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engraver, doubtless of Spanish origin, was born at
Josselin in Brittany in 1748. He was a pupil of
J. B. Pierre and of J. de Longeuil. He engraved
several plates, as well from his own designs as after
other masters. He executed part of the plates for
the ' Voyage pittoresque d'ltalie,' by the Abbe de
St Non. We have also, among others, the following
prints by him :

A series of designs for the ' Henriade ' ; partly engraved
by himself, but finished by Dembrnn.

A series of vignettes for a translation of Ovid's ' Fasti,
and ' Heroides.'

Settiug out for the Sabbath.

Republican Calendar for the year Two.

Portrait of Charlotte Corday. (Drawing.)

QUEVERDO, LODIS IVE, engraver, born in Paria
in 1788, was a pupil of Regnault and Coiny.
Among his plates we may name the following :
The Transfiguration ; after Raphael. (' Musee Filhol.')
The Canaanitish "Woman ; after Drouais. (Do.)
The Romans and Sabines ; after David. (' Eecueil des

Prix Decennaux.')

The Three Ages ; after Gerard. (Do.)
Marcus Sextus ; after Gue'rin. (Do.)
Orestes and the Furies ; after Hennequin. (Do.)
The Coronation of Napoleon I. ; after David. (Do.)
Andromache ; after Guerin. (Etching.)
Neptune and Amphitrite ; after Giulio Romano. (Do.)
Henry IV. and his family ; after Ingres. (Do.)
Daphnisand Chloe ; after Gerard. (Do.)
(These four plates were finished with the burin by

QUILLERtER, NOEL, a French historical painter
and assistant professor of the Academy of Paint-
ing, was born at Orleans in 1594, and died in
1669, in Paris. He was received at the Academy
in 1663, his reception picture being a ' Saint Paul.'
He executed paintings in a cabinet at the Tuileries,
and during several years of his life was conservator
of the pictures in the Royal Palace of the Louvre.

and engraver, was born in Paris in 1711. fie was
a scholar of Watteau, and soon after leaving the
school of that master, he was invited to the court
of Portugal, where he was made painter to the
queen, and a member of the Academy at Lisbon.
His principal work as a painter is a ceiling in the
queen's bed-chamber. He engraved from his own
designs the plates for ' The Funeral of Duke Don
Nuno Olivares Pereira,' published at Lisbon in 1730.
He died at Lisbon while still young.

painter, born at Valenciennes in 1788. He was a
pupil of Abel de Pujol and Watelet. His pictures
are numerous. In the museum in his native
town there is an ' Erminia with the Shepherds,' in
a landscape.

QUINAUX, JOSEPH, French painter ; born March
29, 1822, at Namur ; was a pupil at the Art School
of that town, and afterwards studied at Antwerp
and Louvain. He became a Professor at the
Brussels Academy, painting landscapes and other
subjects, of which some found acceptance by the
Brussels Museum. He obtained the Brussels gold
medal, the Leopold Order, and other decorations.
He died at Brussels, May 25, 1895.

QUINKHARDT, JAN MAURITS, was born at_Rees,
near Cleves,in 1688,and was a scholar, successively,
of Arnold van Boonen, Lubinietski, and N. Ver-
kolje. He painted familiar, allegorical, and mytho-
logical subjects, and was excellent in portraits, of
which he painted a great number. Five good ex-
amples are in the Amsterdam Museum. He died in
1772. His son JULIUS, born in 1736, was instructed
by his father, but abandoned art for commerce.
He died in 1776. Two pictures by him are in the
Amsterdam Museum.

QUINTILIEN, , is mentioned by Florent le
Comte as the engraver of some plates after Callbt,
to which he did not affix his name.

QUINTON, GEORGE, a self-taught engraver, was
born at Norwich in 1779. Some of his works
appear in the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' 1796.

