Jupiter, at ^Egina.' With this plate he was very
successful, and from its publication his repute was
established. Many important works were intrusted
to him, and while still comparatively young, he
had acquired means enough to take life easily, to
help on less fortunate men, and to promote various
causes he had at heart. Much of his life was passed
in Paris, and he was elected a corresponding member
of the French Institute (by which he was awarded
a medal), as well as of the St. Petersburg Academy.
He took great interest in the history and con-
dition of English art, was a founder of the Artists'
Benevolent Fund, opposed the Royal Academy
with much energy and not a little acerbity,
and wrote an important work on ' The Patronage
of British Art.' He also managed the publication
of ' Pictures from the National Gallery,' which
came to an end after twenty-nine parts had been
issued. Pye t died in London in 1874. Amongst
his best plates are :
Pope's Tilla ; Temple of Jupiter ; Hardraw Fall ;
Wycliffe, Yorkshire ; Ehrenbreitstein ; Weathercote
Cave; Rialto, Venice; La Kiccia; St. Mary Red-
clyffe, Bristol ; Junction of the Greta and the Tees ;
all after Turner. The Annunciation ; after Claude
Lorrain. Evening; after George Barrett. Classical
Landscape; after Caspar Poussin. Plates to Stan-
hope's ' Olympia.' Plates to the ' Oriental Annual.'
PYE, THOMAS, historical painter, studied in
Dublin under West, and in 1794 was in Rome.
Nothing further is known about him.
PYLE, ROBERT, an English portrait and subject
painter, born in the first half of the 18th century.
He practised in London, and in 1763 was a
member of the Free Society of Artists. Some
of his works were engraved, among them the
The Power of Music and Beauty. (Engraved by J.
The Four Elements. (The same, by J. Spooner.)
Portrait of Queen Charlotte.
PYM, B., an English portrait and miniature
painter, who had a considerable practice in London
in the latter half of the 18th century. He exhibited
regularly at the Academy up to 1793. There is
a portrait of Bannister by him at the Garrick
PYNAKER. See PIJNAKER.
PYNE, CHARLES CLAUDE, an English water-
colour artist, was born in 1802. For many years he
was teacher of drawing in the Grammar School at
Guildford, in which town he died in October, 1878.
In the Art Library, South Kensington Museum,
are six volumes of his sketches in Switzerland and
North Italy, and a volume filled with small draw-
ings of Normandy and Brittany.
PYNE, JAMES BAKER, was born in Bristol in
1800. He was intended for the law, but he aban-
doned it to become an artist. In 1835 he came to
London, and exhibited at the Royal Academy. In
1842 he was admitted a member of the Society of
British Artists, and was for some years its Vice-
President. In 1846 he visited Switzerland, Ger-
many, and Italy ; and in 1851 he paid a second
visit to Italy. He published ' Windsor and its
surrounding scenery,' in 1840, ' The English Lake
District,' in 1853, and the ' Lake Scenery of Eng-
land,' in 1859. He died in 1870. His art was
arbitrary in its relation to nature, but as an execut-
ant and a decorative manipulator of colour, his
skill was very great. Three of his pictures are at
PYNE, WILLIAM HENRY, an English water-
colour painter of landscape and figure subjects,
was born in London in 1769. He received some
instruction in drawing from a draughtsman, and
exhibited at the Academy from 1790 to 1796. In
1804 he was one of the original members of the
Water-Colour Society, where he exhibited till 1809.
The later part of his life was chiefly devoted to the
literature of art, and he published many works in
conjunction with Ackermann. The chief of these
' The Microcosm of London.' 1803-6.
' The Costume of Great Britain.' 1808.
' Etchings of Rustic Figures.' 1817.
' History of the Royal Residences.' 1819.
He died at Paddington in 1843. Three of his
water-colour drawings are at South Kensington.
PYREICUS, who lived immediately after the
time of Alexander the Great, was the most eminent
genre painter of his time.
