Deposition from the Cross.' Ercole
established an Academy at Milan, which became
the most celebrated of his time, and, besides his
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
own 8ons, turned out some of the most distin-
guished artists of the Milanese school. He died
after 1591. Other works :
Bologna. Gallery. A Pieta.
St Augustine and an Angel .
PROCACCINI, EBCOLE, the younger, the son of
Carlo Antonio Procaccini, was born at Milan in
1596, and was educated in the school of his uncle
Giulio Cesare. He followed the style of his in-
structor, and painted several pictures for the public
edifices and private collections at Milan. One of
his best works is an altar-piece representing the
' Assumption of the Virgin,' in the church of Santa
Maria Maggiore at Bergamo. On the death of
Giulio Cesare, he became the director of the academy
established by the Procaccini, and died in 1676.
Other works :
rera. The Crucifixion.
PROCACCINI, GIDLIO CESARE, the younger
brother of Camillo Procaccini, and son of Ercole
Procaccini the elder, was born at Bologna in 1548.
He was taught the rudiments of design by his
father, and for some time applied himself to the
study of sculpture, in which he had made some
progress, when the reputation his brother Camillo
had acquired as a painter induced him to change
the chisel for the pencil. He studied in Rome and
Venice, and appears to have formed his style upon
the principles of Correggio, whom in his smaller
cabinet pictures he sometimes successfully imi-
tated. At Rome, where he passed some time,
the productions of Raphael were particularly the
objects of his attention. In 1618 he was invited to
Genoa, where he worked in the ducal palace. He
died at Milan about. 1626. An etching repre-
senting the Virgin with the Infant Jesus, has been
attributed to him, but doubtfully. Of his principal
extant paintings we may note :
Dresden. Gallery. Virgin and Child.
St. Rock curing the Plague-
Edinburgh. Nat. Gall. A Dead Christ, with the Mag-
dalen and Angels.
Florence. Vfi:i. His own Portrait.
Genoa. Ducal Pal. Adam and Eve driven from
Briynola Pal. Holy Family.
Doria Pal. The Dead Christ.
Milan. S. Antonio. The Annunciation.
Ambrosiana. His own Portrait.
Brera Mus, Adoration of the Magi.
Virgin, St. Ambrose, and St
Modena. Museum. The Circumcision. (Colossal
Paris. Louvre. Holy Family.
Petersburg. Hermitage. A Madonna.
Marriage of St. Catharine.
Toulouse. Museum. Marriage of St. Catharine.
Turin. Museum. Virgin adored by SS. Cecilia
PROCTOR THOMAS, an English historical painter,
born at Settle (Yorks.), April 22, 1753. His parents
were in humble circumstances, and for some years
he had to devote himself to uncongenial occupations
in Manchester and London. But the love of art at
length prevailed, and he entered the schools of the
Academy in 1777. His student career was emin-
ently honourable, culminating in 1784 with the
gold medal for his picture of the ' Tempest. He
also devoted himself to modelling with such suc-
cess that he ranks high among English sculptors.
In 1785 he exhibited a statue of Ixion, which
was bought by Sir Abraham Hume. He then
produced a group of ' Diomed devoured by his
Horses,' which, failing to sell it, he destroyed in a
fit of despondency. The first pictures he sent to
the Academy, in 1780-3, had been portraits, and in
1789 he again returned to thai genre. In 1794
he was elected to the travelling studentship of the
Academy, but could not be found, as for some
years he had sent no address with his contributions
to the Exhibition. West, however, tracked him
out and found him living on bread and water in
an attic in Clare Market. Hopes of prosperity had
come too late, and a few days later he was found
dead in his bed. He was in his forty-first year,
and was buried in Hampstead churchyard.
PROFONDAVALLE, VALERIC, an historical
painter, born at Louvain in 1533. He lived for
some time at Florence, and afterwards settled at
Milan. His daughter PRUDENZIA painted still-life
and historical subjects. Their real name was Die-
pendale, and they belonged to a famous glass-
painting family in Louvain of the 15th and 16th
PRONCK, CORNELIS, was born at Amsterdam in
1691, and was taught drawing by F. van Houten,
and painting by Arnold van Boonen. He became
a good portrait painter, and had much employment;
but he preferred making views of cities and land-
scapes, in Indian ink and in water-colours. Many
of his drawings, however, are after other Dutch
masters. He died in 1759.
