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had gone to live at St. Bernard's, which came to
him on his brother's death in 1788, and in
1795 he built a fine studio and gallery in
York Place, where he worked until the end. It
was in his gallery that the early Edinburgh Ex-
hibitions were usually held, and he took consider-
able interest in efforts to found an Academy in
Scotland. In 1822, when George IV. visited
Scotland, Raeburn was knighted, and in the follow-
ing year, only a few months before he died (July 8,
1823), he was appointed " His Majesty's Limner for
Scotland." He was also a member of the Acade-
mies of Florence, New York (1817), and South
Carolina (1821). Raeburn was 'exclusively a
portrait painter, and after his early years, when he
painted miniatures, few of which are now traceable,
almost all his work was done life-size in oil-paint.
He seems to have made no preliminary studies for
his portraits only one drawing with good claims
to be his is known he did not use chalk or pencil
even in placing his subject on the canvas, but
commenced at once with the brush, and he painted
without a mahl-stick. For the greater part of his
career also he employed little or no assistance in
forwarding his work. Nor did he take pupils in the
ordinary way. He was always willing to be helpful,
however, and amongst those who enjoyed his advice,
Sir J. Watson Gordon, P. R.S. A., Samuel Mackenzie,
R.S.A., and John Syme, R.S.A., who was his
assistant for some time, may be named. Many
others were influenced by him, and the soberly
handsome, if sometimes rather heavy, appearance
of much succeeding Scottish portraiture is due in
large measure to his example. His bold and
individual way of regarding a sitter and his simple
and direct method of painting were largely the
outcome of personal preference, and are evident
in the work he did before going to Italy ; but he
was receptive also, and the experience gained at
Rome and study of other men's work were used
to enrich his own. While his art is marked, to
some extent, by the fashion of his day, he is dis-
tinctly the least conventional of the great British
portrait artists. His reading of character is
peculiarly shrewd and convincing ; each of his
pictures is a portrait of an individual, anil the
results of his observation are stated with a
simplicity of pictorial motive (his most charac-
teristic pictures have plain backgrounds) and a
directness, a power, and sometimes a subtilty of
handling which place his work amongst the finest
achievements of portrait painting. In the opinion
of certain critics he is the most outstanding, if
not the only, exponent of "direct" painting
between Velasquez and Hals and quite recent
times. Yet it is only of late years that Raeburn's
gifts have been fully recognized. In Scotland,
indeed, his reputation and influence have always
been great, but it was not until lifter 1877, when
some of his best things were included in the
Old Masters at Burlington House, that he came

to his own. An exhibition of his works was held
in his studio after his death, and 375 of his por-
traits were brought together in a special exhibition
in the Royal Scottish Academy in 1876. The
National Gallery of Scotland possesses a very fine
series of his pictures, and there are good examples
in the Glasgow, Dublin and Dresden Galleries, but
he is rather inadequately represented in London,
and the specimens in the Louvre are doubtful.

The following list is confined to his more
notable or accessible portraits :

Brussels. Art Gallery. Bust Portrait of a man.
Dresden. Royal Gallery. Lucius O'Beirne, Bishop of

Dublin. Nat. Gallery. Earl of Buchan.

Sir James Steuart.

Edinburgh. Nat. Gall. Dr. Alexander Adam.
Mr. Bounar.

Mrs. Bonnar.

Mrs. Campbell of Ballie-

., Lady Hume Campbell and


Major Clunag.

Mrs. Hamilton of Kames.

,, Mrs. Kennedy of Dunure.

,, Mrs. Scott Moncrieff.

,, ,, Lord Newton 4 (a chef


,, ,, Adam Holland of Gask.

,, John Wauchope.

, ,, Col. Alastair Macdonell of

Glengarry (on loan), Gall. Professor Dalzel.
,. Neil Gow, the violinist.

Rt. Hon. Francis Horner.

Kobert Montgomery.

,, ,, Professor Wilson (at age of

, ,, Sir James Montgomery (on

Pencil sketch of Sir F.


