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as 1670.

NESBITT,CHARLTON, an English wood-engraver,
born in 1775, at Swalwell, Durham. He was
apprenticed when fourteen to Beilby and Bewick,
and gained two premiums at the Society of Arts.
Specimens of the work done by him while witli
Bewick are to be found in the tail-pieces of ' British
Birds,' and in the edition of Goldsmith and Par-
nell of 1795. At the end of his apprenticeship he
engraved a block 15 inches by 12 from a drawing
by his fellow-pupil Robert Johnson. About 1799
he moved to London, where he obtained an ex-
tensive practice. Among the works he illustrated
were editions of ' Hudibras' and of 'Shakespeare,'
Sir Egerton Bridges' works, Ackerman's ' Re-
ligious Emblems,' Northcote's ' Fables,' &c. From
1815 to 1830 helived at Swalwell, and then returned
to London. He died at Brompton in 1838.

the father of the well-known architect of the same
name, was the son of the rector of Brancepeth,
and was educated at Winchester, and at Trinity
College, Cambridge. He entered the army at Wool-
wich in 1809, served in the Peninsula under Wel-
lington, and was afterwards aide-de-camp to Sir
Gordon Drummond in Canada. On retiring from
the army he devoted his talents to painting in
water-colours, and was elected an associate ex-
hibitor of the Society of Painters in Water-colours
in 1828. The following year he became a member
of the Society and one of its most constant con-
tributors. A drawing of ' Bamborough Castle ' at
South Kensington is a good example of his style.
Later in life he gave his chief attention to land-
scape gardening, and many of the improvements
in the Horticultural Gardens at South Kensington,
Kew Gardens, and in St. James's Park are due to his
skill. He died in 1881, at the age of 87, in London.

NETO, ESTEVAO GONSALVES, a Portuguese archi-
tect and painter in miniature. Nothing is known
of his birth, but he was chaplain to the Bishop of
Vizen and a canon in 1622. A missal, beautifully
illuminated by him between 1610 and 1622, is pre-
served in the Academy of Sciences at Lisbon. He
died the 29th of July, 1627.

NETSCHER, CASPAR, was born at Heidelberg
in 1639, and died at the Hague in 1684. His
father was a sculptor, and an engineer in the Polish
service, who died in Prague when he was only two
years of age, leaving a widow with three children,
of whom Caspar was the youngest. The calamities
of war obliged her to fly from Germany, and make
the best of her way towards Holland. Two of her
children died on the road, and she arrived at Arn-
heim in Guelderland in a state of the utmost
destitution. There an opulent physician, named
Tullekens, took pity on her, and adopted the young
Netscher. He educated him with the intention
of his following the medical profession, but his
genius strongly inclining to the art of painting, it
was judged best to give way to it ; he was in con-
sequence placed under Koster, a painter of dead
game and still-life, but he did not remain long
with him, as these were not subjects suited to his
powers. He became a disciple of Gerard Terburg,
and his progress under that master was great. On

leaving Terburg, he determined to visit Italy, and
with that intention embarked at Amsterdam for
Bordeaux, where he was induced to remain some
time, by the encouragement he received as a painter
of portraits, as well as by an attachment he conceived
for Marie Godin, the niece of the person at whose
house he lodged. They were married, and this
union preventing his proceeding to Italy, he re-
turned to Holland, where his talents promised him
a more certain success. The pictures of Netscher
usually represent domestic subjects and conversa-
tions, which are treated in a style reminding us
of the productions of Frans Mieris and Terburg.
His handling is a little woolly and wanting in life,
but like his master, he particularly excelled in
painting white satin, silk, ermine, &c. He some-
times painted historical and fabulous subjects, but
they were not favourable to his powers ; he was
more successful in miniature portraits of a small
size. Walpole says he visited England on the
invitation of Sir William Temple, in the reign of
Charles II., but did not remain here long. The
following list includes most of Netschert more
accessible works :

Amsterdam. Gallery.
Berlin. Museum.



