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the same time he worked for a month or two under
Pils at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. About 1865
Rajon made the acquaintance of Leopold Flameng
and L^on Gaucherel, and was induced to try his
hand at etching. The result was an admirable
reproduction of Gerome's ' Rembrandt dans son
Atelier,' which was purchased by the Messrs.
Goupil. The success of the publication was fol-
lowed up by several commissions from the same
firm, and Rajon's vocation was determined. From
1866 onwards his artistic career was one of un-
chequered success, broken only by the interlude of
the siege of Paris, when, like so many other artists,
he quitted his studio to enrol himself in the corps
known as Les Enfants perdus de La Villette.
After the campaign he visited England, being
invited by the editor of the ' Portfolio.' Henceforth
he made annual visits to England, and some of his
finest plates were from pictures in this country.
In 1885 Rajon exhibited a large collection of his
works, in oils, water-colours, chalk, and pastel, as
well as many etchings, in Bond Street ; and an
exhibition of his etchings took place the following
year in New York, which he then visited for the
first time. In 1880 he moved to a country house
he had built at Auvers, on the banks of the Oise,
about forty miles from Paris, where he delighted to
entertain the many friends of all nationalities he had
attached to himself throughout his career. He died
there on the 8th of June, 1888, and was buried in
the cemetery of Auvers. Of his numerous plates
we may name :

Eelais de Chiens ; after Ge'rume.

L' Amour Platonique ; after Zauiaco'is.

Le Liseur ; after Meisfonier.

Salome ; afttr Regnault.

L'Indiff erent ; after Watteatt.

Dutch Courtyard ; after De Hooi/ke.

John Brisht ; after Ouless.

Charles Darwin ; after the fame.

Cardinal Newman ; after the same.

The Emperor Claudius ; after A I ma TaJema.

' George Eliot' ; after Kir Frederick Burton.

Lord Tennyson ; after G. F. ff'atts.

Herr Joachim ; after the same.

Also many plates for the ' Portfolio ' from pictures
in the National Gallery, the Dulwich Gallery, &c.
For a complete list of Rajon's plates, with fuller
details of his life, see ' Twelve Etchings contributed
to the " Portfolio " by Paul Adolphe Rajon, with
Memoir and Notes by F. G. Stephens.' London,


RALPH, G. KEITH, an English portrait and
subject painter in the latter half of the 18th
century. He was portrait painter to the Duke of
Clarence, and exhibited at the Academy from 1778
to 1811.

RAMA, CAMILLO, painter, a native of Brescia,
who flourished about the year 1622. He was a
pupil of the younger Palma, and painted several
altar-pieces and other considerable works for the
public edifices of his native city, which prove him
to have been an able follower of the style of
his instructor. In the refectory of the Carmelites,
and in the churches of S. Gioseffo and S. Fran-
cesco, there are good examples of his work.

a 'priest of Siena, who lived about the middle
of the 17th century, and practised portrait and
historical painting. In the Franciscan church at
Siena there is a 'Nativity' by him, and at Florence
(Dffizi) a 'Nativity of the Virgin.' Bloemart en-
graved after him the portrait of a Nun, Colomba
da Tofaninis.

RAMAY, JEAN, (or DELLE RAMEGE,) an historical
painter, born at Liege ajbout 1530, was a pupil of
Lambert Lombard, and became a member of the
Corporation of Goldsmiths, of which he was dean
in 1585. Very late in life he is said to have
worked in the palace at Luxemburg, and to have
died during his journey back to his native city.
There is an ' Adoration of the Shepherds ' by him
in the church of Glains, near Liege. He was still
alive in 1602.

RAMAZZANI, EP.COLE, born at Roccacontrada
in the Roman territory, was a pupil of Perugino
and of Raphael. He executed some works of art
for his native place. The dates of his birth and
death are unknown, but he is asserted to have
been still alive in 1588. Lanzi saw a picture by
one Rama.zir.mi di Roccacontrada in Matelica,
which was dated 1573.

in 1680, was a pupil of Domenico Viani. He
painted history with some success. There are
several of his pictures in the churches at Bologna,
which show considerable merit. The most worthy
of notice are the ' Death of St. Joseph,' in the
church of S. Gregorio ; the 'Visitation,' in S. Giu-
seppe ; and a ' St. Francis Xavier,' in S. Lucia.
Rambaldi died in 1717.

