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Pressburg. Coll. of Count
Jean Pa/Jfy.

Rome. Barterini Gallery.
Corsini Gallery.

Capitol Gallery.

Horghese Gallery.

St. Barbara (signed).

The Madonna within the Rose
Garden. Signed FRAXCIA
in 1815 from the estate of
the Empress Josephine at
Mat 'maisonforlo.QOO francs.
A drawing for this picture
is in the Uffizi.)

The Virgin and Child.
(Bought by Maximilian II.
in 1833, before he became
AY/K/, from the Zambeccari
Gallery in Bologna, and
presented to the Gallery.)

The Nativity.

The Crucifixion. Signed


(PaintedforSt. Job's Church
tit Bologna, and passed into
the Bianchetti and Solly
Collections. Bought of M.
Paye in 1864 for 8000
The Deposition. Signed


The Madonna with the Child
and St. Benedict, St. Pla-
cidus, Sta. Giustiua, and
St. Scholastics. Signed F.


The Madonna with the Child
and St. John.

Thi< Madonna and Child.
Madonna and Child with
St. Joseph, 25 in. x 18J in.,
bought at the Dudley sale,
Lot 62, for 430 10s.



Holy Family.

St. George.

The Presentation in the

The Madonna and Child.
The picture was com-
missioned by Sister Doro-
thea Fantuzzi, of the Con-
vent of S. M. Maddalena in
Bologna, and is inscribed
on the back, SOROR DOBO-


[From the engraving in the British Khneutn



HA. UAGNA, in a script

Rome. Bonjhese Gallery St. Stephen the Martyr.


6t. Petersburg. Hermitage The Virgin and Child with
Gallery, St. Catherine,

The Madonna and Child.

The picture was brought to
the Hermitage in 1832 from
the Gallery of Prince Eu-
gene Sapiega at Grodno.
Signed F. FRANCIA, but the
signature is probably a false

The Virgin and Child with

Saints. Inscribed DS LVDO-


MCCCCC. Painted in 1500
by the command of the
Canon of the Church of St.
Petronius at Bologna, Ludo-
vico de Calcina. It after-
wards found its way into
the Church of San Lorenzo
delle Grotte in the same
town, whence it was re-
moved to Eome by Cardinal
Ludovisi ; still later it
passed into the Ercolani
Gallery, whence it was
bought for the Hermitage
in 1843.

Turin. Royal Gallery. The Deposition in the Tomb.
Brought from Casale to
an altar of the Count Pio
Sordi di Torcello, and by
him in 1835 given to the
Gallery. Signed F. FRANCIA


Verona. Pinacoteca. Madonna and Child with

Three Saints. Signed F.


Vienna. Royal Gallery. The Madonna and Child with
Saints. Signed FRANCIA


Drawing of the Flute-players.

,, Drawing of the Judgment of

Liechtenstein Gall. The Marchese Bovio. (J. C. \\~,

RAIBOLINI, GIACOMO, the elder son of Fran-
cesco Raibolini, called FRANCIA after his father,
was born about 1484. He studied under his
father, and acted as his assistant. He executed
two of the frescoes in the chapel of St. Cecilia at
Bologna, namely, the ' Baptism of Valerian," and
the 'Martyrdom of St. Cecilia.' His masterpiece,
perhaps, is the beautiful ' Madonna seated with SS.
Francis, Bernard, Sebastian, and Maurice,' dated
1526, in the Pinacoteca at Bologna, although his
St. Michael,' in San Domenico, is also very fine.
Late in life Giacomo came under the influence of
Dosso Dossi, as may be gathered from his two en-
throned Madonnas at Milan. Giacomo died in 1557.
By him :

Berlin. Gallery. The Virgin in Glory (jointly

with his brother Giulio).


Madonna with Saints.

Bologna. Pinacoteca. Two Madonnas.

Virgin with Saints.

San Stefano. Christ on the Cross.

Bologna. San Giovanni. Christ as a Gardener.

SS. Annunziata. The Entombment.

San Domenico. The Archangel Michael.

Florence. Pitti Gall. A Portrait.

Madrid. Museum. A Devotional Picture with St.

Margaret in the centre.

Milan. Brera. Two enthroned Madonnas.

Parma. S. Giovanni. Adoration of the Shepherds.

A few scarce prints, dated about 1530, and signed
I. F., are ascribed to Giacomo Raibolini. Among
them we may name, ' A Muse,' ' Cleopatra,' and
' Venus and Amor.'