Darmstadt. Gallery.
Dresden. Gallery.

Glasgow. Gallery.

) *>

Hague. Museum.


London. Nat. Gallery.

! "


L'ridyewater Gall.



Paris. Louire.

" . "

Petersburg. Hermitage.

Eotterdam. Gallery.

Four portraits.

The Lute-player.

The Kitchen.

Vertumnus and Pomona.

Two portraits.

His own portrait.

A Lady with a Violoncello.
(And jive more.)

Portrait of a Boy with a Dog.

Lady at the Piano.

The Letter-writer (said to be
the painter's own portrait).

The Doctor's visit.

The Duet.

Portrait of Madame de Monte-

Portrait of Madame de Monte-
span and her sou, the Due de

Lady with a Dog.

Peasant Woman spuming.

The Lace-maker.

A Lady in a white satin dress.

Nymphs adorning a statue of

A Princess of Orange.

His own portrait, with his Wife
and Daughter.

Mr. and Mme. van Waalwijk.

Children blowing Bubbles.

Maternal Instruction.

Lady at a Spinning-wheel.

Portrait of George, Earl of

Interior with two Ladies and a

Vertumnus and Pomona (said
to bep&rtraits of St. Ei<remond
and the Duchesss de Mazarin).

A Music Party.

A Girl feeding a Parrot.

Bathsheba at the Bath.

Night scene.

A Shepherd with a Girl on his

The Singing Lesson.

The Lesson on the Double-bass.

Portrait of Mary II. of England.

Portrait of the painter.

Family scene.

Two portraits.

There are several of his miniatures in the Col-
lection at Welbeck Abbey, and the Queen of
Holland has three.



NETSCHER, CONSTANTINE, the younger son of
Caspar Netscher, was born at the Hague in 1669
or 1670. He learned the first principles of art
from his father, but when he had reached tlie age
of fourteen, death deprived him of that instructor.
It does not appear that he studied under any other
master, but contented himself by imitating: the
pictures left by his father. He was very exten-
sively employed in painting portraits, and was
encouraged by the principal personages of his time.
Among his other patrons, were the families of
Wassenaer and Duivenvoorden, whose portraits lie
painted, with those of the Earl and Countess of
Portland. Descamps reports, that the earl used
every persuasion to prevail on him to visit England,
but he declined, on account of the infirm state of
his health. His talents were not confined to por-
traits, as he occasionally painted domestic subjects
and conversations ; but in these he was very in-
ferior to his father. He was received into the
Society of Painters at the Hague in 1699, and was
afterwards appointed the Director. His ' Children of
Baron Suasso ' may be mentioned as one of bis
best portraits. His works are to be found at
Rotterdam, St. Petersburg, Copenhagen, and in the
La Caze collection in the Louvre. He died at the
Hague in 1722.

NETSCHER, THEODOR, the elder son and
scholar of Caspar Netscher, was born at Bordeaux
in 1661. At the age of eighteen he visited Paris,
under the patronage of Count Davaux, who had
been ambassador from France to Holland. He
here received great encouragement as a portrait
painter during a residence of twenty years, which
caused him to be known at home as ' The French-
man.' He, however, returned at last to Holland,
fixed his residence at the Hague, and was employed
by the principal personages of the court. Des-
camps says he visited England in 1715, as pay-
master to the Dutch auxiliaries. He died at Hulst
in 1732. A portrait by him, dated 1681, is in the
Rotterdam Museum. In his larger pictures he
introduced fruit, flowers, Turkey carpets, and other
decorations, and he was particularly successful in
representing grapes and peaches.