FERRARA. an inferior Ferrarese painter, who flour-
ished towards the end of the 14th century. No
details of his life are known.

painter, born at Vienna in 1819, was the son of
Field-Marshal Ramberg, but instead of folio wing his
father's profession, he turned his attention to art.
In 1840 he entered the University of Prague, but
soon migrated to the Academy of Art, and then
to Dresden, where he studied under Julius Hiibner,
and painted a ' Combat between King Henry and
the Hungarians.' The revolution of 1848 drove him
to Munich, where he painted humorous subjects.
He afterwards supplied illustrations for Schiller's
' Laura at the Piano,' ' Dido,' ' Drinking-Song,' and
' Expectation.' He also furnished illustrations for
Goethe's ' Hermann and Dorothea.' and Voss's
'Luise.' In 1860 he was appointed professor in
the Art School at Weimar, and afterwards to the
s ime position at Munich. He died at Munich in
1875. Of his genre pictures the best are :

Meeting on the Lake.
The Embroidery Frame.
The Water-party.

Frescoes in the Luther-hall r,f the Wartburg.
Frescoes in the Palace at Weimar (Legend of the Frog-

Sunday at Dachau.
The Walk with the Hofmcister.
After the Masquerade.

and portrait painter and engraver, born at Hanover
in 1763. He came early to England, and became
a scholar of Sir Joshua Reynolds and of Barto-
lozzi, working also in the schools of the Royal
Academy. After travelling in Italy and the Nether-
lands, he became court painter to the King of
Hanover. As a caricaturist he is at his best in his
' Reineke Fuchs ' and ' Till Eulenspiegel.' He
worked too hastily for his fame, and returned to
Hanover in 1834, where he died July 6, 1840.
Among his works we may further name :

Alexander crossing the Granicus.
The Title-page for the edition de luxe of Wieland.
Curtain for the Theatre at Hamburg.
Illustrations for the ' Taschenbiichern zum geselligen

RAMBERT, Loms DE, painter, bom in Paris in
1614. son of Louis Rambert, who was keeper of the
statues to Louis XIII. He studied under Vouet and
LeBrun. The king was his godfather. Repainted
a portrait of Cardinal Mazarin, but finally abandoned
painting for sculpture. He died in Paris in 1670.

RAMBOUX, JOHANN ANTON, painter, born at
Treves in 1790, went in 1804 to' Florenville to the
school of the Benedictine monk, Abraham, who
was then engaged on plates after Rubens, and in
1807 to David, under whom he became a good
draughtsman. In 1812 he returned to his home,
and there occupied himself with painting por-
traits. In 1815 he went to Munich, where he
applied himself to study the art of the Middle
Ages, and produced several portraits in the style
of A. Diirer and Holbein. In 1816 he visited
Rome, where he became affected by Overbeck,
Veit, and Cornelius. He then took to studying
early Christian art and to copying old wall paint-
ings, votive pictures, and miniatures. In 1827 he
was back at Treves, but in 1829 was again in
Italy, returning to Treves in 1840, where he com-
pleted a collection of water-colour copies. Thf
King of Prussia bought from him two hundre 1
and forty-eight of these for the Academy of Diissel-
dorf. In 1843 he was appointed keeper of the
Wallraf Museum at Cologne, where he made a
reputation by his restoration of the old pictures,
and by supplying designs for the cathedral tapestry.
He possessed a collection of Italian pictures ot i
15th and 16th centuries, from which he executed a
number of drawings in pen and ink. These were
reproduced in lithography, and published jointly
with lithographs from a series of drawings made
during a visit to Jerusalem in 1854. The whole
collection runs to a total of 125 plates. He died
at Cologne in 1866.

RAMELLI, PADRE FELICE, bom at Asti, in the
Piedmontese. in 1666. He was well known as a
painter of historical subjects and portraits in mini-
ature, and resided the greater part of his life in Rome,
where he became an ecclesiastic, and was made
a canon of S. Giovanni Laterano. The King "f
Sardinia invited him to his court, where he was
for some time employed in painting the portraits
of the most celebrated painters, many of which he



copied from the originals, painted by themselves,
in the Florentine Gallery. Hamelli died in 1740.