,. Parliament House. Lord Abercromby.
Lord Braxfield.

George Joseph Bell.

,, Baron Hume.

The University. Principal Robertson.

Professor Robisou.

Professor Playfair.

Professor Adam Ferguson.

W. S. Society. Lord President Blair.

Bank of Scotland. Henry, first Viscount Mel-
Archers' Hall. Dr. Nathaniel Spens (one of

his best).

Register House. Lord Frederick Campbell.
Glasgow. Art Galleries. William Jamieson.
,, ,, William Urquhart.

Mrs. Urquhart.

,, The University. Professor Thomas Reid.
Corporation Gall. Alexander Campbell of Hall-
Leith. Trinity House. Admiral Lord Duncan (oue

of his best).
London. National Gallery. Full-length of a lady.

,, Lieut. -Col. Bryce McMordo.

Anne Neale Lauzun.

,, Nat. Portrait Gall. Rt. Hon. Francis Horner.

,, ., Rev. John Home.

Henry Mackenzie.

Professor John Playfair.

,, ,, Sir John Sinclair of Ulbster.

W. H. Williams.

Royal Academy. Boy and Kabbit (diploma).
Paris. Louvre. A Greenwich Pensioner.

Hannah More.

Lord Bannatyne.
Mrs. Robert Bell.
The sons of D. M. Binning.
Mrs. Irvine Boswell.
Captain David Burrell.



Mrs. James Campbell (perhaps his masterpiece).

John Clerk, Lord Eldin.

Sir John and Lady Clerk.

Sir John Gibson Carmichael, Bart.

The Hon. Henry Erskine.

William Ferguson of Kilrie.

Mrs. Gregory.

Eighth Duke of Hamilton.

Mrs. Kmnear.

Mrs. McCall of Ibroxhill.

The Macnab.

The Macdonalds of Clanranald (group of three boys).

Lady Miller.

Sir Henry Eaeburn.

Lady Kaeburn.

Sir Walter Scott, Bart.

Sir John Sinclair, Bart., of Ulbster (one of his best).

Alicia, Lady Steuart of Coltness.

Professor Dugald Stewart.

James Wardrop of Torbanhill.

Rev. Sir H. Moncreiff Wellwood, Bart., D.D.

Many of Raeburn's portraits of men were admir-
ably engraved in mezzotint and other methods by
Charles Turner, Hodgetts, Earlom, Dawe, Walker,
and other contemporary engravers, and over 60
of his pictures are reproduced in photogravure in
R. A. M. Stevenson, Sir W. Armstrong and J. L.
Caw's ' Sir Henry Raeburn.' j i c,

RAEFUS, P., (or RAEFE,) a wood engraver, was
a native of Paris. He flourished about the year
1575. He, with 0. Goujon, a relation of the famous
sculptor Jean Goujon, executed the cuts for a cos-
mographical work by Andre Thevet. His prints
are very neatly finished, and are usually marked
with the initials P. R. He also engraved on wood
the figures dealing with masonry in Jean Martin's
translation of Vitruvius.

RAET, (or DE RAET,) ABNOULD, painter, work-
ing at L4au, and in Louvain and the neighbour-
hood, in the second part of the 15th century. In
1473 he settled finally at Louvain, and by his
second wife became the father of Louis Raet.

RAET, Louis, (or Louis DE SCILDEKB,) painter,
the son of Arnould Raet. Between 1505 and
1507 he decorated the walls of the church of
Leau with paintings, which are now hidden under

RAETH, IGNATIUS, painter, born at Antwerp,
1626, a member of the Order of Jesus. He prac-
tised for some years in Spain and in Germany,
painting historical subjects and, more especially,
portraits. In the church of St. Gandolph, at Bam-
berg, there is a ' Crucifixion ' by him. He re-
turned to Flanders in 1662, and died in 1666.


RAFFAELLI, FRANCESCO, a native of Italy, who
flourished about the year 1705. He engraved some
historical plates of no great merit.


