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the earliest examples of fresco-painting, properly
so called. They represent the ' First Person of the
Trinity ; ' ' The Creation of Man ; ' ' The Fall of
Man and its consequences ; ' the ' Death of Abel ; '
the 'Death of Cain; 1 and 'The Deluge.' A
' Coronation of the Virgin ', over the door of the
second chpael, is also by him. These pictures dis-
play grandeur of conception and design, and a rare
harmony of colouring. The series was continued,
as far as the Visit of the Queen of Sheba, by
Benozzo Gozzoli. Puccio painted in the later years
of the 14th century. (See E. Forster, ' Beitrage,'
p. 220.)

PUCHLER, JOHANN MICHEL, an engraver of
whom very little is known, worked in a peculiar
manner, towards the end of the 17th century. He
engraved portraits with the point, the hair and
habits are formed of writing. In this fashion he
engraved a portrait of Martin Luther and his wife,
after Cranach. It is signed Mich. Pitchier fecit.
Van Stettin speaks of a Jan Gregoire Bushier,
a writing-master, who worked in this manner about
the year 1692, and Brulliot conjectures that the
two are identical.

PUCHNER, MELCHIOR, was a painter of Ingol-
stadt, who produced several altar-pieces and other
devotional pictures for the churches, and died in
1760.

PDDISS. See PAUDITZ.

PUELLACHER, LEOPOLD, was born at Telfs
in the Tyrol in 1776, and studied for a scene
painter at Vienna under Gassner and Platzer.
He painted scenes for Count Karolyi, and was in
1815 made court theatrical painter at Innspruck.
He also executed several wall-paintings for Tyrolese
churches. Puellacher was still alive in 1830.

PUGA, ANTONIO, a Spanish painter of familiar
subjects, was a scholar of Velazquez, whose early
manner he imitated cleverly. He flourished about
1650-60. In the Hermitage there is a 'Knife-
Grinder ' by him.

PUGET, FRANCOIS, painter and architect, the
son of Pierre Puget. He studied first under his
father, afterwards with Laurent Fauchier, a clever
portrait painter, whose style he followed so closely

165



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



as to render their works almost indistinguishable.
He executed several historical works and religious
pictures for the churches. According to a letter
written on January 10, 1753, by his son Pierre
Paul Puget, many of the pictures ascribed to
Pierre Puget, the sculptor, are by his son Francois.
In 1683 Francois carried his father's group ' Milo
of Crotona,' to the king at Versailles, and, in 1685,
his ' Andromeda.' He died in 1707. Works :
The Calling of Matthew and other pictures in the

Chapel at Chateau Gomher.

Portrait of the sculptor, Pierre Puget. (Louvre.)
Portrait Group of eight Musicians and Artists. (The

same.)

PUGET, PIERRE, (or PUJET,) painter, sculptor,
architect, and engineer, was born at Chateau Follet,
near Marseilles, October 31, 1622. At the age of
seventeen he went to Italy on foot, working his
way along the road. He visited Florence and Rome,
assisted by Cortona ; he painted a ceiling in the
Barberini Palace, and in the Pitti Palace at Florence,
and returned to Marseilles in 1643. There he
painted a portrait of his mother, and after a second
journey to Italy, painted many works for his native
city, and for Aix, Toulon, Cuers, and Ciotat. In 1 655,
being attacked by a severe malady, he was forced
to give up painting, and henceforth devoted hiin-
Belf to sculpture. He visited Paris in 1659, leaving
it after a six months' sojourn, disgusted with the
court intrigue which had marred his arrangement
for an equestrian statue of Louis XIV. He next
spent six or seven years at Genoa, and then a
second term at Toulon, finally settling in his
native Marseilles, where he died in 1694. The por-
trait of himself at an advanced age in the Louvre,
is by his son, Francois. An ' Annunciation _' of
graceful design but somewhat cold colouring is in
the cathedral of Aix, and many of his pictures are
at Marseilles and in its neighbourhood.