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
QUADAL, MARTIN FERDINAND, painter and en-
graver, was born at Niemtschitz in Moravia in
1 736. He came in early life to London, then visited
France and Italy, worked at Vienna in 1787-9, and
in St. Petersburg 1797-1804. After a second visit to
London, he returned to St. Petersburg, where he
died in 1811. He painted animal pieces, as well
as military scenes, genre subjects, and portraits.
He etched a ' Group of Cats,' a ' Child with a Dog,'
and ' Studies from Domestic and Wild Animals '
QUADRA, NICOLAS ANTONIO, (or DE LA QUADRA,)
a Spanish painter, who flourished at the end of the
17th century. There is a life-size portrait by him in
the Carmelite Convent at Madrid. It is dated 1695.
QUAGLIA, FERNANDO, a Spanish miniature
painter, who was active in the first years of the 19th
century. He painted portraits of Marshal Junot
and of the Empress Josephine.
QUAGLIATA, GIOVANNI, an historical painter,
born at Messina in 1603. He was a pupil of
Cortona. His brother ANDREA, born in 1600, was
also an historical painter. Giovanni died in 1673
and Andrea in 1660.
QUAGLIO. This was the name of a family
of artists of Laino, between Lakes Como and
Lugano. Some of them were exclusively architects
(Giovanni Maria ' the elder,' Lorenzo ' the elder,' and
Giulio ' the third ') whose names in the following
genealogical table are enclosed in parentheses:
Giulio elder, 1601?.
Giulio younger, ? 1720.
(Giovanni Maria elder, ? 1765 )
Doruenico elder, 17231760.
(Giulio ' tokd. 1 17461801.) Giuseppe. 1747-1828.
(Lorenzo elder. 17301804.)
Giovanni Maria younger, 1772 1U03.
Angelo, 1778 1815. Domenico younger, 1787 1837. Lorenz younger, 1793 1S69. Simon, 17951878.
QUAGLIO, ANGELO, eldest son of Giuseppe
Quaglio, an architect, designer, and painter, was
born in 1784, and died in 1815. He designed and
painted landscapes and architectural pictures for
Boisseree's work on Cologne Cathedral. Two pic-
tures by him are in the new Pinakothek at Munich.
QUAGLIO, DOMENICO, 'the elder,' historical
painter, was born at Laino in 1723, and died in 1760.
QUAGLIO, DOMENICO, ' the younger,' second
eon of Giuseppe Quaglio, was a landscnpe and
architectural painter, born at Munich in 1787. He
was taught perspective and scene-painting by
his father, and engraving by Mettenleiter and
Karl Hess. In 1819 he resigned his post as
scene-painter, and occupied himself thenceforward
only with architecture, for which he obtained
subjects in the Netherlands, Italy, France, and
England. He died at Hohenschwangau in 1837.
He engraved twelve plates of 'Architectural Monu-
ments,' and lithographed thirty ' Remarkable Ger-
man Buildings of the Middle Ages.' There are
many pictures by him in the modern collections at
Munich and Berlin.
QUAGLIO, GIOVANNI MARIA, 'the younger,' son
of Lorenzo Quaglio 'the elder,' was an architect
as well as painter, and was born at Laino in 1772.
He studied at Rome, Naples, Milan, and Venice,
and became in 1793 court scene-painter at Munich.
He died in 1813.
QUAGLIO, GIDLIO, 'the elder,' father_ of the
younger artist of the same name, was an historical
and fresco painter, and an imitator of Tintoretto.
He was born in 1601, and worked in Vienna, Salz-
burg, and Laibach.
QUAGLIO, GIULIO, 'the younger,' was a native
of Como. He established himself in the Friuli
about the end of the 17th century, and there exe-
cuted several considerable works in fresco. His
most esteemed productions are in the chapel of
the Monte di Pieta, at Udine.
QUAGLIO, GIUSEPPE, was born at Laino in
1747, and died at Munich in 1828, having prac-
tised scene-painting in Mannheim, Frankfort, and
QUAGLIO, LORENZ, ' the younger,' third son of
Giuseppe Quaglio, was a genre painter and litho-
grapher. He was born at Munich in 1793, and
died at the same city in 1869. The Berlin National
Gallery contains a ' Tyrolese Inn ' by him. He
furnished designs for a set of illustrations from
the Munich Gallery, and lithographed a ' Family
Concert ' after G. Netscher.