guished painter of animals was born at Kettering,
Feb. 11, 1841 and was the second of the sons of
Mr. Henry John Nettleship, a solicitor of Kettering,
Northamptonshire. He was educated at Durham
Bchool, and after devoting a brief period of his life
to other pursuits, studied painting at Heatherley's,
and at the Slade School. Mr. Nettleship devoted
his attention mainly to art, and for a considerable
period exhibited regularly at the Academy, the
Grosvenor Gallery, and at a later period at the
New Gallery. It was to Burlington House that he
sent his 'Puma Devouring a Peacock,' which was,
in most respects, his strongest and most character-
istic work. " His many pictures of wild animals
were remarkable for their breadth and freedom
his beasts were always vigorous and well drawn,
thoroughly alive, and instinct with action. His
conceptions were, however, better than his execu-
tion, which was often ragged and suggestive, rather
than finished." Other important works which he
produced were 'Blind,' 'Refuge,' 'Flood,' 'A
Death Grip,' 'Crouching to Spring,' 'A Mighty
Hunter' (1892), 'A Big Drink' (1893), 'The Blood
Trail' (1895), 'The Honey Stealer' (1895), and
'La Joie de Vivre' (1895). He was the second of a
very remarkable quartette of brothers. The eldest

brother, Henry, was a classical scholar of the first
rank, and from 1878 until his death in 1893 held
the Corpus Professorship of Latin at Oxford. He
was also a fine musician, and his knowledge of the
theory and methods of the great German school of
composers was surpassed by very few. The third
brother, Richard Lewis, became a Fellow of Balliol
in 1869, and was philosophy tutor in that college
until he lost his life from exposure on Mont Blanc
in 1892. The fourth brother is the eminent oculist,
Dr. Edward Nettleship, the only one of the four
now surviving. John T. Nettleship devoted his
spare time and energy to literature, and one of the
first books on the poetry of Browning was from his
pen. It was a piece of very thoughtful and most
acceptable criticism. In 1890 Mr. Nettleship
issued a new edition of his ' Robert Browning :
Essays and Thoughts,' and eight years later he
wrote an interesting book upon 'George Morland
and the Evolution from him of some later
Painters.' He was greatly attracted to the work
of Morland by reason of the love which that artist
had for animals and the admirable manner in which
he depicted them. The book was the most luminous
essay on the work of the great English master that
had yet appeared. Mr. Nettleship married in 1876
the daughter of the late Mr. James Hinton the
aural surgeon. He died in 1903, at his residence
in Wigmore Street, aged sixty-one.

painted historical pictures in the Vatican and at
the Palazzo Borghese. He was employed by the
Empress of Russia to copy all the most beautiful
pictures in the Vatican, and was living at Rome in

NEDBERT, LUDWIG, German painter ; born
Feb. 28, 1846, at Leipzig ; studied at the Weimar
Art School, being a pupil of Schmidt and of
Kalkreuth ; completed his artistic education in
Italy and France ; much of his work shows the
influence of Bbcklin ; mostly painted landscapes,
to which he gave a certain quiet, mournful charm.
He died at Sonnenschein-be.i-Pirna, March 25, 1892.


corruption of the German translation of his family
name, born in the lordship of Mons, Hainault,
about 1525. He is inscribed in the register of the
Antwerp Guild of St. Luke as apprenticed to Peter
Coucke of Alost He settled at Nuremberg about
1560. He painted portraits only, which he signed
in Latin Nicolaus de Novocastdlo. They are re-
markable for the care with which every detail is
executed, and for their refined feeling for colour.

Althorp. Earl Spencer. Anna von Botzheim.
Berlin. Museum. A young man; half-length.

London. Nat. Gallery. A young lady; half-length.

Munich. Pinakothek. The Mathematician, John Neu-

dorfer. 1561.

,, A man in a furred robe.

Prague. Count Nostit:. A young lady and child.
Vienna. Museum. A young man.

And portraits at Darmstadt, Prague, Pesth, and

NEU RATTER, AUGUSTIN, was a German en-
graver, who resided at Prague about the year 1715.
He engraved a set of figures, entitled ' Statuse
Poutis Pragensis,' published in that year. He
worked from 1704 to 1749, when he died. His
plates are found in many books, some of which it
is said he published at his own expense.