PDGH, CHARLES, an English landscape painter
in water-colours, of the early tinted school, who
exhibited at the Academy from 1797 to 1803. His
subjects were mostly views in Wales and the Isle
of Wight.

PUGH, EDWARD, an English miniature painter
and landscape draughtsman, was born in the second
half of the 18th century. His works appeared at
the Academy from 1793 to 1808. He died at Ruthin
in 1813. The illustrations in the following works
are by him :

Modern London. 1805.
Cambria depicta. 1816.

PUGH, HERBERT, a landscape painter and
native of Ireland, who came to London about the
year 1758, received a premium from the Society of
Arts in 1765. He painted a few pictures also in
which he attempted to imitate the style of Hogarth,
but they were very indifferent performances. They
were engraved by Goldar. There was a large
landscape by him in the Lock Hospital. He was
an intemperate man, and died comparatively young
about the year 1789.

PUGIN, AUGUSTUS CHARLES, architectural
draughtsman, was born in France in 1762. As a
royalist he was proscribed by the leaders of the
Revolution and obliged to flee to England, where,
after many hardships due to his loss of fortune and
ignorance of the language, he at length obtained
employment from Nash, the celebrated architect.
For several years he worked in Nash's office, de-
voting his spare time to the study of architectural
drawing both in the schools of the Royal Academy
166



and under Merigot, the aquatint engraver, whom
he had known in France, and from whom he now
took lessons. His skill as an architectural draughts-
man was well known, his assistance being fre-
quently sought in that capacity for publications of
the period, and in 1808 he became a member of
the Old Water-Colour Society, at whose Gallery he
was often an exhibitor. The commencement of
the revival of Gothic architecture in England
opened a new field for his talent, and with the view
of assisting in the establishment of that movement,
he began a series of illustrated works on the Gothic
style which did much to bring about its success.
It was in this connection that he opened an office
for the study of architecture, first of all in Store
Street, near Tottenham Court Road, and sub-
sequently in Great Russell Street, where he re-
ceived pupils, who assisted him in the production
of the necessary plates for his publications. Four
of his water-colours, dealing with the Coronation
of George IV., are in South Kensington Museum.
In 1802 he married Miss Catherine Welby, and
after living for many years in Bloomsbury, died at
his residence there in 1832, leaving one child,
Augustus Welby Pugin, the architect of that name.
He was buried in St. Mary's Church, Islington.
A list of the principal publications on which he
was engaged is appended :

Ackermanu's Microcosm of London (plates with Kow-
landson). 1808.

Specimens of Gothic Architecture from Oxford (with
Mackenzie). No date.

Ackermann's Eepository of Arts (plates of furniture).
1810-27.

Specimens of Gothic Architecture. 1821-23.

Views of Islington and Pentonville (with Brayley).
1823.

Illustrations of Public Buildings of London (with
Britton). 1825-28.

Specimens of Architectural Antiquities of Normandy
(with Britton and Le Keux). 1826.

Examples of Gothic Architecture. 1828-31.

Views of Paris and Environs (with Heath). 1828-31.

Gothic Ornaments from Ancient Buildings in England
and France. 1831.

Ornamental Gables. 1831. S. P. P.

PUGIN, AUGUSTUS WELBY NORTHMORE, is best
known as an ecclesiastical architect and the leader
of the Gothic revival in this country, but calls for
mention here as an architectural draughtsman,
water-colourist, and etcher. He was born in London
on March 1, 1812, and at the age of thirteen as-
sisted his father, Augustus Pugin, in the production
of the series of illustrated works on architecture
which he was then publishing. Five years later
we find him engaged for a short period in scene
painting, when he designed the scenery for a new
opera of ' Kenilworth,' which was produced in
London in 1831 ; but he soon returned to his
favourite art, and, on the death of his father in
1832, completed and published the last volume of
' Examples of Gothic Architecture.' In the inter-
vals of his professional practice he found time to
write several works, in which he strongly ad-
vocated the claims of Gothic art, and which were
illustrated by himself, chiefly with etchings. He
was a very rapid draughtsman, and left a large
number of sketches, mainly of architectural sub-
jects, both in pencil and water-colour, which
deserve to , be better known, for they reveal an
exceptional knowledge of perspective, and ap-
preciation of the effects of light and shade. These
are almost wholly in private hands, though after
his death his family caused a selection of some