QUAGLIO, SIMON, a son of Giuseppe Quaglio,
was a theatrical painter, architect, and lithographer,
and was born at Munich in 1795. He studied under
his father, and under his brother Angelo, and painted
architectural subjects as well as theatrical scenes.
He died at Munich in 1878.
QUAINI, FRANCESCO, was born at Bologna in
1611, and was a scholar of Agostino Mitelli, under
whom he became a painter of perspective and archi-
tectural views. There are several of his works in
the public buildings of Bologna. The best perhaps
is the decoration of the Sala Farnese, in the Palazzo
Publico. He died at Bologna in 1680.
QUAINI, LUIGI, the eon of Francesco Quaini,
was born at Bologna in 1643. After learning
perspective under his father, he became a disciple
of Guercino, but afterwards entered the school of
Carlo Cignani (to whom he was nearly related), at
the time when Marc Antonio Franceschini was
also a disciple of that master. Conjointly with
Franceschini, he assisted Cignani in several of
his principal works. After the death of their in-
structor, the two scholars continued to labour in
conjunction, Franceschini supplying the figures
and Quaini the landscapes, architecture, and other
accessories. Their united talents were successively
employed at Bologna, Modena, Piacenza, Genoa,
and at Rome, where they painted the cartoons for
[From the miniature in the Wallace Gallery
THE EMPRESS JOSEPHINE
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
one of the small domes in St. Peter's, which were
carried out in mosaic. Quaini also painted several
historical subjects from his own compositions,
which were entirely finished by himself. In the
church of San Giuseppe at Bologna is a ' Visit-
ation ; by Quaini ; in La Carita, a ' Pieta ' ; and in
San Niccol6 the principal altar-piece ; it represents
the saint in prison, visited by the Virgin and an
angel. Quaini died in 1717.
QUARANTE, LDCIEN, was born at Metz in
1860. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts
under Cabanel and Henriquel-Dupont. Subse-
quently he entered the studio of Laguillermie, and
made his debut as an engraver at the Salon of
1887 with a portrait after Franz Hals which gained
for him an honourable mention. Since then he
was a constant exhibitor at the Salons of the
Societe des Artistes Frangais, where his plates,
chiefly after the old masters, attracted much
attention. Among his principal plates are : ' The
Duke of Richmond,' after Van Dyck ; ' Le Jeune
Homme au Gant,' after Titian ; ' Le Drapeau,' after
Moreau de Tours ; and ' Les Derniers Rebelles,'
after B. Constant. He also executed many plates
for the periodical ' L'Art ' and other publications.
He died in 1902.
QUARENGHI, GIACOMO, painter, born at Ber-
gamo in 1744. He was a pupil of R. Mengs, but
devoted himself chiefly to architecture. He mi-
grated to St. Petersburg, where he worked almost
entirely at architecture, and had a great influence
over the development of that art at the Russian
capital. He died there in 1817.
QUARNSTROM, KARL GDSTAAF, Swedish
painter; born at Stockholm, March 5, 1810; he
first studied at the Stockholm Academy with
Hasselgren. A visit to Italy in 1836 served to
deepen his love of art. He subsequently became
Professor and Director of the Stockholm Academy,
but went back to live at Rome in 1854. He died
at Stockholm, March 23, 1867.
QUAST, PETER, son of John, born at Amsterdam
in 1605-6, married in 1632 Anne Splinters of the
Hague, settled there, and was admitted into the
Guild of St. Luke in 1634. In 1643 he was back at
Amsterdam, where he died in May 1647. His
pictures generally represent interiors with peasants
drinking or playing cards, or surgical operations ;
occasionally Bible stories -these treated with little
Amsterdam. Museum, A man having his leg operated on.
Hague. Maiirits- The Triumph of Folly. 1643
Vienna. Museum. Four peasants at table. 1633
We have several spirited etchings by him from
his own designs, as well as after other masters,
some of which are executed in the style of Callot,
though incorrect in drawing. He generally marked
his prints with one of the following monograms :
$ /!L 5>i The following may be named :
The Five Senses ; P. Quasi fee. J638.