QU1RICIUS DA MURANO, an obscure painter
over whose career there has been much discussion.
Among the treasures at Rovigo towards the close
of the 18th century, Francesco Bartoli noticed a St.
Lucia by an unknown painter in the house of the
Campanari family, dated and signed as follows,


Opus Quiricius de Joanes VeneciisM 4062. This
picture is now in the possession of Cardinal Sil-
vestri at Rovigo. The signature and technical
characteristics suggest that Quiricius was the pupil
of Giovanni d'Alemania, the chief of the famous
workshop of Murano. In the Venice Academy
there are a ' Virgin Adoring ' and an ' Ecce Homo,'
both clearly by the same hand, and the former
signed . . uiritus, Murano. This signature, how-
ever, is either false or repainted. For a fuller dis-
cussion of Quiricius, see Crowe and Cavalcaselle,
' Painting in North Italy,' vol. i. pp. 34 37.

QUIROS, LORENZO, a Spanish historical painter,
and imitator of Murillo, was born at Santos in
Estremadura in 1717. He studied at Seville under
Bernard German Llorente, and made great progress
both in fresco and oil painting. To perfect himself
in drawing, he went to Madrid ; but his turbulent
disposition induced him to abandon the patronage
of Corrado and Mengs, who were disposed to em-
ploy him. He returned to Seville, where he re-
mained for twenty years without ever making any
one acquainted with his place of residence. He
employed himself in copying the works of Murillo,
which he did very successfully, selling his copies
through an agent. He died in 1789. He has left
works at Madrid, at the Royal Academy of San
Fernando, at Cazalla, Granada, Xeres, Seville, and
at other places in Spain.

a Dutch mezzotint engraver, was born in 1620, and
died in 1700. We have by him a few English
portraits, after Sir Peter Lely and others.

His eldest son, also HERMAN HENDRIK, studied in
the school of Carlo Maratti, in 1700, and was after-
wards painter to the Landgrave of Hesse ; he died
in 1711 at Brunswick. MAGNUS QUITER, a younger
son, a portrait painter, was also a short time in the
school of Maratti ; he visited Holland and England,
and probably assisted Kneller. He was afterwards
keeper of the Gallery at Salzdalum ; and died in 1744.
There was also an E. QUITER, a mezzotinter, who
produced a few plates after Jan de Baan.


RAAB, GEORG, German painter ; born at Vienna,
February 1, 1821 ; became a pupil at the Vienna
Academy from 1841 to 1846 ; he worked at Buda-
pesth, and also profited by study at Munich.
Painted portraits in oil and water-colour ; also
miniatures. The Vienna Museum possesses his
' Lady with the White Veil.' He painted a portrait
of the Emperor Francis Joseph, and also of the
Empress Elizabeth. He died at Vienna, December
31, 1885.

RAAB, IGNAZ JOSEPH, a painter, was born at
Mechanitz in Bohemia, in 1715. He studied at
Getschin under Major, but in 1744 entered the
Jesuit Order, for which he did much decorative work
in fresco. He died at Welehrad in Moravia, in 1787.

RA ABE, JOSEPH, a portrait and historical painter,
was born at Deutsch-Wartemberg, in Silesia, in
1780. After travelling through Germany, France,
and Italy, he became court painter to the Duke of
Hesse, and teacher of drawing and painting in the
Academy at Bonn. In 1816 he became a member
of the Dresden Academy, and in the same year

went again to Italy. Some years later he was
appointed court painter to the King of Saxony.
His chief works are figures of St. Peter and St.
Paul, painted for the church at Naumburg, in
Silesia, and a ' Madonna and Child ' for the church
at Werthau, in the same province. In the Dresden
Gallery there is a series of pictures and drawings
by him illustrating the history of Germany in the
Middle Ages. Raabe died in 1849.

RABAGLIO, PROSPER, was a native of Brescia.
There is an altar-piece by him in the church of the
Capuchins in that city, dated 1588.