CAVALLO, from a village near Bologna, where he
was born in 1484, was a pupil of Francia, and
painted in Bologna in the style of his master. He
appears to have gone early to Rome, where he
studied the works of Raphael, and still more those
of Dosso Dossi. Bagnacavallo's style is a combin-
ation of that of the three masters we have named,
the simplicity learnt from Francia preserving him
from the affectation that spoils the work of too
many of the painters influenced by Raphael. The
' Virgin in Glory ' in the Dresden Gallery, and the
large altar-piece with several saints in the Berlin
Museum, are grand works ; in them the pupil of
Francia is to be readily recognized. After execut-
ing a certain amount of work in Rome, Ramenghi
returned to Bologna, where he died in 1542. Morelli
denies the influence of Raphael on Ramenghi, and
sees in him nothing but a pupil of Francia and an
able imitator of Dosso Dossi. Works :
Berlin. Museum. SS. Petrouius, Agnes, and

Louis IX. of France.

Bologna. Pinacoteca. Madonna with SS. Joseph,

Paul, Benedict, and M.
S. Vitale. The Visitation and other


S. Michele in \ Copy of Raphael's ' Trans-

posed, j figuration.'
S. Salvador. The Miracle of the Loaves

and Fishes.
St. Augustine's Flight from

the Manichaeaus.

iS. Petronio. Christ Crucified.

S. M. del Bar- > A Crucifixion and a Depo-

racano. J sition. (Also frescoes in
the Pal. del Podesta, in S.
Stefano, and the Madonna
deyli Scalzi.)

Dresden. Gallery. The Madonna enthroned with

SS. Geminianus, Peter,

Paul,and Anthony of Padua.

Milan. rera. Mystic Marriage of St.

Paris. Louvre. The Circumcision.

RAMEY, JOHN, born at Liege c. 1530, one of
the best pupils of Lambert Lombard, and master
of Otto van Veen, who was Rubens' first master.
He worked at Liege, but also for a short time in
Paris, in returning from which at the commence-
ment of the seventeenth century he was taken ill
and died. The numerous religious pictures painted
by him for the churches of Liege have all dis-

Glain,near Lige. Church. Adoration of the Shepherds.
Liege. M. Brahy Frost. St. Paul healing the Cripple
at Lystra. 1600 (signed}.

M.Desoerde Sol' ires. Adoration of the Shepherds.
Brussels. Duke of A ren- ) Episodes in the life of SS.
berg. j Joachim and Anne (two

Authority : J. Helbig, ' La Peinture au pays de
Liege,' 1903, pp. 182-188.

RAMIREZ, ANDREA, a miniature painter of
Seville, who in 1555 and 1558 illuminated the
choir books of the cathedral.

RAMIREZ, BENEVIDES JDAN, learned drawing
from his brother Josef, a sculptor. In 1753, exhi-
biting at the Academy a picture of the ' Election of
King Pelayo,' he was elected a supernumerary
Academician of S. Ferdinand. After studying
under Giaquinto he neglected painting for music,
and died at Saragossa in 1782.


RAMIREZ, CRISTOBAL, a native of Valencia, a
skilful illuminator, was in the service of Philip II.
in 1566, and did most of his work in his native
city. Returning to the Escorial he died there in
1577, leaving his daughter and two sons under the
king's protection. Among the books illuminated
by this artist were the ' Oficio di difuntos,' the
' Intonario,' and the ' Brevario Nuevo en Cantoria,'
for the Escorial.

RAMIREZ, FELIPE, probably a relation of Gero-
nimo, flourished at the same period. He painted
hunting-pictures, dead game, birds, and various
other subjects. He was a correct draughtsman and
understood the figure, as may be seen in his picture
of the ' Martyrdom of St. Stephen ' at Seville. His
pictures of still-life are distinguished by their truth
and freshness, and his work generally was held in
much esteem in his lifetime.

RAMIREZ, GERONIHO, a painter of Seville, and
a disciple of Roelas, flourished about the middle of
the 17th century. In the church of the hospital
de la Sangre, near Seville, there was a beautiful
picture signed with his name, representing the
pope surrounded by cardinals and other personages.

RAMIREZ, JOSEF, a Spanish painter, born at
Valencia in the year 1624. He was a scholar
of Geroninio de Espinosa, and painted history in
the style of his master. Palomino mentions, as his
most esteemed performances, his works in the con-
vent of San Felipe Neri at Valencia, particularly
his picture of Nuestra Sefiora de la Luz. He died
at Valencia in 1692. He was a learned ecclesiastic,
and wrote the Life of St. Philip Neri.

RAMIREZ, JUAN, a Spanish portrait painter,
who lived about the middle of the 16th century.
A great number of his portraits exist at Seville and
in its neighbourhood. Of his other works there are
no vestiges, though it is supposed that, being em-
ployed in the chapel of St. Christopher and other
places of note, he must have been an artist of
considerable talent.