PRONTI, Padre CESARE, originally BACOIOOCHI,
was born at Rimini in 1626, and was brought up at
Bologna, under Guercino. He was commonly called
PADRE CESARE da RAVENNA. He painted historical
subjects, and was much employed for the churches
at Rimini and Ravenna. At an early period of his
life he became a monk of the order of St. Augustine,
and was afterwards principally engaged in painting
altar-pieces for the churches of his fraternity, of
which one of the best is a picture of St. Tom-
maso da Villanova, at the Augustines at Pesaro,
which he embellished with a background of admir-
able architecture. He died at Ravenna in 1708.
PROPERT, JOHN LDMSDEN. This celebrated
physician finds a place in these pages on account
of his excellent work with the etching-needle. He
was born in 1834, and exhibited at the Royal
Academy fifteen etchings, of which 'The Relic
of the Past' (1877) and 'The Shipwreck,' after
Turner (1878), may be considered as the finest
works. He exhibited also at the first Exhibition of
theSociety of Painter-Etchers in 1881, and published
altogether about forty plates. He finally gave up
etching in 1887. He was the possessorof a fine collec-
tion of miniatures, and was very much interested in
these works of art. In 1887 he published his im-
portant work on ' The History of Miniature Art." In
1889 he wrote the introduction to the Catalogue of
the Exhibition of Miniatures held at the Burlington
Fine Arts Club. The Catalogue of the Collection
in its illustrated form has become very rare, and is
a most important work of reference. Dr. Propert's
introduction is a luminous account of the art and
its chief exponents. He also contributed a series
of five articles on 'English Miniatures' to the
'Magazine of Art' in 1891. His collection was
exhibited and sold at the rooms of the Fine Art
Society in 1897, and his fine collection of Wedg-
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
wood and silver was sold at Christie's after his
death, which occurred in 1902. He was a man of
very fine taste and of great judgment, and the
gallery at his house, which opened out from his
consulting-rooms, was full of precious things of
beauty, collected in many parts of the world with
PROSPECTIVE, DALLE. See AGOSTINO, also
PROTAIS, PAUL A., an artist who devoted almost
all his time to painting military subjects. He was
born in Paris in 1826, was a. pupil of Desmoulins,
and followed the French army in the practice of
his art into Italy and the Crimea. He was a man
of little fear, and thought nothing of posting him-
self close to the engaging forces in order that he
might represent the scene of carnage with vivid
truth. Twice he was wounded, and twice received
a medal. He exhibited a great many battle pictures
between 1857 and 1877, and died in 1886.
PROTOGENES, one of the most illustrious of
ancient Greek painters, was a native of either Caunus
or Camirus, both cities of Caria. His life as an
artist was, however, spent at Rhodes, which he only
once quitted on a visit to Athens. He flourished
between 330 and 300 B.C. It is not known of whom
he was a disciple, but it is probable that he received
his instruction from some obscure artist, or that
he formed his style by a general study of the
painters who had preceded him. It is certain that
for some time he practised ship-painting for a live-
lihood, that the early part of his life was passed in
indigence and obscurity, and that he was consider-
ably advanced in years before he became known
as an artist. One of his principal pictures, which
has been celebrated by several writers, repre-
sented the hunter lalysus with his Dog ; it was
long preserved in the Temple of Peace at Rome.
A singular story is told of the production of this
painting. Protogenes was engaged upon it for
seven years, during which he lived wholly upon
lupins and water, hoping thereby to give his fancy
freer powers. But at the last he found himself
wholly unable to produce the appearance of froth
in the dog's mouth, and after many unsatisfactory
attempts he threw his sponge upon the canvas in
a fit of vexation. He had aimed it exactly at the
mouth of the animal, and the stroke produced the
very effect which he had been seeking so long in
vain. A much greater interest attaches to this
picture in the fact that it was the means of saving
a portion of the city of Rhodes from destruction,
and delaying the capture of the whole, when it was
besieged (B.C. 305) by Demetrius Poliorcetes, who,
finding that the only ready means of mastering the
place consisted in setting fire to that side on which
was the house of Protogenes, chose rather to pro-
tract the siege indefinitely than to destroy such a
work of art. The atelier of Protogenes was situ-
ated without the walls of the city, where, to the
astonishment of the besiegers, he continued to
paint with the most perfect tranquillity and indiffer-
ence. This circumstance being made known to
Demetrius, he ordered the artist to be brought to
his tent, when he demanded how he could persist
in the quiet exercise of his profession when sur-
rounded by the enemies of his country. Protogenes
replied, that he did not consider himself to be in
any danger, as he was convinced that a great
prince like Demetrius did not wage war against
the arts, but against the Rhodians.