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



hundreds of them to be photographed and published
in two volumes in 1865. Unfortunately these
reproductions are too small in scale to be altogether
satisfactory. He essayed painting in oils, but the
comparative slowness of the process did not appeal
to him, and after two or three attempts he returned
to the medium which better accorded witb his
temperament. Many of the leading artists of the
time were amongst his friends, the chief being
Clarksou Stanfield, R.A., and J. R. Herbert, R.A.,
the latter of whom painted his portrait, which still
hangs in the residence he built for himself at
Ramsgate. His career as an artist has been
described by Benjamin Ferrey, a fellow-pupil in
his father's office, in a ' Life ' published by him in
1861. After being married three times, and leaving
several children, of whom the eldest son was
Edward Welby Pugin, who succeeded to his
father's practice as an architect, he died on
September 14, 1852, at the early age of 40, and
was buried at Ramsgate, in St. Augustine's Church,
of which he was both the founder and the designer.
In the subjoined list of his chief works those
published previous to 1844 were illustrated with
etchings by himself ; from that date the illustra-
tions were re-drawn for lithography, and have lost
much of their character in the process.

Gothic Furniture. 1835.

Details of Ancient Timber Houses. 1836.

Designs for Gold and Silversmiths. 1836.

Designs for Iron and Brasswork. 1836.

Contrasts (second edition, with extra plates, published
in 1841); 1836.

True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture.
1841.

Agology for the Revival of Christian Architecture. 1843.

Present State of Ecclesiastical Architecture in England
1843.

Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament and Costume.
1844.

Floral Ornament. 1849.

Treatise on Chancel Screens and Rood Lofts. 1851.

PDGLIA, GIUSEPPE, called GIUSEPPE DEL BAS-
TARD, was a native of Rome, and, according to
Baglioni, flourished from 1600, and chiefly during
the pontificate of Urban VIII. There are several
of his works in the churches at Rome, of which
the most deserving of notice are ' The Present-
ation in the Temple,' in the cloister of the Padri
della Minerva ; and an altar-piece in the church of
Santa Maria Maggiore, representing ' The Assump-
tion of the Virgin.' In the church of San Girolamo
there are a ' Descent from the Cross,' and a ' Death
of St. Jerome.' Bastaro died at Rome in 1640.

PUGL1COCHI, ANTONIO, a native of Florence,
and pupil successively of Pietro Dandini and Giro
Ferri.

PUIS, Du. See DUPUIS.

PUJET. See PUGET.

PUJOL, ALEX. D. See ABEL DE PUJOL.

PULIAN, JOHANN GOTTFRIED, was born at
Meissen in 1809, and was a landscape and archi-
tectural painter. In 1837 he began to attend the
Academy at Dusseldorf, in which city he died in
1875. His best productions are picturesque sketches
from the old towns of Belgium and the Rhine.
Among them we may name :

The City Gate of Neuss. 1840.

Schwalbach, on the Rhine.

Various Views in Bacharach, on the Rhine.

The Cathedral of Limburg.

St. Nicholas' Church at Ghent.

PULIGO, DOMENICO, was a painter of Florence,
born in 1475, and brought up in the school of



Domenico Bigordi, called Ghirlandnio. On the
death of that master, in 1498, when he was twenty
years of age, it does not appear that he made choice
of another instructor, but he acquired considerable
reputation as a portrait painter, and by some easel
pictures representing Madonnas and Holy Families,
some of which are in the Borghese and Colonna
Palaces at Rome, and the Pitti at Florence. He
formed an intimate acquaintance with Andrea del
Sarto, and though several years older than that
painter, he improved his style by a study of his
works. He is stated to have worked also with
Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. Puligo died in 1527. Works :
Florence. Pitti Gal. Five Holy Families.