ELLI, Giov. FK.



RAFFALT, IGNAZ, painter and engraver, was
born at Weisskirchen in Upper Austria in 1800.
He entered the Academy at Vienna. His earliest

Eictures were still-life, but he afterwards devoted
imself to landscapes. He died at Vienna in
1857. His principal works are :

A Mill in Obersteier.
A Snow landscape.
A River Scene with a Castle.
Soup for the Convent. 1846.
An Evening Scene with a Castle and Bridge.
Fishermen's Huts. 1848.

Postilions returning.

River Landscape with a Castle. 1852.

A Golden Wedding at Murau, in Styria.

Raffalt, was born at Murau in Styria in 1834. He
studied at Vienna under Pettenkofen, and after-
wards travelled in Hungary and Dalmatia, the
scenes of many of his pictures being placed in this
latter country. He died at Rome in 1865. His
principal works are :

Annual Fair in Hungary.
A Gipsies' Camp.
Pusztabrunnen, Hungary.
Calf-market, Hungary.
The Waggon.

draughtsman, lithographer, and painter, born at
Paris in 1804. He lost his father, a soldier, while
young, and learnt drawing during apprenticeship
to a turner. Entering the Ecole des Beaux Arts
in 1824, he studied under Gros and Charlet.
In 1826 he published an album of lithographed
studies, the first of a series which had a great
success. His subjects were scenes from military
life, to which he remained faithful throughout his
career. In 1832 he went to the siege of Antwerp,
and three years later exhibited a fine series of
lithographs from the sketches he made there.
The patronage of Prince Demidoff enabled him to
make extended travels in Europe and Western
Asia. During these tours he accumulated ma-
terials for a large number of valuable lithographs.
In 1849 Raffet went to Italy, and drew the various
picturesque costumes and uniforms that were to
be found in the still divided country. After the
siege of Rome his time was spent either at Paris
or at Prince Demidoff's villa at San Donato, near
Florence. In 1853 the two friends went to Spain,
and when the painter died he left incomplete the
resulting album of sketches. Raffet always had
the pencil in his hand, and his innumerable litho-
graphs form a valuable chronicle of the scenes
visited by himself and his friends. Perhaps the
series in illustration of the ' Expedition des Portes-
de-fer ' is the best. It is said that he was more
than once commissioned to paint a picture for
Versailles, but always postponed it to his favour-
ite lithographs. Raffet died at Genoa in 1860.
Amongst his best works are :

Revue des Ombres.

The Evening after the Battle of Novara.

Capture of Coblentz.

Night Review by Napoleon.

RAFFORT, ETIENNE, French painter; born
May 11, 1802, at Chalon-sur-Saone ; a pupil of
Castillet ; a painter of landscape ; developed his
talent by long travel in Italy and Algeria. His
' Port de Constantinople,' ' Mosqu^e de Scutari,'
and : Grand Canal de Venise,' are good examples
of his somewhat laboured style. He obtained a
third-class medal in 1837, a second-class medal in
1840, and a first-class medal in 1845. He ex-
hibited in the Salons up to 1891. He died in
March 1895.

RAGENEAU, JACQUES, painter, practising at
the court of France in the first half of the 17th
century, was appointed to the household of Marie
de' Medici. He died in 1658.

RAGGI, PIETRO PAOLO, was born at Vienna
about the year 1650 ; but his parents removing
from thence to Genoa when he was young, he


Annan photo\

[Collection of the Earl of Home



received his first education in art in that city,
though it is not known by whom he was instructed.
His picture in the Nunziata del Guastato, at Genoa,
representing St. Bonaventura, is in the style of the
Carracci, and is mentioned by Ratti as a production
of great merit. After visiting Turin and Savona,
he established himself at Bergamo, where he painted
several pictures for the churches and private col-
lections. In the church of St. Lorenzo is an admired
picture of the ' Annunciation ' ; and in St. Marta,
' Mary Magdalene taken up into heaven.' He also
distinguished himself as a painter of landscapes,
which he embellished with figures representing
pastoral or bacchanalian subjects, painted in the
style of Benedetto Castiglione and Giulio Carpioni.
He died at Bergamo in 1724.