It was during these hostilities that he painted
his famous picture of a Satyr playing on a Flageo-
let. Into this he introduced a partridge, which he
depicted so accurately that some live partridges on
being placed near it showed themselves deceived
by the resemblance ; but Protogenes, not wishing
to be regarded as a mere mechanical imitator, and
observing that the presence of the partridge blinded
the spectators to everything else, obliterated it
from the painting altogether. Another admired
work of Protogenes was a subject taken from the
'Odyssey,' representing Nausicaa. driving a chariot
drawn by mules. A fourth was in the Propylsea
of the Athenian Acropolis, and represented the
sacred ships ' Paralus ' and ' Ammonias.' Pliny
mentions some others, but the length of time de-
voted by Protogenes to each prevented the number
from being large. His great contemporary Apellea
found the one fault in him that he " did not know
how to let his pictures alone."
The association of these two masters gave
rise to more than one interesting episode. Not-
withstanding the distinguished talents of Pro-
togenes, his fellow-citizens were either insensible
to his merit, or were more than usually parsimoni-
ous in remunerating him. He continued to live in
extreme poverty, until the generosity of Apelles
roused the Rhodians from the indifference they had
shown to his talents. When that painter visited
Rhodes, he was struck with admiration on seeing
the works of Protogenes. He demanded what
price he put upon his pictures, and the painter of
Rhodes having named an inconsiderable sum,
Apelles, indignant at the injustice, offered him fifty
talents for each of his works, publicly announcing
that he could sell them again as his own at a profit.
This liberality opened the eyes of the Rhodians,
who now gladly gave the painter a higher sum,
than Apelles had offered, rather than have their
city deprived of what they had at length learned
When Apelles first landed at Rhodes on the
occasion of the above interview, he called at the
house of Protogenes, but found him from home.
Instead of leaving his name with the servant he
drew with a brush an extremely fine line on a
panel that lay before him. This being shown to
Protogenes on his return, he declared that it must
have been Apelles who had called upon him, and
taking a brush with a different colour, he drew a
still finer line upon the first line itself, desiring
that this might be shown to his visitor upon his
second call. When this took place, Apelles with a
third colour drew a yet finer line upon this second
one, and Protogenes upon seeing this was compelled
to declare that the attenuating process could go no
PROU, JACQUES, a French painter and engraver,
was born in Paris about the year 1639, or, accord-
ing to others, at Troyes, in 1624, and died at the
end of the same century. He was a scholar of
Sebastien Bourdon, and painted landscapes in the
style of that master. Of his works as an engraver,
the following are the most worthy of notice :
A set of twelve Landscapes and Views ; after his own
A set of six large Landscapes ; after Seb. Bourdon.
The Baptism of Christ by St. John ; after the same,
The Flight into Egypt ; after Agost. Carracci.
an obscure engraver, whom
Strutt mentions as having resided in England
about the year 1760. He engraved a few plates
for books and portraits, among which was that of
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
Sarah Philips, prefixed to ' The Lady 'a Handmaid.'
PROUT, J. SKINNER, nephew of Samuel Prout,
was born at Plymouth in 1806. He practised
chiefly in water-colours, and was a member of the
Institute, but was chiefly self-taught. He published
Antiquities of Chester,' and 'Castles and Abbeys
of Monmouthshire ' in 1838. He also visited Aus-
tralia, and resided for some time in Sydney and
Hobart Town. On Ids return he lived for many
years in Bristol, and published a work on the an-
tiquities of that town. The sketches for this were
made in company with W. Muller, with whom he
formed a close friendship. He afterwards came to
London, where he died August 29, 1876.
PROUT, SAMUEL, was born in Plymouth about
1784, and educated at the Grammar School. When
quite a child he had a sunstroke, which affected his
health for the rest of his life. He accompanied
John Britton into Cornwall in 1801, and he after-
wards went to reside with him in Clerkenwell,
during which time he was employed by the chief
topographical draftsman of the day. In 1805 he
returned home, but returned to London in 1812.
He exhibited occasionally at the Academy and
British Institution from 1803 to 1827. In 1820 he
was elected a member of the Water-Colour Society.
In 1818 he visited the Continent, and became famous
as the painter of foreign Cathedrals and Market-
places. In 1824 he visited Italy, and fac-similes
of the sketches of his travels were published in
1839. He contributed to the Annuals, and for
Ackerraann he undertook drawing-books for
learners. Prout died in Camberwell February 10,
1852. Works :
London. & Kensington \ B ;d Y k _
., Arch of Constantine, Rome.