\\\vdbury Co. f/wio]

\ all, in, 1 1 <,W, try



etcher, and book illustrator, was born at Munich
on January 13, 1806. He studied at the Munich
Academy under ProfesBor von Kobell, and later
assisted Cornelius in his frescoes for the Glypothek
and the Konigsbau of his native town. From 1829
to 1839 he published his illustrations to Goethe's
poems, winning the praise of the poet himself. In
this and much of his other work he adopted the
style of marginal illustration with arabesque treat-
ment, once so unfortunately popular. In 1838 he
produced the first illustrated edition of Herder's
'Cid,' and besides these works issued a large
number of separate etchings. The principal works
illustrated with lithographs or etchings by Neu-
reuther are as follows : ' Randzeichnungen zu
Goethe's Balladen und Romanzen' (1829-39) ; ' Sou-
venir du 27-29 Juillet, 1830' (1831); ' Baierische
Gebirgslieder ' (1829-34) ; ' Randzeichnungen zu
den Dichtungen der deutschen Classiker' (1832-
35); 'Der Nibelungen Noth' (1843); 'Gbtz von
Berlichingen ' (1846); 'Randzeichnungen zu
neueren Deutschen Dichtungen' (1853); and
'Randzeichnungen zu Liedern von Dichtern der
Gegenwart' (1860). In 1868 he was made Pro-
fessor of the Kunstgewerbeschule at Munich.
Many buildings in Munich were decorated with
his frescoes, and among his oil paintings may be
mentioned, 'The Dying Man' and ' Peter Cornelius
among his Pupils,' both in the Munich Gallery.
He died on March 23, 1882. M,H

NEUSTATTER, Louis, a German painter, born
at Munich, September 5, 1829 ; was a pupil of
Peter Lutz, the engraver ; then studied at the
Munich Academy ; also with Bernhardt, the por-
trait painter ; travelled in 1852 ; worked in Paris
under Cogniet, and visited Naples and Rome ;
established himself in Vienna as a fashionable por-
trait painter ; in 1864 returned to Munich, where
he devoted himself to genre subjects such as ' Heim-
kehr vom Walde,' ' Der Findling,' ' Katzcnmueik,'
and others. He obtained the Gold Cross of Merit,
the Bavarian Order of St. Michael, &c. He died
at Tiitzing, on the Starnberg Lake, May 24, 1899.
NEUVEL, SIMON, (or NEUVELT,) who usually
went by the name of NOVELLANUS, was a designer
and engraver of Cologne towards the close of
the 16th century. In conjunction with Franz Ho-
genberg he etched twenty-one plates of ' The
Funeral Pomps of Frederick II. of Denmark,' pub-
lished in 1592. He also etched several of the plates
for Braun's ' Civitates Orbis Terrarum,' published
at Cologne in 1572; as well as 'The History of
Tobias,' in eight plates, and 'The Good Samaritan,'
(with Hogenberg,) in six. His son, A^GIDIUS
NEUVEL, also engraved at Cologne in the early
part of the 17th century ; one of his plates is a
' Christ on the Cross.'

Saint Omer in 1836. His family was " noble " and
well to do in the world, and they wished him to
embark on an official career. But he had set his
heart on the army as a profession, and he was there-
fore sent to the preparatory school at Lorient. The
drawing-master at Lorient is said to have at once
discovered his unusual talent with the pencil, and to
have prophesied his future success. After he left
Lorient he entered a law school in Paris, to please
his family. There he staid three years, passing
most of his time in picking up such knowledge of
military life as he could. After this he finally
made up his mind to be a painter, and after a year