RAGOT, FRANC.OIS, a French engraver, born at
Bagnolet in 1641. He engraved some plates after
Simon Vouet and Charles Le Brun ; but he is
chiefly distinguished for his ability in copying the
prints engraved by Bolswert, Pontius, and Vorster-
njans, after the works of Rubens and Van Dyck.
He executed about forty of these copies with such
accuracy and precision, that they have been mis-
taken for the originals by inexperienced collectors.
He is also said to have engraved a few portraits.

RAGUINEAU, ABRAHAM, son of Esne 1 and
Mary Humblot, born in London, and baptized at
the French Protestant Temple, October 19, 1623 ;
settled at the Hague in or before 1640 ; became a
burgher by purchase, January 30, 1645 ; on May
15 married Susan Girard ; migrated to 's Hertog-
henbosch, and later on to Breda ; in 1659 was
back at the Hague, but in 1661 settled at Leiden,
and in 1664 joined the Guild of St. Luke. In 1681
lie was at Zieriekzee.
Milan. 31. A . Noseda. Portrait of a Young Man.

Two portraits of William III. of Orange, whose
writing-master he was, have been engraved.

Authority : C. Hofstede De Groot, in ' Oud
Holland,' xvii., 1899.

RAHL, KARL, a German historical and portrait
painter, born in 1812, at Vienna. He studied in
the Academy of that city, and at the age of twenty
gained the great prize for his ' David in the Cave
of Adullam,' which enabled him to complete his
art training at Rome. On his return to Vienna he
obtained a high reputation, and a large number
of pupils passed through his studio. Politics oc-
cupied his attention almost as much as art, and
more than once he had to leave Vienna through
his inconvenient opinions. He practised fresco
painting, and many of his works are to be seen in
his native city, where he died in 1865. The Palais
Todesco, the facade of the Greek Church, the
interior of Baron Sina's palace, all at Vienna ; a
Banqueting Hall at Oldenburg ; and some other
buildings were decorated by him. The following
are also good examples of his art :

Berlin. Gallery. Surprise of the Christians in the

Roman Catacombs.
Hamburg. Gallery. Manfred at Luceria.

.. Manfred at Benevento.

Munich. New Pinaco- } Portrait of Martin Wagner,

thek. f Sculptor.

Vienna. Gallery. Scene from the ' Niebelungen

Lied.' 1835.

RAHL, KARL HEINRICH, an engraver, was born
at Heilbronn in 1779. His father, a calico printer,
apprenticed him to a silversmith, under whom he dis-
played the first signs of his talent by etching small
landscapes. In 1799 he went to Vienna to study

N 2

under Fiiger, maintaining himself meanwhile by
the proceeds of the sale of his works. In 1815 he
became a Fellow of the Academy ; in 1829 chief
engraver ; and in 1839 Professor. He died at
Vienna in 1843. There is great power about his
work, but an absence of delicacy. His principal
plates are :

Job and his Friends ; after Wackier.

The Blind Beggar ; after the same.

Presentation in the Temple ; after Fra Bartolommeo

' La Notte ; ' after Corregyio.

The Battle of Aspern ; after Kraft.

RAHN, RUDOLPH, engraver, born 1805, at Zurich,
where he first studied. He came to Paris to com-
plete his education, and finally settled at Munich.
He engraved some excellent plates for Kaulbach's
' Reineke Fuchs,' jointly with Ad. Schleich.
We may also mention his portrait of Winckel-
mann after Angelica Kaufmann.

RAHOULT, DIODORE, French painter ; born in
1819 at Grenoble (Isere) ; was a pupil of Cogniet ;
lived and worked in his native town. The
Grenoble Museum has all his most important
works, including ' Novemhre,' ' La Porte Close,'
and ' Les Saltimbanques.' He also decorated the
Museum with mural paintings. He published an
album of two hundred drawings, engraved on
wood by Dardelet. He died at Grenoble in 1874.