RABASSE, JEAN, an engraver and print-seller,
who flourished in Paris about 1650. Three prints
have been attributed to him : a ' Judith,' signed
Jean Rabas avec Previlege du Roy ; a ' Holy
Family,' with his initials, J. R., and a 'Repose
in Egypt,' with the same letters in a cipher. The
two latter have been variously assigned by different

RABBIA, RAFAELLE, a portrait painter, was born
at Marino. He was living in the 3'ear 1610.

RABEL, DANIEL, the son of Jean Rabel, was
probably instructed by him in the principles of
art. He painted landscapes, some of which have
been engraved. He etched a considerable number
of plates in a style resembling that of Israel
Silvestre, which chiefly consist of views and land-
scapes, with figures neatly drawn. His death is
said to have taken place in 1628.

RABEL, JEAN, painter and engraver, was bom
at Beauvais, in France, between 1545 and 1550. He
executed several etchings for a book called ' The
Antiquities of Paris,' published in 1588. He en-
graved portraits of Charles V., Louis XII., Soissons,
and Coligny ; and painted portraits of Henri III.,
Garnier, and others. There is a copper-plate by
him representing the ' Martyrdom of St. Lawrence,
copied from the print of the same subject engraved
by Marc Antonio, after Baccio Bandinelli. It is
smaller than the original, and on a stone at th
bottom of the print is inscribed lo Rabel Bd-
lonacus lute Parisii. He died in 1603.

Dutch engraver, of whom little is known with
certainty, except that he engraved the ' Twelve
Csesars,' after Stradanus, on one of which is a cipher
formed of S. R. V., and on the rest his name varied
as above ; and the ' Madonna della Seggiola,' after
Raphael, signed Servatius Raeven. By some he
has been confused with Serwouter ; but the cipher
of the latter is very different from his, being
composed of a P and an S interlaced, followed
by a W.

RABER, JOHANN GEORG, a German engraver,
was born at Vienna in 1764. He became the pupil
of Miiller in Stuttgart, and of Desnoyers in Paris.
His chief works are 'Children,' after Van Dyck ;
a ' Madonna,' after Raphael ; and a portrait of
Prince Ludwig of Bavaria, after Kellerhofen.

RABIELLA, PABLO, a Spanish painter of battle-
pieces, who lived at Saragossa at the commence-
ment of the 18th century, where he enjoyed a con-
siderable reputation. Though not very correct in
his drawing, in his painting he followed with
success the styles of Juan Rizi of Castille, and
Juan de Valdes of Andalusia. There are several
pictures in the Trinitarios Calzados de Teruel
attributed to him ; also in the chapels of St. Marco
and Santiago, and one in the Cathedral de la Seu
at Saragossa, representing the Battle of Clavijo.

RABISINO, TOMMASO DA, commonly known as


Tommaso da Moclena, a native of Modena, who
flourished as a painter in the 14th century. Of his
life nothing is known for certain, but the chief
works which have been the means of preserving
his name are: an ' Ecce Homo' and 'Madonna' in
the chapel of the Castle at Karlstein ; a ' Madonna '
in the Gallery at Modena ; a ' Madonna with Saints '
in the Belvedere at Vienna, and several Saints
in the church of St. Niccolo at Treviso, most of
which are in a very exaggerated style. See Crowe
and Cavalcaselle, 'Italian Painting,' vol. ii. p. 219.

RABON, NICOLAS, (or REBON.) son of Pierre
(Rabon), was born in Paris in 1644, and painted
historical subjects. He obtained honours at the
Academy in 1666, and was admitted a member in
1686. He died the same year at Hermant.

RABON, PIERRE, (or REBON,) born at Havre
in 1619, practised portrait painting. He was
admitted into the old Royal Academy of France in
1660, and died in 1684.

RACCHETTI, BERNARDO, the nephew and scholai
of Giovanni Ghisolfi, was born at Milan in 1639.
He painted architectural views and perspectives
in the style of his instructor, for whose pictures
Racchetti's are not unfrequently mistaken. They
usually represent sea-ports embellished with mag-
nificent buildings, which are drawn with precision,
and handled with taste and spirit. There are
many of his works in the private collections at
Milan, where he died in 1702.