The Four Seasons, in grotesque figures.
A set of twenty-six plates of Beggars, Boors, &c.
A set of twelve Grotesque Figures.
A set of ten plates of Beggars, &c. S. Savery exc.
A set of twelve fancy subjects, in imitation of Callot.
QUATREPOMME, ISABELLA, is mentioned by
Papillon as an engraver on wood. She seems to
have been a native of Rouen, and to have flourished
about the year 1521, for that date appears on the
frontispiece of an old calendar executed by her,
representing a figure of Janus. It is marked with
a rebus made up of an apple on which is the
cipher 4. There has been some dispute as to her
QUEBOORN (or QUEBOREN). See VAN DEN
QDECQ, JACQUES EDOUARD, a French historical
painter, born at Cambrai in 1796, and died in 1874.
He was a pupil of Steuben. Works :
First Combat of Eomulus and Remus. 1827.
Death of Vitellius. 1831.
Death of Britaunicus. 1833.
After the Shipwreck. 1834. (Museum of Valenciennes.)
Saint Waast. 1838. (Minist'ere del' Interietir, Paris.)
St. Francis of Assissi. 1836. (Do.)
San Carlo Borromeo during the Plague at Milan. 1840.
San Carlo Borromeo administering the Viaticum to Pius
St. Martin of Tours. 1846. (Minist'ere de I'Interieur.)
Lais and Diogenes. 1850.
Christ fainting under the Cross. 1861. (Ywuy, Nord.)
Portrait of Louis XVIII. (Cambrai Museum.)
QUELLIN, ERASMUS II., (or QUELLINUS,) was
born at Antwerp in 1607. He was son of the sculp-
tor Erasmus Quellin I., and brother of Artus Quellin,
also a sculptor. The early part of his life was
devoted to the study of the Belles Lettres, and
Sandrart asserts that he was for some time pro-
fessor of philosophy. His intimacy with Rubens
inspired him with a love for painting, and, aban-
doning his professor's chair, he became the disciple
of his friend. In a few years he distinguished
himself among the able artists of his country, at a
period when Antwerp was the residence of the best
painters of the Flemish school. He became a
master of perspective, and was well versed in the
details of architecture, with which he embellished
the backgrounds of his historical pictures. His
landscapes too are treated in a very pleasing style.
On the conclusion of peace between France and
Spain, he in 1660 painted ' Mars and Bellona chased
by Peace and Hymen,' also 'The Nuptials of Louis
XIV. and Maria Theresa,' and several decorative
pictures upon the occasion of the entry of the
Spanish Governor-General in 1665. He was not
less successful with portraits, and painted those of
many of the most distinguished artists of his time.
Quellin was a great friend of Gevartius. He died
in Tongerloo Abbey in 1678. Works :
Antwerp. St. Andrew's. The Guardian Angel.
St. Jacques. Death of St. Eoch.
Museum. Miracles of St. Hugh of Lin-
coln (a double picture).
., Gratien Molenaer saved by
Portrait of Bishop Nemius.
Dresden. Gallery. The Betrothal of Mary.
The Madonna, and Saints
Ghent. St. Saviour's. A ' Eiposo.'
Madrid. Museo. The Conception.
The Eape of Europa.
,, Bacchus and Ariadne.
Death of Eurydice.
,, Cupid on a Dolphin.
Two Angels putting two un-
clean Spirits to flight.
Mechlin. .<?. Peter's Church. The Nativity.
Rotterdam. Museum. Assumption of the Virgin.
., A Kitchen.
Vienna. Belvedere. Coronation of Charles V
We have a few etchings by Erasmus Quellin
among which are the following :
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
Samson killing the Lion ; after Rubens.
A Landscape, with a dance of children and young satyrs
The Virgin and Infant Jesus ; after Rulens.
Christ at the Pillar.
QUELLIN, HUBERT, (or QUELLINUS,) another
brother of Artus Quellin, was born at Antwerp
about the year 1608. He engraved a get of plates
after designs made by Jan Bennokel, from the
marble statues executed by Artus Quellin, in the
Stadthouse at Amsterdam, which plates are marked
with the initials of both the artists, A. Q. H. Q.