RAIBOLLNI, FRANCESCO (commonly called IL
FRANCIA). Vasari records the date of the birth of
Francia as 1450, and it is probable that he is right
in this assertion. Calvi, who wrote a short life of
the artist in 1812, ascertained that the master
matriculated in the Goldsmiths' Guild in 1482, on
September 10, and in the following year, 1483, was
appointed Master of the Guild. He also found
that, by the statutes of the Guild, no one could be
Master who had not attained the age of thirty
years, and we may therefore conclude that the
birth of the artist took place from about 1448 to
1454. His parents Vasari describes as artisans,
but this is hardly the right manner in which to
speak of them. The family was an old one, and
well known in Bologna, where its members had
held office for several generations in the highest
positions in the government of the place, and had
possessed land in the commune of Zola Predosa
from the early part of the fourteenth century, even,
it is said, as far back as 1308. At the time of
Francia's birth the family was not in good cir-
cumstances, and the land appears to have been
temporarily charged, but the name of his father,
Marco di Giacomo Raibolini, was still held in high
repute, and appears in the civic records in various
important offices. Francesco's father had matri-
culated in the art of a wood-carver, but the son
desired to work in metals, and was accordingly
bound to a clever goldsmith named Due, who was
generally called Francia, and from his master's
name the pupil took his own cognomen, by which
he is generally styled. We are told from docu-
ments that, in 1488, he sent to Leonora, Duchess
of Ferrara, an exquisite chain of gold hearts linked
together, which was probably a bridal present for
Elizabeth Gonzaga, sister of Isabella d'Este's
betrothed husband, who had visited Ferrara that
spring on her way to Urbino. Other documents
speak of the works of this artist in gold, which
were known at Mantua and at Parma, and he
is mentioned in a contemporary letter of 1486,
written in Florence, as "Raibolini, the famous
goldsmith of Bologna, who will be able to give



you the chain that you want." The fine shield
which was done for the Bentivoglio family, and
which is now preserved at the Casa Rodrigrez at
Bologna, is an example of another kind of metal-
work that was successfully adopted by the artist.
It is of decorated cuir bouilli, bearing upon its
surface a bold, spirited representation of a knight
in full armour vanquishing a dragon, which he
is at the moment transfixing with a long lance.
Around the shield is a broad band of metal-work,
in which are wrought two inscriptions.

Vasari states that the work which delighted
Francia above all other occupations was the cutting
of dies for medals, and that in this he was con-
sidered excellent, and his works most admirable.
He specially speaks of the medals of Giovanni
Bentivoglio, and of those of Pope Julius II., which
were, he says, so fine that the heads seem to be
alive on them. It has been ascertained that the
artist was Director of the Zecca, or Mint, at Bo-
logna, and on November 19, 1508, was given the
entire charge of the provision of money for the
city. There are two zecchini of gold that were
struck in Bologna for Bentivoglio and were in
all probability the work of the artist, as the same
lettering and the same style of drawing are to be
seen upon them as on the medals. Some notable
medals were also done by Francia for Giovanni
Bentivoglio II., who was Governor of the city
from 1443 to 1509. Of Pope Julius II. there are
six medals attributed to the hand of Raibolini.
Two other medals it is known Raibolini executed.
One was done for the Legate of the city of
Bologna, Francesco Alidosi, who was Cardinal in
1505, and Legate in 1508, and who is represented
upon this superb medal in his Cardinal's biretta
and mozette. " The other represents Bernardo
Rossi, Count of Berceto, who was Governor of
Bologna in 1519, and who, like the Cardinal, is
depicted in biretta and mozette. Both these
medals are large, 65 millimetres across, and are
powerfully drawn and in very high relief. The
faces are clear cut, and very full of character, and
the lettering is big and clear, and they have all the
special marks of Raibolini's lettering and classic
style of draughtsmanship.