RAIBOLINI, GIDLIO, younger son and pupil of
Francia, was a painter of mediocre talents. He
was born in 1487. He worked jointly with his
brother on the pictures named below, which are
now in the Bologna and Berlin Galleries respect-
ively. He died in 1540.

Berlin. Museum. The Virgin in Glory.

Bologna. Pinacoteca. Four Saints. (-Both signed


RAIMBACH, ABRAHASI, engraver, born in Lon-
don in 1776. His father was a Swiss by birth,
but had come to England at an early per'od of his
life, and never left it. After receiving his educa-
tion at Archbishop Tennison's Library School, the
son was apprenticed to J. Hall, the engraver, and
the first work of the young apprentice was the ex-
planatory key to the engraving of Copley's ' Death
of Chatham,' now in the National Gallery. After
his apprenticeship he entered as a student at the
Royal Academy, and took what casual employ-
ment he could obtain from the booksellers, and
also occupied himself with miniature painting. He
found the latter irksome, and abandoned it linally
for engraving. The plates he executed for Smirke
and Forster's edition of the 'Arabian Nights' made
known his ability, and were also profitable. In
1812 he became David Wilkie's engraver, and the
first work of that distinguished painter that he
transferred to copper was 'The Village Politicians,'
the next was 'The Rent Day,' and these were
followed at intervals by 'The Cut Finger,' 'The
Errand Boy,' ' Blindman's Buff,' ' Distraining for
Rent,' 'The Parish Beadle,' and 'The Spanish
Mother and Child.' After Reynolds he engraved a
' Venus ' and the ' Ugolino.' Raimbach, it is said,
never employed an assistant, but executed the
whole of his plates himself. His prints after
Wilkie are masterly works. They were boldly
engraved, to enable the publishers to take numer-
ous impressions, and therefore appear somewhat
deficient in artistic freedom and delicacy of exe-
cution. They are, however, suited to the subjects,
and very faithful to Wilkie's characters. Raimbach
died at Greenwich in 1843. Besides the plates
above named, he is also responsible for the follow-
ing :

Leonard Parkinson, a Maroon Chief; after a draining
by .Vet: (Edwards's ' Maroon War ').

Illustrations for Cooke's ' Tales of the Genii.'

Illustrations for Forster's ' Arabian Nights.'

Five plates for ' Easselas.'

Plates for Sharpe's ' Spectator,' ' Tatler,' and ' Guar-

Plates for ' Don Quixote.' (Longman: ISIS.)

Frontispiece to Scott's Arabian Nights.'

Initiation into the Mysteries of Isis; after Smirke, for
Barlow's ' Columbiad.'

Rape of the Golden Fleece ; the same.

A biography of Raimbach was privately printed
by Frederick Shoberl in 1843.

RAIMONDI, MARC ANTONIO, the most famous
and the finest of Italian engravers, was born at



Bologna towards the end of the 15th century,
according to Passavant in 1488. But there is much
doubt as to his dates, some authorities putting his
birth as early as 1470, and his death as late as
a century afterwards. Most probably, however,
he was a year or two younger than Raphael, while
we have no trace of his existence after 1527, the
year of the sack of Rome. His first master was
Francia, who taught him to work in niello. He
may have had another master for part of the
technical work of the goldsmith's engraver. By
the year 1505 he had engraved a plate for its own
sake, a ' Pyramus and Thisbe,' and had made a
journey through Upper Italy to Venice. About
1508-10 he was engaged, in Venice, in making
copies of seventeen of Albert Diirer's cuts from
the 'Life of the Virgin,' of the thirty-six cuts of
the ' Little Passion,' and of the ' Adam and Eve.'
Whether Marc Antonio did this with a fraudulent
intention or not has been much disputed, but
there seems to be no doubt as to his desire to
profit, in an unfair way, by Diirer's reputation,
for to the seventeen plates from the ' Life of the
Virgin ' he affixed the Nuremberger's mark, while
the ' Adam and Eve ' is signed thus :






exactly as the original is signed. The 'Little
Passion ' is marked with Diirer's tablet, in blank,
much as Raimondi afterwards marked his own
works. This, perhaps, was due to the represent-
ations made, as Vasari tells us, by Diirer, who very
probably made use of his favour with the Emperor
to get the prohibition to which Vasari refers made
effective against the use of his name by the Italian
engraver. It is not likely that he actually jour-
neyed to Venice to prosecute his complaint. Marc
Antonio's copies after Durer are as faithful as
copper-plates after woodcuts, by an artist with a
great original genius of his own, could be expected
to be.