They form a volume in folio, and were published in
1655. He also engraved some portraits. His
plates are etched in a singular style, resembling
that of Pieter Soutman, and neatly finished with
the graver. Among others, we have the following
portraits by him :
Artus Quellin, Statuary of Antwerp ; H. Quellinus del
Philip IV. seated on his throne, with the Prince Eoyal
and several allegorical figures ; H. Quellinus. 1665.
QUELLIN, JAN ERASMUS, the son and scholar of
Erasmus Quellin II., was baptized at Antwerp on
December 1, 1634. He visited Italy, and resided
Borne years at Venice, where the works of Paolo
Veronese particularly attracted his attention. He
adopted the decorative style of that master, and
had acquired considerable reputation at Venice,
Naples, and Rome, when, at the desire of his
father, he returned to his native country. The
expectation his countrymen had formed from the
report of his talents furnished him with numerous
commissions, and his altar-pieces are to be found
in most of the churches of the Low Countries.
The younger Quelliu was a painter of great natural
ability, but in his time the school was too far on
the decline for his work to be agreeable. He became
a member of the Guild at Antwerp in 1660, and was
named painter to Leopold II., whose portrait, and
that of the Empress, he painted. Quellin married
Corne'lie,the daughter of David Teniers the younger,
and by her had a family of eleven children. The
date and place of his death are unknown, although
Immerzeel gives the year 1715. Works :
Antwerp. Attey of St. \ Christ healing the Sick (a
Michael. ) colossal work).
The Four Feasts of Scripture
Cathedral. Adoration of the Magi.
Museum. The Pool of Bethesda (in
., The Martyrs of Gorcum (in
Portrait of Bishop van den
Eede of Antwerp.
St. Bernard receiving the
., Christ at the House of Simon
Martyrdom of St. Agatha.
Miracle of St. Hugh.
Notre Dame. The Last Supper.
Gallery. Martyrdom of St. Andrew.
Liechtenstein Coll. Esther before Ahasuerus.
QUENEDEY, EDM, French painter and en-
graver ; born December 17, 1756, at Riceys-le-
Haut (Department Aube) ; became a pupil of
Devosge. Visited Brussels, Ghent, and Hamburg,
living here for five years. He drew and engraved
portraits of many celebrities, including Madame
de Stael, Kreutzer, Rousseau, and Mehul. He
died in 1830.
QUENTIN, NICOLAS, a French historical painter
who lived at Dijon, and died there in 1636. His
life has been too much neglected by biographers
and critics, for his work had considerable originality.
He appears to have had no regular master. The
compiler of the catalogue of the Dijon Museum
asserts that Poussin, passing through Dijon and
seeing his ' Communion of St. Catherine,' exclaimed
that if Quentin understood his own interests, and
went to Italy for improvement, he would make his
fortune. Works :
Dijon. Musee. Bishop blessing a child.
The Head of St. Elizabeth.
The Adoration of the Shepherds.
QUERENA, LACTANZIO, an Italian painter, born
at Clusone, near Bergamo, in 1760. He studied at
the Academy of Verona, and also in Venice. He
was very skilful in restoring old masters, and
painted many pictures for the churches. He died
at Venice on July 10, 1853. Works :
Venice. Sta. Maria For- ) .
mosa. } Sta ' Mar "ia.
j, SS. Giovanni e \ r,
Paolo. | DesceQ t from the Cross.
Sta. Maria del) T,.
Pianto. f Kiposo.
St. Mark's. Mosaic of Last Judgment.
QUERFURTH, AUGUST, was born at Wolfen-
buttel in 1696. He was first instructed by his
father, TOBIAS QOERFURTH, a landscape and animal
painter, and afterwards studied under Rugendas at
Augsburg. He painted encampments, battles,
skirmishes of cavalry, and hunting subjects, in all
of which he appears rather as an imitator than as
an original painter. He sometimes imitated the
manner of Bourgognone, Parrocel, and Van der
Meulen, but more especially sought to form his
style after Wouwerman. He died at Vienna in
1761. The Belvedere possesses two hunting-pieces
by him ; the Augsburg Gallery, four, and a battle ;
others are at Berlin. Dresden, and Stuttgart.