It was not as a medallist that Raibolini did his
best work in these goldsmith days, but as a worker
in niello. Raibolini is known to have executed at
great cost a famous silver pax as a wedding gift
on the occasion of the marriage of Giovanni Sforza
and Lucrezia Borgia, but that has disappeared.
There are fine works attributed to him in the Bar-
gello, notably a fine chalice, a paten, and a pax ;
but at Bologna are still preserved two pieces of
niello that are undoubtedly the work of the master.
The earlier one, adorned with the amis, in enamel,
of the Sforza and Bentivoglio families, was prob-
ably intended as a wedding gift from Giovanni
Bentivoglio to his bride, Ginevra Sforza. The
other pax (3-&x2i'V) must be attributed to a later
date, more about the time of 1500 ; it was probably
intended for a wedding present, and bears in two
shields upon its base the arms of the Felicini and
Ringhieri families, denoting that it was given on
the occasion of the marriage of Bartolommeo
Feliciui with Dorothea Ringhieri. The process
of working in niello led in an indirect manner to
the discovery of engraving on a plate. From
whom Raibolini learned the art is not known ; but
inasmuch as an impression exists in the Albertina
Museum at Vienna, which is evidently taken from


the pax at Bologna, and proves by the reversed
letters I. N. B. I. (IHMI) above the cross that it was
taken on paper from the actual niello without the
intervention of a sulphur cast, it is clear that he
had learned the art of making impressions and
practised it Calvi and Passavant attribute to
Raibolini a very rare engraving of ' The Baptism
of our Saviour' (Bartsch, XIV., 22). This print is
identical both in character and treatment with a
painting by Raibolini that still exists at Hampton
Court ; and there can now be added to this con-
firmation the still further evidence that is afforded
by the painting of ' The Baptism ' at Dresden
closely resembling the print, and in which the same
figure of the Christ that appears in it and at Hamp-
ton Court can be seen. Duchesne gives to Raibo-
lini four niello prints ' The Nativity,' ' The Cruci-
fixion,' ' The Resurrection ' and ' A Woman attended
by Three Men and a Satyr.' Of these, ' The Cruci-
fixion ' and ' The Resurrection ' are from the Bo-
logna paxes. Passavant adds one more 'The
Judgment of Paris ' (Bartsch, 339) ; but with this
attribution I cannot at all agree, as the workman-
ship does not accord with that of any of the ac-
cepted works. Two early engravings are given
by Fisher to the artist that of ' Samson and the
Lion' (D. 18) and 'SS. Catharine and Lucia'
(B. XIV., 121) ; and, in addition to these, there is
in the British Museum an engraving from his own
design of 'The Virgin,' with the Infant Saviour
in her hands, seated enthroned in the centre, a
saint standing on either side (P. V., 201, 2). There
is also a print of ' Lucretia ' (B. XV., 458, 4) a
work of great attractiveness and beauty, the upper
part of which is in exquisite drawing, rivalling
the well-known ' Lucretia ' of Marcantonio. A
fine impression of this print is to be found in the
Louvre. 'David and Goliath' is given by Ottley
to Raibolini, and I am disposed to attribute to
him the 'St. Jerome' (7 in his facsimiles), as it
closely resembles the St. Jerome in his undoubted
' Crucifixion.' These are all the prints that can be
attributed to Raibolini with any strong reason, but
they do not exhaust the list of those which con-
noisseurs are disposed in their own collections to
give to the famous worker. There are especially
many prints that are signed " I. F.," in a mono-
gram, which are catalogued by Bartsch under the
joint names of Raibolini and his son Giacomo, am!
which might with good probability be given to the
elder artist alone ; but there is not sufficient
evidence to warrant the ascription at present, and
from internal evidence it is impossible to say as
regards this group of prints that they were the
work of two separate hands, or that one shows any
more than another who was the designer who
suggested it or who engraved it.

In describing Raibolini as a worker in metal,
there are yet two other crafts to refer to those of

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