About 1510 Marc Antonio was in Florence, and
there engraved the famous plate after Michel
Angelo's Cartoon of Pisa, which is known as
' The Climbers ' (Les Grimpeurs). About a year
later he went to Rome, where he at first continued
his imitation of Diirer. Soon, however, he enrolled
himself among the followers of Raphael, and
worked for eight or nine years under his super-
vision. For a time he seems to have worked in
Raphael's studio, but he afterwards set up a studio
of his own, where he received pupils, among whom
the most famous were Agostino di Musi and Marco
Dente da Ravenna. No doubt much of the per-
fection to which the art was brought in this
atelier was due to the taste of Raphael, for the
spirit in which Raimondi engraved was curiously
akin to that which distinguishes the Urbinate's
work with the point. Design, expression, and purity
rather than richness of technique, are the merits
aimed at. Many of Marc Antonio's plates are
after lost designs of Sanzio, while many others
reproduce compositions still extant, but reproduce
them with variations, suggested most likely by the
master. After Raphael's death, in 1520, Raimondi
engraved after Giulio Romano. This connection
brought him into disgrace and into prison. Giulio
made a series of twenty indecent designs in illus-
tration of sonnets by Pietro Aretino. These Marc

Antonio engraved, and so scandalized Pope Cle-
ment VII., that he was clapped into prison. At
the intercession of the Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici
and of Baccio Bandinelli he was released, and
set to work on his plate of the 'Martyrdom of
St. Lawrence,' after Bandinelli. The engraving
when finished was submitted to the Pope, who
was so pleased with it that he at once took
its author under his special protection. Baccio,
on the other hand, was not satisfied, and com-
plained to Clement that his work had not been
faithfully rendered. The Pope thereupon com-
pared the design with the engraving, and decided
that Raimondi had improved upon Bandinelli.
The original red chalk drawing by the latter is
in the Cabinet at Munich. In 1527 Marc Antonio
lost all he had at the siege and subsequent sack
of Rome. He fled to Bologna, and nothing more
is known of him. From a statement by G. A. di
Niccolini di Sabio, however, we may fairly con-
clude that he was no longer alive in 1534. For
three centuries Marc Antonio has enjoyed a reput-
ation among reproductive engravers comparable to
that of Raphael among painters. Fine impressions
of his best plates have steadily increased in value,
until now they excite as fierce a competition at
sales as the rarest plates of Rembrandt. His
oeuvre may be divided into four classes : first, the
pieces he executed during his early days under
the shadow of Francia ; secondly, his imitations
of Diirer, and other productions before his journey
to Rome ; thirdly, his work under Raphael ;
fourthly, his work after Raphael's death. In works
belonging to the first class, the hardness of the
niellatore and the immaturity of the youthful
artist are both visible. In those of the second,
the burin is managed more freely, and the in-
dividuality of a true artist is more traceable. In
those of the third period the masterpieces of
Raimondi are to be found. It begins with ' The
Climbers,' which may have been finished at Rome,
and includes ' The Massacre of the Innocents,'
'The Judgment of Paris,' 'The Dance of Cupids,'
' The Five Saints,' the ' Lucretia,' &c. The fourth
period is marked by less care in drawing, less
delicacy in the management of the burin, less pa-
tience, and a greater toleration for mannerism in
the works reproduced; these were mostly from
the hand of Giulio Romano. The following list
of Marc Antonio's plates is taken from Passavant
but Bartsch's numbers are also given. VI. k

1. Adam and Eve. (B. 1.)

2. Adam aud Eve driveu from Paradise. (B. 2.)

3. God appearing to Noah. (B. 3.)

4. Joseph and Potiphar's Wife. (B. 9.)

5. David beheading Goliath. (B. 10.)

6. David with the Head of Goliath. (B. 11.)

7. David with the Head of Goliath. (B. 12.)

8. The Nativity. (B. 16.)

9. The Massacre of the Innocents (without the ' Chi-

cot'). (B. 20.)