of contention with his family, his father consented
to consult various well-known artists on his
chances. They all discouraged the idea, but Neu-
ville, nothing daunted, took a small studio and set
to work. He made the acquaintance of Delacroix,
then in his decline, and was very kindly treated by
him. In 1859 he won a medal for his first exhibited
picture, and a year later he was commissioned by
the " Cercle Artistique," to paint them ' Garibaldi
taking Naples.' This picture was a failure. In
1861, however, he took a second-class medal at the
Salon with a 'Chasseurs de la Garde,' and from
that time onward his work attracted notice. His
great opportunity came with the war of 1870-71.
His weak constitution prevented him from bearing
an important part in it, but he became its chronicler
in paint. From the time that he exhibited his pic-
ture, ' The Last Cartridge,' there was scarcely a
better known artist in Europe. Neuville made a
great many designs for woodcuts, and at his death
was occupied with the drawings for an important
work in illustration of the incidents of a hard-fought
campaign. He died in Paris in 1885. Among his
works we may name :

Fighting in the Streets of Magenta. 1864.
Chasseurs-a-Pied crossing the Tchernaija (Lilli

Museum). 1863.

Bivouac before Le Bourget (Dijon Museum). 1872.
The Last Cartridge. 1873.

Attack on a Barricaded House at Villersexel. 1874.
Surprise near Metz. 1875.
Battle of Forbach. 1877.
Cemetery of St. Privat.
Le Bourget.

Defence of Korke's Drift.
Cuirassiers at Rezonville.
The Storming of Tel-el-Kebir.
Le Parlementaire (his last picture) .

NEVE, CORNELIUS, an English portrait painter,
who practised in the reign of Charles I. He
painted a group of himself and his family, which
is now at Petworth. He painted also Lord Buck-
hurst and Mr. Edward Sackville in one piece in
1637. It is at Knole. In 1664 he painted Mr.
Ashniole in his herald's coat.

NEVE, (or NEUE,) FRANS VAN. There were
several painters of this name, probably father,
son, and grandson. The first was inscribed in the
books of the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in
1630, and the third in 1691. It was therefore pro-
bably the second who was born, according to
Balkema, at Antwerp in 1625, and died in 1681.
He studied the works of Rubens and Vandyck,
and at Rome those of Raphael, and became a
better designer and colourist than many of his
contemporaries. There are many of his pictures
at Antwerp. At Vienna are the portraits of the
Archduke Leopold, Governor of the Netherlands,
and Charles II. of Spain, with the Archduchess
Maria Anna. In the Lichtenstein Gallery are ' The
Judgment of Solomon ' and ' The Massacre of the
Innocents.' There are a number of etchings signed
' F de Neve, inv et fecit.' Probably they are by the
second Van Neve, as the figures are well drawn,
and in the landscapes the foliage particularly well

NEVEU, MATHIJS, (or NAIVEU,) was born at
Leyden in 1647, and was first a scholar of Abraham
Torenvliet, but he had afterwards the advantage
of being instructed by Gerard Don. He painted
domestic subjects and conversations, and Hou-
braken highly commends a picture by him at
Amsterdam, representing the ' Works of Mercy,'



a composition of a great number of figures in-
geniously grouped. He died at Amsterdam in
1721. Some of his pictures have been imported
into England, but for the most part they are
confined to his own country. There is a ' St. Je-
rome" by him in the Amsterdam Museum.

NEVEU, NOEL. A painter of this name won the
second Grand Prix of the Paris Academy in
1692, with an ' Abraham dismissing Hagar.'