Porch of Ratisbon Cathedral.
., Castle 011 a Rocky Shore.
Old House near Tunbridge.
Cottage near St. Michael's
The Beach, Hastings.
The Zwinger, Drsden.
,', Temple of Minerva Medica,
A collection of Prout's drawings was exhibited at
the Fine Art Society's Galleries in 1879-1880, and
notes upon it written by J. Ruskin.
PROVENCAL, JOSEPH, a French historical
painter, born in Lorraine. He was a pupil of
01. Charles and painted several frescoes in the
churches of Nancy. He flourished about 1679.
PROVENCE, a German historical painter, who
studied in Italy and afterwards settled in Berlin.
He died in 1701.
PROVENZALE, MARCELLO, was born at Cento
in 1575. He was a scholar of Paolo Rossetti, but is
chiefly distinguished for his talents as a mosaicist
Baglione describes several of his works at Rome,
executed under the direction of Paul V., among
which is the portrait of that pontiff, now in the
Borghese Palace. In conjunction with Rossetti,
he executed several mosaics in the Capella Clemen-
tina, in St. Peter's, from the cartoons of Cavaliere
Cristofano Roncalli ; and for the Cardinal Scipione
Borghese he finished some smaller works, among
which is ' Orpheus playing on the Lyre, surrounded
by animals.' He died at Rome in 1639.
PROVENZALI, STEFANO, a native of Cento and
a pupil of Guercino. Crespi extols his battle-pieces.
PROVOST, NICOLAS. See PREVOST.
PRUCKER. See PRUGGER.
PRUD'HOMME, ANTONIE DANIEL, a Dutch
amateur, born at Zwolle in 1745. He at first
entered on a commercial career, but after a voyage
to Demerara he settled at Antwerp, and devoted
himself to art. He painted landscapes, sea-pieces,
and portraits. He died in 1826.
PRUD'HON, PIERRE, a French historical and
portrait painter, born at Cluny (Saone et Loire) in
1758. He was the thirteenth child of a stonemason,
who died soon after his birth. His mother had a
great affection for him, but her narrow means were
insufficient to provide for his education, which was
due to the charity of the monks at the Abbey of
Cluny. The pictures which decorated the walls
of the monastery early developed his taste for art.
The fruits of this were first seen in his exercise-
books, which he covered with sketches. Unaided,
he taught himself the elements of oil-painting with
the very humble materials which lay within his
reach. At the critical age of sixteen, when his
schooling was completed, he was fortunate enough
to find a friend in the Bishop of Macon, who placed
him in the Academy of Dijon. Here his progress
was satisfactory, and his future seemed full of
promise, when he contracted an imprudent mar-
riage at the early age of nineteen. To continue
his studies, he migrated to Paris in 1780, and re-
ceived some assistance from an engraver named
Wille. The great object of his ambition was to-
study in Italy, and to enable him to do this, he
competed in 1782 for a triennial prize founded by
the estates of Burgundy. Concerning this com-
petition there is an interesting little story, showing
the painter's kindliness of disposition. One of the
competitors was overwhelmed with grief at being
unable to finish his composition. By the assistance
of Prud'hon he was enabled to complete it, and
with such success that he was awarded the prize.
Not to be outdone in generosity, he confessed the
help which he had received, and the prize wa8
adjudged to Prud'hon. During his sojourn at
Rome, he diligently made use of his opportunities,
and studied closely the masterpieces of Raphael,
Correggio, and Leonardo da Vinci. He made the
acquaintance of Canova, and the two artists formed
a close friendship. Resisting the sculptor's en-
treaties to stay with him at Rome, Prud'hon
returned to Paris in 1789. His wife now rejoined
him, and for several years he had an uphill fight to
supply the wants of an increasing family. Un-
known to fame, he drew book-illustrations, portraits,
headings for letters and concert-bills, and even
designs to ornament the lids of sweetmeat-boxes.
Whatever came he was glad to accept, so as to
keep the wolf from the door of his comfortless
home. So little prospect of success did he appear
to have in the capital that in 1794 he spent two
years in Franche Comte, painting portraits. Here
he made the acquaintance of his fellow-countryman,
M. Frochot, who afterwards, as Prefect of the
Seine, became his warm patron. On his return tu
Paris, he executed some admirable designs for the
publisher Didot, and his reputation gradually in-
creased. The assignment to him of apartments in
the Louvre, just before the close of the century, to
execute the painting of ''Truth descending from
Heaven,' for the design of which he had won a prize,
marks that his position was at length assured.