10. The Feast at Simon's House. (B. 28.)

11. The Last Supper. (B. 26.)

12. The Entombment. (B. 30.)

13. The Descent from the Cross. (B. 32.)

14. Pieta. (B. 35.)

15. The Marys weeping over the body of Christ. (B. 37.)

16. The Descent into Limbo. (B. 41.)

17. S. Paul at Athens. (B. 44.)

18. The Marys on the Steps. (B. 45.)

19. The Virgin Enthroned. (B. 46.)

20. The Virgin in Glory. (B. 47.)

21. The upper part of the Foligno Madonna. (B. 52.)

22. The Virgin with the long thigh. (B. 57.)

23. The Holy Family ; after JUichaelanyelo. (B. 59.^




[From the vet


24. Holy Family. The Virgin suckling the Infaut

Christ. (B. 60.)

25. The Virgin with the Palm-tree. (B. 62.)

26. The Madonna with the Cradle. (B. 63.)
27-39. Jesus and the Twelve Apostles. (B. 74-76.)

40. S. Cristopher. (B. 96.)

41. S. Francis. (B. 97.)

42. S. George. (B. 98.)

43. S. John Baptist. (B. 99.)

44. S. Jerome kneeling before a Crucifix placed in a

tree trunk. (B. 101.)

45. S. Jerome with the small Lion. (B. 102.)

46. The Martyrdom of S. Lawrence. (B. 104.)

47. S. Sebastian. (B. 109.)

48. S. Francis, S. Anthony of Padua, and S. John of

Capistran. (B. 110.)

49. The Five Saints. (B. 113.)

50. Saint Catherine. (B. 115.)

51. S. Cecilia, with four other Saints. (B. 116.)

52. The Martyrdom of S. Cecilia. (.B. 117.)

53. Saint Margaret. (B. 118.)

54. SS. Lucy, Catherine, and Barbara. (B. 120.)
55-67. Christ and the Twelve Apostles. (B. 124.)

68. Christ on the Cross. (B. 137.)

69. The Holy Trinity. (B. 138.)

70. The Virgin standing. (B. 139.)

71. The young Tobias and the Guardian Angel. (B. 140.)

72. S. Anthony. (B. 141.)

73. S. Anthony of Padua. (B. 142.)

74. S. Benedict. (B. 143.)

75. S. Bernard. (B. 144.)

76. S. John of Capistran. (B. 145.)

77. S. Christopher. (B. 146.)

78. S. Stephen. (B. 147.)

79. S. Francis of Assisi. (B. 148.)

80. The Archangel Gabriel. (B. 149.)
81-2. S. John Baptist. (B. 150-1.)

83. S. Jerome. (B. 152.)

84. Job. (B. 153.)

85. S. Joseph. (B. 154.)

86. S. Lawrence (S. Leonard). (B. 155.)
87-8. S. Lawrence. (B. 156-7.)

89. S. Michael. (B. 158.)

90. Lazarus. (B. 159.)

91. S. Nicholas of Toleutino. (B. 160.)

92. S. Peter Martyr. (B. 161.)
93-5. S. Roch. (B. 162-4.)
96-8. S. Sebastian. (B. 165-7.)
99. S. Vincent. (B. 168.)

100. A Penitent Saint. (B. 169.)

101. S. Agatha. (B. 170.)

102. S. Agues. (B. 171.)

103. S. Anne, the Virgin and Child. (B. 172.)

104. S. Apollonia. (B. 173.)

105. S. Barbara. (B. 174.)

106. S. Catherine. (B. 175.)

107. S. Catherine of Siena. (B. 176.)

108. S. Cecilia. (B. 177.)

109. S. Helena. (B. 178.)

110. S. Lucy. (B. 179.)

111. The glorified Magdalen. (B. 180.)

112. S. Margaret. (B. 181.)

113. S. Martha. (B. 182.)

114. S. Petrouilla. (B. 183.)

115. Death. (B. 184.)

116. The Rape of Helen. (B. 209.)

117. Alexander placing Homer's poems in the tomb of

Achilles. (B. 207.)
118-121. The Four Eoman Knights. (B. 183-191.)

122. Dido. (B. 187.)

123. Lucretia. (B. 192.)

124. Cleopatra (Ariadne). (B. 199.)

125. Cleopatra. (B. 200.)

126. The Triumph of Titus. (B. 213.)

127. The Plague of Phrygia. (B. 417.)

128. Parnassus. (B. 274.)

129-131. Jupiter, Mars, and Diana. (B. 253-255.)

132. Vulcan, Venus, and Cupid. (B. 326.)

133-135. Jupiter embracing Cupid ; Mercury descending

in search of Psyche ; Cupid and the Three Graces.