RAMIREZ, PEDRO, painter, another of the numer-
ous artist-family of this name who flourished in
Spain in the 17th century. He practised at Seville,
and was one of the first members of the Academy
established in that city.

RAMSAY, ALLAN, portrait painter, the son of
Allan Ramsay, the author of the pastoral drama of
' The Gentle Shepherd,' was born at Edinburgh in
1713. He was a scion of the house of Dalhousie,
his great-grandfather being the Laird of Cockpen,
a brother to the chief. After acquiring the ele-
ments of design in London, under Hans Huyssing,
he returned to Edinburgh and worked for two
years from such remains of ancient art as he could
there encounter. He went to Italy in 1736, where
he was first a scholar of Solimena, and afterwards
of Imperial!. He did not, however, long prosecute
his studies in historical painting, but devoted
himself entirely to portraits. On his return from
Italy he established himself for some time at
Edinburgh, where he painted the portrait of Archi-
bald, Duke of Argyll. He afterwards, about 1762,
settled in London, where he met with very flat-
tering success. He was introduced by Lord Bute,
whose portrait he painted, to the Prince of Wales,
afterwards George III., whose Painter in Ordinary
he became on the death of Shackleton in 1767.
From that year onward Ramsay conducted a sort of
picture factory, from which he turned out Georges
and Carolines by the score. His chief assistants
were David Martin, Mrs. Black, Eikhart, Vandyck,


Walker <<iiJ t'i tcrel

{National Portrait Gallery



Roth, and Vesperier ; to whom was added in later
years the well-known Pliilip Reinagle. Ramsay
was a good linguist and an accomplished writer.
Many of his essays were collected into a volume
under the name of ' Investigator. ' He corresponded
with Voltaire, Rousseau, and Hume. For the last-
named he painted a portrait of Rousseau. Of
Ramsay Dr. Johnson said, " You will not find a man
in whose conversation there is more instruction,
more information, or more elegance than in Ram-
say's." Without reaching the highest rank in his
profession, he painted portraits with very consider-
able ability. He paid four visits to Italy during
his lifetime, and it was on returning from the last
that he died at Dover in 1784. Works :
Edinburgh. Nat. Gallery. David Hume.

Mrs. Allan Ramsay (a master-


Nat. Portrait Gall. Himself.
Hon. Alex. Murray.

R. Call. of Physicians. Adam Austin, M.D.
Lord Younrj. Andrew Fletcher.Lord Milton.

R. Scott. Academy. Norrie, a Scotch decorative


Glasgow. Gallery. John, second Duke of Argyll

London. Nat. Port. Gal. The Earl of Chesterfield.
., ., Queen Charlotte.

George III.

Lord Mansfield.

Dr. Mead.

Patrick Grant, Lord Elchies.

Dr. John Rutherford, grandfather of Sir W. Scott.
Caroline, Marchioness of Lothian. (Lord Lothian.)
John, second Earl of Stair. (Lord Stair.)
John, third Earl of Hyndford. (6'i> W. H. Gibson

James Ferguson, F.R.S.
Sir Alex. Dick, of Prestonfield, Bart. (Sir S. A'. A.

Ihck Conynyham, Bt.)

Patrick Boyle, Lord Shewalton. (Lord Inylis.)
Clementina Maria Sophia Walkinshaw, Countess of
Albertstroff (mistress of the Young Pretender and
mother of the Duchess of Albany).

RAMSAY, JAMES, an English portrait painter,
born in 1786. He had a good practice in London,
and exhibited at the Academy from 1803. He
retired to Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1847, and died
there in 1854. A good portrait of Grattan by him
has been engraved. Amongst his other portraits
London. Nat. Portrait Gal. Thomas Bewick.

Royal Coll. ofPhys. Dr. Elliotson.

Xewcastle-on-Tyne. Town Hall. Earl Grey.

RANC, , the elder, painter, worked at Mont-
pellier towards the end of the 17th century with
much success, and was one of Rigaud's early
masters. He was also the first teacher of his more
famous son, Jean Ranc. He died at a compara-
tively early age. In the church of St. Pierre,
Montpellier, there is a ' Christ giving the Keys to
Saint Peter ' by him.