Panshanger. A Portrait.

Madrid. Pi-ado. A. Holy Family.

PULIGO, JACONE, the brother of Domenico
Puligo, was also a scholar and assistant of Andrea
del Sarto. He was a very inferior painter.

PULZONE, SCIPIONE, called GAETANO, was born
at Gaeta in 1550, or, as Zani states, 1562, and was a
disciple of Jacopo del Conte. He painted historical
subjects, but more especially portraits, and drew
those of the most illustrious persons of his time ;
among whom were Gregory XIII., Cardinal
de' Medici, and the Archduke Ferdinand. Lanzi
asserts that he was called ' The Roman Van Dyck,'
but this cannot have been during his life-time, as
he died several years before Van Dyck was born.
Of his historical works, the most deserving of
notice are, his picture of the ' Assumption, with
the Apostles,' in San Silvestro, on Monte Cavallo ;
a Pieta, in the Jesuits' church ; and a ' Crucifixion,'
in Santa Maria, in Vallicella. In the Palaczo
Borghese there is a fine ' Holy Family ' by him.
He died at Rome in the prime of life, in 1588, or,
according to Zani, in 1600. Besides the above
works we may name :

Florence. Pitti Gal. Portrait of Eleonora de'

Medici, wife of Vincenzo
I., Duke of Mantua.

Portrait of Marie de' Medici.

Three portraits of Principes.

Portrait of Ferdinando I. de'

Medici.

,. mfi'i. Christ in the Garden.

Madrid. Museo. Male portrait.

PUNT, JAN, a Dutcli engraver, was born in
1711, and died about 1779. He was a theatrical
scene painter, and painter in chiaroscuro. His
principal plates were a set of thirty-six, after the
drawings made by Jacob de Wit from the paint-
ings by Rubens on the ceiling of the church of
the Jesuits, at Antwerp, which were destroyed by
lightning. He also engraved a plate of the ' As-
cension,' after Seb. Ricci, for the ' Dresden Gallery ; '
and many other subjects, of which Nagler has given
a list.

PUNTORMO. See CARRUCCI.

PUPILER, ANTOINE, is stated to have been a
Flemish painter of extraordinary merit, who was
employed in Spain by Philip II. in 1556, but all of
whose works were consumed in the conflagration
at the Pardo.

PUPINI, BIAGIO, was a native of Bologna, and
flourished from about 1530 to 1540. He was a
disciple of Francesco Francia, whose style he fol-
lowed at a respectful distance. He also imitated
Raphael. Of his works in the public edifices at
Bologna, the following are the most worthy of
notice : In the church of S. Giuliano, ' The Crown-
ing of the Virgin ; ' in S. Giacomo Maggiore, ' The

167



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Virgin and Infant Christ, with S. Orsola ; ' in S.
Maria della Baroncella, ' St. John preaching in the
Wilderness ; ' and in the Pinacoteca, a ' Nativity,'
with the Virgin, St. Joseph, and Angels adoring
the Infant Christ.

PDKCELL, RICHARD, who passed by the name
of C. CORBDTT, was a mezzotint engraver, horn in
Ireland about the year 1736. He studied under
John Brooks at Dublin, where he practised for a
while, engraving ' Jenny Cameron,' 'The Jewish
Bride,' ' William at the Siege of Namur,' &c. Some
of his plates are mere copies from those of other
engravers. In later years on he came to London,
where he engraved after Reynolds, Coker, Ramsay,
Frye, and other well-known painters. The true
reason for his use of a, pseudonym can only be
guessed, but he was dissolute, even depraved, in his
life. He died in misery about 1765. Of his plates
the following, perhaps, are the most worthy of
notice :

John Manners, Marquis of Granby ; after Reynolds.

Lady Fenhoulet, afterwards Countess of Essex ; after
the same.

Elizabeth, Countess of Berkeley ; after the same.

Lady Charlotte Johnstone ; after the same.

Garrick between Tragedy and Comedy ; after the same.