(B. 342-344.) '

136. Mars, Venus, and Cupid. (B. 345.)

137. The Judgment of Paris. (B. 245.)

138. The Quos Eyo, or Neptune calming the Storm. (B.


139. Venns and two Cupids. (B. 251.)

140. Venus appearing to JEneas. (B. 288.)

141. Venus after the Bath. (B. 297.)

142. Venus stooping to kiss Cupid. (B. 311.)

143. Venus rising from the Sea. (B. 312.)

144. Venus crouching. (B. 313.)

145. Pallas standing on a Sphere. (B. 337.)

146-161. Apollo, Minerva, the Muses, and five other
figures. (B. 263-278.)

162. The Apollo Belvedere. (B. 331.)

163. Apollo with left arm upraised. (B. 332.)

164. A Replica of the Last. (B. 333.)

165. The Standing Apollo. (B. 335.)

166. Apollo, Hyacinthus. and Cupid. (B. 348.)

167. Dance of Cupids. (B. 217.)

168. Cupid and Three Children. (B. 320.)

169. Hercules full-face standing in a niche. (B. 256.)
170-173. The Labours of Hercules. (B. 289-292.)

174. Hercules strangling Antseus. (B. 346.)

175. Two Fauns carrying a Child in a Basket. (B. 230.)

176. Bacchanalia, or The Offering to Priapus. (B. 248.)

177. A reversed Replica of the last, in which the Satyr is

on the left of Priapus. (B. 249.)

178. A Satyr clasping a Nymph with his left arm, and

defending himself against a Young Man. (B. 279.)

179. A Satyr seated, and a Child. (B. 281.)

180. Nymph surprised by Satyr. (B. 285.)

181. Two Votaries of Bacchus, one young and one old.

(B. 294.)

182. Faun and Child. (B. 296.)

183. The two Satyrs and the Nymph. (B. 305.)

184. Pan and Syrinx. (B. 325.)

185. Nymph surprised by Satyr. (B. 319.)

186. The Vintage of Bacchus. (B. 306.)

187. Cupid rising from the Sea. (B. 293.)

188. The Three Graces. (B. 340.)

189. Orpheus and Eurydice. (B. 282.)

190. Orpheus delivering Eurydice from the Infernal

Regions. (B. 295.)

191. Orpheus seated, playing the Violin. (B. 314.)

192. The Triumph of Galatea. (B. 350.)

193. Bacchus and Ariadne.

194. Pyramus and Thisbe. (B. 322).

195. The ' Loves of the Gods '

1. The Torso of a Woman, her head on a cushion.

2. A Bearded Man and part of a Leg.

3. 4. Figures of Young Women.

5. Back View of a Head.

6. Head turned to the Right, embraced by a Man's Arm.

7. Head turned to the Left.

8. Head of a Young Woman.

9. Figure of a Young Man, standing, and stretching

out his Right Arm. (These nine fragments are
all that is left of the plates which brought Rai-
mondi into disgrace with Pope Clement. They
are quite inoffensive. A complete set, however,
belonged to the collector Mariette, and after his
death passed into the French Royal Library.
They have been either lost, stolen, or destroyed.)

196. Trajan crowned by Victory. (B. 361.)

197. Fortune holding a sail swelled by the Wind. (B.


198. Love of Fame. (B. 363.)

199. Time.

200. Prudence. (B. 371.)

201. Strength. (B. 375.)

202. Temperance. (B. 376.)

203. Philosophy. (B. 381.)

204. Poetry. (B. 382.)

205211. The Seven Cardinal Virtues. (B. 336392.)

212. Peace. (B. 393.)

213. ' Amadeus, Austeritas, Amititia, Amor.' (B. 355.)

214. The Four Doctors. (B. 404.)

215. ' Le Baton Courbe.' (B. 369.)

216. The Woman with the Crescent. (B. 354.)

217. The Man with two Trumpets. (B. 356.)

218. Raphael's Dream. (B. 359.)

219. The Young Man with the Firebrand. (B. 360.)

220. Man and Woman holding a Sail. (B. 364.)

221. The Old Shepherd and the Youth. (B. 366.)

222. The Old Man and the Man with the Anchor. (B.


223. Woman with Winged Head. (B. 368.)

224. Man Beaten with a Fox's Tail. (B. 372.)

225. Woman with two Sponges. (B. 373.1



226. The Man and Woman with Globes. (B. 377.)

227. Young Woman watering a Plant. (B. 383.)

228. Man whipping Fortune. (B. 378.)

229. Man showing a Woman a Hatchet. (B. 380.)

230. Young Man with a Lantern. (B. 384.)

231. Two Naked Men, standing. (B. 385.)

232. Serpent speaking to a Young Man. (B. 396 )

233. The Two Women and the Zodiac. (B. 397.)

234. The Violin-Player, and the Three Naked Women.

(B. 398.)