Cut off by his unfortunate marriage from home
comforts, he found consolation in a liaison with a
Woodbury Co. photo] [ The Louvre
PSYCHE CARRIED OFF BY ZEPHYRUS
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
pupil named Constance Mayer. He was intro-
duced to her by a friend in 1803, when she was
seeking for a master to replace Greuze. The
tardy recognition of Prud'hon's merits secured
him a fair share in the public commissions.
The chief of these were a ceiling at the Louvre,
' Diana imploring Jupiter,' and the well-known
' Divine Justice pursuing Crime,' originally ordered
by his friend Frochot for the Palais de Justice.
For the latter work, exhibited in 1808, he received
the Legion of Honour, and in 1816 was elected a
member of the Institute. In 1821, he suffered a
severe shock from the death of Mademoiselle
Mayer by her own hand. His health gave way,
and he died in Paris in 1823, in the arms of his
friend, M. Le Boisfremont.
Prud'hon forms an interesting figure in the
history of French art. His pictures have a grace
and tenderness which is wanting in the works of
all his contemporaries. This he ascribed to his
study of Leonardo, whom he was accustomed to call
his master and his hero. He is seen at his best,
perhaps, in his smaller and less ambitious pro-
ductions, such as his 'Zephyr,' where he has de-
parted most from the historic style, and allowed
freer scope to his poetic imagination.
The following is a list of Prud'hon's pictures in
the public galleries of Europe :
Salle des Statues.
Dublin. Nat. Gallery.
Museum. The Two Souls.
Museum. The Assumption. Unfinished
repetition of Louvre picture.
Allegory of the Arts and
Orleans. Museum. Portrait of Abbe Barbier.
Paris. XiOuvre. Justice pursuing crime. 1808.
,, The Assumption. 1819.
i, The Crucifixion. 1822.
,, Interview of Napoleon aud
Francis II. after Austerlitz.
,. Four Portraits.
Quimjier. JIusetim. Portrait of Mad. Steward.
Quatremere de Quincy, ' Discours prononce sur la Tombe
de Prud'hon.' 1823.
Voiart, ' Notice historique sur la vie et les ouvrages de
E. Delacroix, in the ' Revue des Deux Mondes,' Nov
Clement, C., ' Prud'hon.' 1872.
Blanc, Ch., ' Histoire des peintres franc,ais.'
Goncourt, E. and J. de, ' Prud'hon.' 1861.
' L'Art du xix siecle.' 1882.
PRUGGER, NICLAS, (PRTJCKER, or BRTJCKER,) a
painter of Munich in the 17th century, who died
there in 1694. He was the son of a peasant of
Trudering, near that city, and was educated by the
help of the Electress Maria Anna, and trained in
art by that of the Elector Maximilian I. of Bavaria,
whose successor, Ferdinand Maria, appointed him
his court-painter. The Pinakothek contains a por-
trait of the former Elector by him, together with a
male portrait of 1664 ; and there also exist by him
seven portraits of the above Electress on copper-
plates the size of a groschen.
PRUNATI, SANTO, an historical painter, born at
Verona in 1656. He was a pupil of Voltolino and
Falcieri at Verona, and of Loth at Venice. He
also visited Bologna. There is a ' San Francesco di
Sales ' by him at the cathedral at Verona. His son,
MICHELANGELO PRUNATI, was his pupil and painted
in the same style.
PRUNEAU, NOEL, a French engraver, was born
in Paris in 1751. He was a pupil of Augustin de
St. Aubin, in whose style he has engraved several
plates, chiefly portraits, among which we may
name the following :
Rosalia le Vasseur ; after his oivn design.
Herman Boerhave ; the same.
Albert de Haller ; the same.
Gerard, Baron van Swieten, Architect ; after A. de St
Jean Joseph Sue; after A. de Pvjol.
Francois de la Peyronie, principal surgeon to Louis XV.
PRYKE, ROBERT, an English engraver, who
studied under Hollar. He practised after the
Restoration, and in 1675 published an edition of
Pierre Le Muet's ' Architecture.'
PUBLIAN, JOHANN GOTTFRIED, a German
architectural painter of little merit, born at Meissen
in 1809. He died at Diisseldorf in 1875.
PUCCINI, BIAGIO, an obscure painter, who
flourished at Rome in the reigns of Clement XI.
and Benedict XIII.
PUCCIO D'ORVIETO, PIETRO DI, is entitled to
notice for the reason that his works on the north
wall of the Campo Santo of Pisa are believed to be