RACINE. JEAN BAPTISTE, a French engraver,
born in Paris in 1747. He was a pupil of Fran-
cois Aliamet, and has engraved several vignettes
and other plates for books, after Cochin. We have
also some prints of landscapes after different
masters, and a few subjects from the pictures in
the Orleans Gallery. Among others the following
are by him :

Hagar and Ishmael ; after P. F. Mold.
A Pastoral Subject ; after B. Breenberg.
A Pair of Landscapes ; after Pillement.

RACLE, FRANQOIS B., portrait painter, bora at
Liege, 1739, a pupil of Deprez, and studied also
in Italy. He succeeded his father as painter in
ordinary to the chapter of S. Lambert's Cathedral.
He died 1777.

RADCLYFFE, EDWARD, an English mezzotint
and line engraver, born at Birmingham in 1810.
He studied under his father, W. Radclyffe, whom
he assisted for some time. Coming to London in
1842, he worked for the Annuals and the 'Art
Journal.' In 1862 he engraved a series of land-
scapes after David Cox for the Art Union of
London. He died in Camden Town in 1863.
Amongst his best plates are :

The Windy Day ; after D. Cox.

A Welsh Funeral ; after the same.

Kenilworth Castle ; after the same.

The Hay-field ; after Alsolon.

Rape of Europa ; after Claude.

The Beacon Tower ; after the same.

Morning : Sea Coast ; after F. S. Lee.

RADCLYFFE, WILLIAM, an English engraver,
born at Birmingham in 1780. His works are in
the line manner, and are chiefly landscape. He
practised in his native town, and had much to do
with the encouragement of art there. Thus, in
1814, he was one of the founders of the first Bir-
mingham school of art ; in 1821 he assisted in the
formation of the Society of Arts ; and, in 1842, he
aided in the establishment of the Society of Artists.
Many of his works are to he found in the Annuals
of the time ; perhaps his best efforts are in ' Graphic

Illustrations of Warwickshire' (1829), and Ros-
coe's ' Wanderings in North and South Wales.'
He died at Birmingham in 1855. The following
are some of his best plates :

Portrait of Dr. Milner ; after Sariier
Portrait of Lord Nelson.
Rest in the Desert ; after Miiller.
Crossing the Sands ; after Collins.
Church of St- Julian ; after Turner.
Hornby Castle ; after the same.
Deal ; after the same.

RADCLYFFE, WILLIAM, an English portrait
painter, was the son of W. Radclyffe, the engraver.
He practised at Birmingham, and afterwards at
London, exhibiting occasionally at the Royal Aca-
demy. He died young in 1846.

RADEMAKER, ABRAHAM, probably the younger
brother of Gerard Rademaker, was born at Amster-
dam in 1675, and is said to have reached an
eminent rank in art as a landscape painter, with-
out the assistance of an instructor. His first
productions were painted in water-colours, and
were very highly finished ; but he afterwards
practised oil painting, with no less success. He
was well acquainted with the rules of architecture,
and embellished his landscapes with buildings and
ruins, in a very picturesque manner. He engraved
from his own designs a set of plates of the most
interesting views of ancient monuments, &c. in the
Netherlands. They are executed in a masterly style,
and were published at Amsterdam in 1727. Rade-
maker died at Amsterdam, January 22nd, 1735.