painter, chiefly in water-colours, was born at
Penketh, near Warrington, January 16, 1847, one of
a family of thirteen. His real name was Frederick
Harrison Suker, and he adopted his Thackerayan
pseudonym to distinguish him from bis father,
John Suker (born at Chester, December 6, 1807,
died April 10, 1886), and his brother, Arthur Suker,
also painters. Another brother assumed for the
same reason the name John Sinclair. John Suker,
who only embraced art as a profession in middle
life, came of a markedly artistic stock, Thomas
Crane, the father of Mr. Walter Crane, being a
cousin. Coming to Liverpool early in life, New-
come studied at the Mount Street School of Art
under Mr. John Finnie ; afterwards he was in-
fluenced by Whitaker and Syer. At the Liverpool
Academy Exhibition of 1867 Newcome showed two
pictures (medium not stated) of 'Cox's garden at
Bettws ' and ' The Moorland Stream,' priced ten
guineas each. This was not improbably bis first
appearance as exhibitor. To the first Liverpool
Autumn Exhibition (1871) he contributed two oils :
' The Eagle Rock, Cumberland,' and ' Lake
Guillion,' each 40. His next contributions were
two drawings of Lake District subjects in 1874,
each 40. In 1875 he appeared at the Royal
Academy with 'The Head of a Highland Glen'
(water-colour), which attracted thenotice of Ruskin,
who in his ' Notes on the Academy ' described it as
the best study of torrent, including distant and
near water, that he found in the rooms. He added :
" The rest of this mountain scene is also carefully
studied, and very right and good." At Liverpool
he showed in 1875 an important oil, ' Floodgates
of a Highland River ' (250), and two drawings.
Newcome exhibited occasionally at the Royal
Academy, the last of his nine contributions being
' A lonely Mountain Tarn ' (water-colour) in
1887. His last picture at the Walker Art
Gallery was in 1884. Newcome's earliest sketch-
ing-ground was at Bettws-y-Coed, and he after-
wards worked in Scotland, Warwickshire, Devon-
shire, and the Lake District. The last was his
favourite, and in 1880 he made Keswick his head-
quarters. A number of his best works were painted
in Arran for the Duke of Hamilton, and have never
been exhibited. He painted the scenery, and
especiall}' the waters of wild mountainous country,
with great ability, and in a manner that secured
him immediate and continuing recognition. Un-
fortunately he was of a careless, pleasure-loving
disposition, and although he was of strong physique
and constitution, his health was prematurely
undermined, and he died at Coniston (to which he
had removed from Keswick) in February 1894. He
left a widow and one daughter. E. R. D.

NEWCOURT, RICHARD, an English draughtsman
in the 17th century, who drew some of the illus-
trations for Dugdale's ' Monasticon Anglicanum.'

NEWELL, EDWARD JOHN. For a short time this
remarkable Irish spy practised as a painter, and he
must therefore be mentioned in this volume. He


was born at Downpatrick in 1771, was apprenticed
to a painter and glazier, and followed the trade of
a glass stainer for some years, both in Dublin and
Limerick. A little later on he took up with the
profession of miniature painting, which he practised
with some considerable success at Belfast, but at
length, neglecting his business for the sake of the
United Irish movement, he lost almost all his
clients, and had to seek a maintenance in other
ways. As a painter in miniature his work was
eminently creditable and his success was a deserved
one, but as a common informer or spy, in which he
had still further success, his conduct was despic-
able to the last extremity. He was, however, a
man of no shame, and in his biography which he
issued in 1798 he gloried in his infamy. He was
assassinated in that same year by some persons
whom he had betrayed, and in Ireland universal
execration is given to his name and career.

NEWELL, ROBERT HASELL, the son of a Col-
chester surgeon, born in 1778, educated at St.
John's College, Cambridge, lecturer and dean of
his College, and finally curate for some twenty-
five years of Great Hormead. He died in 1852.
He was a clever amateur artist who will be best
remembered by the drawings which he made for
Goldsmith's ' Deserted Village,' and which were
engraved in aquatint by Alken. He also illustrated
a volume on North Wales which he had himself
written, and the illustrations of which were
engraved by Sutherland.

NEWENHAM, FREDERICK, an English portrait
and subject painter. He exhibited at the Royal
Academy from 1844 to 1855. There is a portrait
of H. M. Queen Victoria by him at the Junior
United Service Club. Newenham was born in
1807, and died in 1859.

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