The Children of Charles I. ; after Van Dyck.

John Wilkes, Esq. ; after Pine.

Major-General James Wolfe.

Francois Arouet de Voltaire.

Jean Jacques Rousseau.

William Komaine ; after F. Cotes.

Paoli ; after Coitstantine.

Anne Bastard, of Kitely, in Devonshire.

A Flemish Conversation ; after Bromoer.

The old Rabbi ; after Rembrandt.

Two subjects after J. Vernet.

PUSCHNER, JOHANN GEORG, was a German en-
graver, supposed to have been a native of Nurem-
berg. He flourished from 1670 till 1720, and
engraved a set of portraits for a folio volume,
entitled 'Icones virorum omnium ordinum eru-
ditione,' &c., published at Nuremberg.

PUTTNER, JOSEPH CARL, German marine
painter ; born at Plan (Bohemia) in 1821 ; a
great traveller ; settled at Vienna, where he was
appointed Court painter ; his work at Venice was
among his most successful achievements. He died
at Voslau in December 1881.

PUVIS DE CHAVANNES, PIERRE C^CILE, son
of an engineer, was born at Lyons on December
14, 1824. A member of an old Burgundian family,
he was the second artist of his race, for in the
Louvre is a landscape, ' The Shepherds,' by his
ancestor Pierre Domachin, Sieur de Chavanne,
who was a member of the Academy from 1709 to
1744. He was educated with a view to following
his father's profession, but a fortunate illness sent
him to recruit his strength in Italy. The visit
was a determining influence in his career, for on
his return he announced his intention of becoming
a painter. His first teacher was Henri Scheffer,
brother of Ary Scheffer, whom he soon left to visit
Italy for a second time. Returning to France, he
worked in the studios of Delacroix and Couture,
but found himself without sympathy with either,
and the term of their influence was limited to a
few weeks. Having thus withdrawn from the
romantic and classical traditions of the day, he
proceeded to work out his theories alone, giving
himself entirely to mural and decorative painting.
Critics combined in disparaging his work, blaming
his drawing, the calm immobility of his figures,
the poverty of his simple palette. He was dubbed

168



a Lenten painter un peintre de careme whose
dull eye saw nature in ungainly lines and tones of
grey. Nine of his pictures were refused at the
Salon, the one exception being his ' Return from
Hunting,' exhibited in 1859. His merits received
recognition first in 1861, when he obtained the
second-class medal. His two large canvases,
' War ' and ' Peace, 1 were bought by the State, to
be handed to the Amiens Museum, to which the
painter in 1863 presented the companion works,
' Rest ' and ' Labour,' completing the series by his
'Ave Picardia Nutrix" in 1865, and two small
grisailles, ' Vigilance ' and ' Fancy,' in 1866. At
the Exposition of 1867 he was represented by
small replicas of 'War,' 'Peace,' 'Labour,' and
' Rest,' and by another canvas, ' Sleep,' gaining a
medal, and the ribbon of the Legion of Honour.
From this time his career became one of triumphant
success, one public building after another through-
out France being decorated by his frescoes, always,
it should be remarked, painted on canvas. In
1868 came 'Play' for the Cercle de 1'Union
Artistique ; in 1869 ' Massilia, Greek Colony,'
and ' Marseilles, Gate of the East,' for the staircase
of Marseilles Museum; in 1870 'The Beheading
of St. John the Baptist'; in 1872 'Hope'; in
1873 'Summer' ; in 1874 ' Charles Martel's Victory
over the Saracens,' for the Hotel de Ville of Poitiers ;
and in 1875 his ' St. Radegonde protecting Educa-
tion,' for the same building. For 1876 and 1877
his work was the well-known decoration of the
Panthe'on, dealing with the childhood of St.
Genevieve, for which he was made an Officer of
the Legion. In 1880 the Amiens Museum was
further enriched by ' Pro Patria Ludus,' and in
1882 by the ' Young Picard practising with the
Lance.' In 1881 he exhibited one of his rare easel
pictures, 'The Poor Fisherman,' now in the
Luxembourg, and in the following year adorned
the house of his friend Bonnat with his ' Lovely
Land.' In 1884 he began the series of decorations
for the Museum of his native city with ' Sacred
Wood, dear to the Arts and Muses,' following it in
1885 by 'Autumn,' and in 1886 by 'Antique
Vision Christian Inspiration,' and ' The Rhone
and the Saune.' To the next two years belongs
the great Hemicycle of the Sorbonne, for which he
became a Commander of the Legion. Having
little sympathy with academic traditions, he
retained for a short time only his membership of
the Salon jury, to which he was elected in 1872,
and on the schism of 1890 was one of the promoters
of the new Salon of the Champ de Mars, becoming
its President on Meissonier's death in 1891. He
exhibited there in that year ' Inter Artes et
Naturam ' and two small panels, all for the Rouen
Museum ; and ' Summer' for the Hotel de Ville at
Paris; in 1892 'Winter' for the same building,
the staircase of which he completed in 1894.
There also in 1895 he showed the large panel of
' The Muses welcoming the Genius of Enlighten-
ment,' now at the head of the staircase in the
Public Library at Boston. He died in Paris, after
a short illness, on October 24, 1898, his last work
having been the completion of the cartoons of his
' Ravitaillement de Paris ' for the Pantheon.