RADEMAEER, GERARD, born at Amsterdam in
1672, was the son of an architect, who taught him
the first rudiments of drawing and perspective,
with an intention of bringing him up to his own
profession ; but perceiving his son's inclination for
painting, he placed him under the tuition of A. van
Ghoor, a portrait painter of some reputation. He
had made some progress in his studies when the
death of his master deprived him of his assistance ;
but he was sufficiently advanced in the art to give
lessons in design ; and he was engaged by the
Bishop of Sebasto to teach his niece drawing.
That prelate being afterwards obliged to visit
Rome, Rademaker was invited to accompany him,
and had the advantage of improving his talent
by studying the most interesting objects in that
capital. His genius led him to represent views
of the principal ruins and other monuments in that
city and vicinity, which he designed with accuracy
and precision. On his return to Holland he met
with the most flattering encouragement. He did
not, however, confine himself to architectural
views, but painted with considerable success
historic and emblematic subjects which adorn the
public edifices at Amsterdam and the other cities
of Holland. In the Townhall at Amsterdam is an
allegorical subject painted by Rademaker, repre-
senting the regency of the city ; and in the
collection of the family of Walraaven there is a
view of the interior of St. Peter's at Rome, de-
signed with great accuracy. He died at Amster-
dam in 1711.

RADET, JEAN B., a French painter and native
of Dijon, where he was born in 1752. As an artist
he had little success, but won some reputation
with his pen. He died in 1830.

RADI, BERNARDINO, a native of Cortona, an
Italian designer and engraver, whose name is affixed
to a set of architectural ornaments, monuments, &c.,
published at Rome in 1618. They are slight, hasty



etchings, and bear the title Varie invenzioni per
depositi di Bernardino Eadi Cortonese.

RADIGUES, ANTOINE, a French engraver, born
at Rheiras in 1719. He is said to have visited
England, whence he went through Holland to
Russia, and resided several years at St. Petersburg,
where he engraved the portraits of the Prince and
Princess Gallitzin, and other persons of distinction.
He also engraved a plate for the collection of the
Dresden Gallery, representing Angelica and Medoro,
after Alessandro Tiarini.

RADIGUET, MAX REX, French artist, best
known for his extremely clever caricatures ; born
at Landerneau (Finistere) 1816, died January 8,
1899, at Brest ; was a Chevalier of the Legion of
Honour, and a distinguished litterateur.

1816 at Samarang on the north coast of Java ;
studied at the Hague under Schelfliout and Kruse-
mann ; travelled in Germany, France, and Italy ;
subsequently settled at Buitenzorg, in Batavia,
where he died, April 23, 1881. He lived for a
time at Dresden, and afterwards accompanied
Horace Vernet to Algeria. His best-known pic-
tures, some of which are in the Amsterdam
Museum, include ' Javanese Cattle-dealer attacked
by a Tiger,' ' The Fight to the Death,' ' Lion and
Lioness,' and a portrait of Thorvaldsen.

RADL, ANTON, a landscape painter and en-
graver, born at Vienna in 1774, received his early
training in the Academy at Vienna, but in 1790
he went to Brussels, where he put himself under
the painter Kormer. Thence he went to Frank-
fort, and worked at engraving under Prestel,
whose chief assistant he became, and had a great
share in the engravings by Prestel after Ruys-
dael. His .chief excellence lay in his drawing,
especially of foliage, for his colouring was hard.
He .died at Frankfort in 1852. His chief paintings
are ' A Wood in Summer ' in the Darmstadt
Gallery, and a ' Woodland Scene ' in the Stadel
Institute. He has left seventy-five views of Ger-
many in sepia and Indian ink ; while of his
aquatints the most worthy of notice are :

A Moonlight Scene ; after J'an der JTeer.
A Cornfield ; after Ruysdaet.
A Cattle Scene ; after Potter.
A Bear Hunt ; after Snyders.

RADOS, LUIGI, an engraver, born at Parma in
1 780, was educated in the Academy of that city.
His principal engravings are :

The Emperor Francis II. ; after osio.

King Ferdinand ; after the same.

The Archduke Anton ; after the same.

Prince Eugene ; after Jacob.

The Last Supper ; after Leonardo da Vinci.

Madonna Enthroned ; after Raphael.

A Landscape; after Gonzaga.