QUERRA. See GDERRA.
QUERTEMONT, ANDREAS BERNHARD DE, a por-
trait and historical painter, born at Antwerp in 1750.
He was a pupil of the Academy of Antwerp, of
which he afterwards became Director. He also had
a private school, from which he turned out several
good painters. He was the author of a series of
portraits of the members of the < States ' of Brabant,
which have been engraved. He died in 1835.
QUESNEL, a Scoto-French family of artists of
some importance : genealogy :
Pierre (early I6th century).
Francois (1544 ? 1699).
AngnSn Francois IL Nicolas ^uu^.^^
(1595 ). (1000 ). (1601 ). (living 1651).
QUESNEL, AUGUSTIN, son of Franfois, was born
in Paris in 1595. He was painter and print-seller.
Marolles says he painted portraits, but the only
known work of his is a 'Flute-player,' engraved by
Ganieres. Of the other two sons of Fran9ois,
FRANQOIS II. and NICOLAS, nothing is known, but
it is believed that the former quitted the easel for
QUESNEL, FRANC.OIS, the eldest son of Pierre,
was born at Holyrood, Edinburgh, about 1544.
Bis portrait, by himself, was engraved by Michel
Lasne. He seems to have been the ablest and
( 1632). ( 1824).
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
the most famous member of his family. He was a
great favourite with Henry III. and his court,
especially the Chancellor Chiverny. His portraits,
says de Marolles, are often confounded with those
of Janet. He compiled ' Le Premier Plan de Paris,
en douze feuilles.' But for his modest and retiring
disposition, he would have won wider fame and
greater honours. He made many designs for
tapestries, &c., to be used on the occasions of the
entry of Marie de Medici, and the consecration of
Louis XIII. Some of these were engraved by
Thomas de Leu. Quesnel died in Paris in 1619.
Paris. Lomre. Bust Portrait of a Woman. (A
drawing in black chalk.)
Ifat. Library. Portrait of a Man. (Pastel.)
n GabrieUe d'Estrees. (Pastel.)
QUESNEL, JACQUES, third son of Pierre, was
born at Paris. Nearly all that is known of him is
contained in the following quatrain of Marolles :
Jacques peignit des Saints, des voutes, des chapelles.
II peignit des tableaux pour 1'hotel de Zamet,
II en fit pour le prince a qui tout se soumet,
Et 1'on connut de lui mille beautes nouvelles.
He died in Paris May 11, 1624.
QUESNEL, JEAN FRANCOIS, French painter;
born August 13, 1803, at Coutances (Manche).
He was a pupil of Gros and also of Regnault at
the Ecole des Beaux Arts. For twenty-five years
he worked at Caen, where most of his best work
is now to be seen, including many effective por-
traits. It was here that he died, November 28,
QUESNEL, NICOLAS, second son of Pierre, born
in Paris, was Dean of the Society of Painters and
Sculptors. There is a portrait in pastel by him, of
his father, Pierre Quesnel, in the National Library,
Paris. He died August 7, 1632.
QUESNEL, PIERRE, the head of the family, was
descended from an ancient Scottish house. He was
protected by Mary of Lorraine, who presented him
to her husband, James V. He married Madeleine
Digby in Scotland, and, after she had borne him one
son, returned to France and settled in Paris, where
he was still living in 1580. His only known work
is the design, executed in 1557, for the east
windows in the church of the Augustines, at Paris.
The subject is the ' Ascension,' with Henry II. and
Catharine de' Medici as kneeling spectators.
QUESNEL, TOUSSAINT, son of Nicolas the elder,
flourished in 1651, when he painted history in
collaboration with Freminet and Dubreuil. In the
above-named year he signed the act of union be-
tween the master painters and the academicians.
QUETRY, BARTHELEMY, a French painter, who,
in 1543, painted a series of mythological pictures
in the Tennis Court at the Tuileries.