The adverse criticism which assailed Puvis de
Chavannes, mainly at the beginning of his career,
was due largely to the fact that he was above all a
decorator, and his work was unfairly judged when
seen in contrast with exhibited works of a radically
different nature. Seen in its proper surroundings,



PUVIS DE CHAVANNES



%&




\Pantheon^ Paris



THE DEDICATION OF ST. OENEVIEVE



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



as the artist meant it to be seen, in Paris, Lille,
Amiens, Lyons, and many more of the principal
towns of France, his work lias risen triumphantly
above criticism. Puvis de Chavannes was inspired
always by the consciousness that the true purpose
of mural painting was not to disguise but to
emphasize the essential flatness of the wall, and
above all, that the painting should harmonize with
the usually grey tones of its surroundings. He
worked accordingly in pale keys of cool, fresh
colour, the delicate tones and his subtle balancing
of lines and spaces all making for repose. His
subjects, though allegorical, are never didactic, and
he worked with entire disregard of conventional
formula;. Though Greek in his feeling for simple
nature and his sense of vital beauty, and though
influenced no doubt by Giotto, Fra Angelico and
the primitives, he is yet independent of all tradition,
essentially modern and original. Puvis de Cha-
vannes, indeed, may be said to have created
modern decorative painting M H

PUYOL (POJOL). See ABEL DE PUJOL.

PYE, CHARLES, an English engraver, born in 1777.
There is a ' Holy Family,' after M. Angelo, by him,
and specimens of his work will also be found in
Dibdin's 'Tour.' He published a work on coins
and tokens.

PYE, JOHN, the elder, an English engraver and
painter, was born in 1745. He was a pupil of
Major, and gained a Society of Arts' pension in 1758.
From 1780 onwards he was a constant exhibitor
of water-colour views at the Royal Academy. He
was employed by Boydell as an engraver, and
worked in both the line and dot manners, and also
etched. The date of his death is not recorded.
We have by him a ' Tobit and the Angel,' after
Karel du Jardin, and a ' Holy Family,' after Poe-
lemberg ; also several landscapes, after Claude
Lorrain, Vernet, Swanevelt, Cuyp, &c., which are
etched and neatly finished with the graver.

PYE, JOHN, an English engraver, born at Bir-
mingham April 22, 1782. In his early years he
was entirely self-taught, until he came to London
about 1802, and worked under James Heath, in
whose workshop he had an opportunity of making
friends with many of those men who made English
engraving famous in the early years of the century.
He soon obtained a reputation for his rendering of
landscapes, especially those of Turner. In 1811
he engraved ' Pope's Villa,' after that master, with
the figures by C. Heath. This so pleased Turner
that he engaged Pye to engrave his ' Temple of



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