RAEBURN, Sir HENRY, the most famous of
Scottish portrait painters, was born March 4, 175ti,
at Stockbridge, a village then on the north-west
fringe of the " new town " of Edinburgh, and now
absorbed in the city where his father, who came
of Border stock, had established himself as a manu-
facturer. The mills were successful, but when
Henry was only six both father and mother died,
leaving him to the care of his elder brother. He
was educated at Heriot's Hospital the school
founded in his native city by the bequest of James
L's jeweller until the age of fifteen, when he was
apprenticed to Mr. Gilliland, an Edinburgh gold-
smith and jeweller. During his apprenticeship


his bent towards portrait painting was discovered
by his master's friend David Deuchar, a seal
engraver and an etcher of some skill, who gave
him some instruction, and Gilliland, who had
become interested also, introduced him to David
Martin (1736-1798), the leading portrait painter
in the city. Martin had been a pupil and
assistant of Allan Ramsay (1713-1784), and was
a painter of some little accomplishment, if of no real
gift ; but, beyond givingRaeburn access to his studio
and permitting him to copy a few of his pictures,
he does not seem to have given him any assistance,
and, before long, having unjustly accused him of
selling some of the copies he had been allowed to
make, the slight friendship came to an end. By
this time, however, Raeburn, encouraged by his
master, who helped him to sitters, probably, and
cancelled his indenture in consideration of a share
in the profits, appears to have taken to portrait
painting as a profession. He painted miniatures
to begin with, but soon abandoned them for life-
size portraits in oil. His earliest dated oil picture,
a full-length in Dunfermline Town Hall, was
painted in 1776, and technically, even without
allowing for the fact that he was practically self-
taught, it is a remarkable performance for a youth
of twenty, while it is marked by many qualities
which are characteristic of his mature style.
Gradually his practice increased, and in 1778 he
married one of his sitters and a considerable
fortune. The widow of a Franco-Scottish Count,
one of the Leslies of Balquhun, Aberdeenshire, she
had three children, and was twelve years older
than Raeburn, but the marriage turned out most
happily in every respect. They settled at Deari-
haugh House, the property of his wife, near Stock-
bridge, and for several years he continued to paint
in Edinburgh with increasing reputation and skill ;
but in 1785 desire to see and learn more than he
could at home took him to London, where he met
Reynolds, in whose studio he is said to have
worked for a few weeks. He seems to have con-
templated a visit to Italy when he and his wife
left Edinburgh, and his intention was confirmed
by Sir Joshua, who advised him to go to Rome
to study Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel.
Reynolds gave him more than advice : he offered
him financial assistance and introductions, and,
while Raeburn did not need money, he was glad to
avail himself of the letters. In Rome, where he
knew Pompeo Batoni and other artists, he associ-
ated chiefly with two of his own countrymen,
Gavin Hamilton, historical painter and discoverer
of antiquities, and James Byres of Tonley, an
Aberdeenshire laird who was devoted to the arts,
and whose counsel never to paint anything without
having the actual object before him contributed
in some degree to the mastery of representing
actuality which Raeburn acquired. His way of
approaching subject and even his style were prac-
tically formed before he went to Italy, but the
two years spent there matured his views and added
richness and depth to his art. Returning to Edin-
burgh in 1787, he took a studio in George Street.
Soon his supremacy as an artist was acknowledged,
and thereafter he had no rival in the Scottish
capital. Everybody sat to him, and his practice
and industry were so great that he must have left
over a thousand portraits. More than 700 are
mentioned in J. L. Caw's catalogue of his works.

Raeburn had exhibited at the Royal Academy as
early as 1792, but it was not until after 1810, when

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one of his portraits of Sir Walter Scott was shown,
that he sent much to London, and then, as it
happens, not his best pictures. They were good
enough, however, to earn him the Associateship in
1812, and three years later, although he took no
steps to press his claims, lie was elected Academi-
cian. Yet his reputation remained to a great
extent local, and when, in 1810, during one of
three recorded visits to London, he proposed trying
his fortunes in the south, Lawrence had no diffi-
culty in persuading him to remain at home. He

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