235. Young Woman in Classic Dress, between Two Men.

(B. 399.)

236. ' II Stregozzo,' or ' Sorcery.' (B. 426.)

237. Man Crowning an Eagle. (B. 428.)

238. The Shepherd and the Nymph. (B. 429.)

239. Old Man and Young Woman. (B. 430.)

240. The Old and the Young Shepherd. (B. 431.)

241. Young Mother conversing with Two Men. (B. 432.)

242. Man Kneeling at the outskirts of a Wood. (B. 434.)

243. Man Asleep at the entrance to a Wood. (B. 438.)

244. The Old Shepherd and the Young Man with the

Violin. (B. 435.)

245. The Old Man and the fat Young Man. (B. 436.)

246. Woman tearing her Hair. (B. 437.)

247. The Lion Hunt. (B. 422.)

248. Emperor sitting. (B. 441.)

249. Another Emperor sitting. (B. 442.)

250. Woman meditating. (B. 443.)

251. The Deformed Young Man. (B. 446.)

252. The Cardinal at Market. (B. 459.)

253. The Pilgrim. (B. 462.)

254. The Climbers. B. 487.)

255. One of the Climbers. (B. 488.)

256. Man bearing the base of a Column (B. 476.)

257. Man with a Flag. (B. 481.)
258269. The Twelve Caesars. (B. 501513.)

270. Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius. (B. 514.)

271. Constantine the Great. (B. 495.)

272. Pope Leo XII. (B. 493.)

273. Pope Adrian VI. (B. 494J

274. Charles V. (B. 497.)

275. Raphael resting. (B. 496.)

276. The Poet Alexander Aehillini. (B. 469.)

277. Pietro Aretino. (B. 513.)

278. The Perfume Vase for Francis I. (B. 538.)

279. The Facade with Caryatides. (B. 538.)

280. The Three Marys.

281. SS. Lucy, Catherine, and Barbara.

282. The Triumph of Neptune.

283. The Glorified Magdalen.

284. Cupids at a Tomb.

285. Amymona carried off by a Triton.

286. S. Paul kueeling before Christ.

287. Pluto.

288. Venus wounded by a Thorn. (B. 321.)

289. Satyr and Bacchante.

290. Dance of Three Fauns and Three Bacchantes.

291. Pope Clement VII. (B. 493 and 494.)

292. Pius II.

293. Paul II.

294. Sixtus IV.

295. Innocent VIII.

296. Alexander VI.

297. Pius III.

298. Adam and Eve. (Copy from Albreckt Diirer).

299. The Last Supper, (Do.)

300. Calvary. (B. 59.) (Do.)

301. The Virgin with the Monkey. (Do.)

302. The Virgin by the Door. (Do.)

303. Holy Family with playing Angels. (Do.)

304. Holy Family in a vaulted Chamber. (Ho )

305. The Prodigal Son. (Do.)

306. S. Jerome in bis Cell. (Do.)

307. Three Bishop-Saints. (Do.)

308. The Two Cooks. (Do.)

KAIMONDO, was a Neapolitan painter, who
flourished about the year 1477. There is a picture
by him in the church of S. Francesco di Chieri, in

RAINALDI, DOMENICO, a painter, who flourished
at Rome about 1665. He executed some works
for the diiferent churches in Rome, and seems to


have been patronized by the Popes of his time.
Nothing is known of his history.

VENOGLIA, was born at Mantua about the year
1680. He was a scholar of Giovanni Canti, and
painted similar subjects, representing landscapes
and battle-pieces. His pictures are little inferior
to those of his instructor; if they are less vigor-
ously coloured, his figures are usually better
drawn. He died in 1768.

RA JON, PAUL ADOLPHE, draughtsman and etcher,
was born at Dijon in July 1843, and was educated
at the lycde of his native town. His father died
when Rajon was thirteen years old, and his mother,
left with small means, placed the boy with his
brother-in-law, a photographer, at Metz, who em-
ployed him to "touch up" plates. In 1864 he
came to Paris, and fur a time gained a precarious
livelihood by working up and colouring photo-
graphs, making cartoons for stained glass, and
drawing portraits in black lead or sanguine. At

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