RANC, JEAN, portrait painter, born at Mont-
pellier in 1674, studied under his father, and under
Rigaud, whose style he followed with much success,
and whose niece he married. M. D'Argenville re-
lates an absurd story respecting Ranc. He says
that having painted the portrait of a gentleman, in
which he had exerted all his art, the friends of the
sitter persisted in declaring that it was in no
way like him. Ranc promised to alter it, and
having prevailed on his sitter to co-operate, he
prepared a similar cloth, and having cut a hole to
admit the head, he requested his model to place
himself behind the canvas. The critics were sent
for to examine the amended portrait, which they

persevered in declaring was not yet like him, when
the head answered, " You must be mistaken, gen-
tlemen, 'tis I myself." De la Motte has introduced
this adventure into his fables. In 1724 Ranc was
invited to the court of Spain and appointed principal
painter to the king. He painted the Royal Family,
ind also the King and Queen of Portugal, and dit-d
at Madrid in 1735. Works :

Madrid. Gallery. Portrait of Philip V. (on

Portrait of Philip V. (half


Portrait of the Queen, Isa-

bel, second wife of Philip

T. (half length).
Portrait of Philip V. (to the

Portrait of Queen Isabel (to

the knees).
Portrait of Queen Luisa, wife

of Luis I. of Spain (half

.. Portrait of the Prince of

., Portrait of the Prince Carlos

(afterwards Charles III.).

Portrait of a Maid of Honour.

And several others.

RANDA, ANTONIO, a native of Bologna, was first
a scholar of Guido, but afterwards studied under
Lucio Masari. He became of sufficient celebrity
to be taken under the protection of the Duke of
Modena, who appointed him his painter in the
year 1614. His works are chiefly to be seen in
the churches at Bologna and Ferrara. In the
latter city, in the church of S. Stefano, is a picture
by him representing S. Filippo Neri, and the great
altar-piece of the church of S. Liberale, represent-
ing the Virgin Mary, with the infant Saviour and
St. Francis, is by this master. He died in 1650.

RANDALL, JAMES, an English painter and
draughtsman, who practised in London about the
beginning of the 19th century. He exhibited
architectural landscapes at the Academy from
1798 to 1814, and in 1806 published ' A collection
of Architectural Designs,' in aquatint.

RANDAZZO, FILIPPO, painter, worked in Sicily
in the 18th century, and executed some large wall-
paintings at Palermo.

RANDEL, FRIEDEICH, painter and draughtsman,
born 1801. A pupil of Kriiger's. He devoted
himself chiefly to genre pictures, into which he
introduced animals, especially horses, which he
treated with much skill. He also executed por-
traits in oil and in coloured chalks. One of his best
works is an equestrian portrait of General Tumping.

RANDLE, FREDERICK W., born in London, 1847.
He went to America in 1860, and became known
in Philadelphia as a painter of still-life. He died
at Liverpool, 1880.

RANDOLPH, , painter, worked in England
towards the close of the 16th century, for the Earl
of Sussex. Directions for payment to him of sums
owing are contained in the Earl's will (Walpole,
vol. i. p. 187).

RANDON, JOHN, an engraver who resided at
Rome about the year 1710, by whom we have
several plates after antique and modern statues,
for the collection published by Rossi ; and other
subjects after various masters. The date of his
death is unknown, but he was still living in

RANER, DANIEL, painter. Nothing is known
of this artist but that there was once a picture of



an old man with a cat in the Schleissheim Gallery,
signed D. R., and attributed to him.

RANFTL, JOHANN MATHIAS, German painter ;
born February 21, 1805, at Vienna ; wa8 a pupil
of the Vienna Academy and also of Peter Krafft ;
visited Moscow and St. Petersburg in 1826, where
he painted portraits. In 1838 he found scope for
his ability in London. His picture of the ' Floods
at Budapest' is a good example of his style. He
died at Vienna, November 1, 1854. His chief
works are :

The Eeapers' Siesta. (Liechtenstein Gallery.}

Children gathering Wood. (The same.)

The Family of Dogs. (The same.)

The Hunter's Spoil.

The Labourer's Eeturn.


Kuntz von Eosen in Prison.

He died at Vienna in 1854.

RANKLEY, ALFRED, a subject painter, born in
1819, was a student in the schools of the Academy.
His name first appears as an exhibitor in the
Academy in 1841, from which time he exhibited
works mostly of a domestic nature. His pictures
were carefully finished and generally had a moral.
He died in Kensington at the end of 1872.
Amongst his best works we may name :

The Village Church.

A Scene from Macbeth. 1841.

The Guilty and the Innocent.

The Lonely Hearth. 1857.

The Day is Done. I860.

The Doctor's Coming. 1864.

Follow my Leader. 1867.

Following the Trail. 1870.

The Hearth of his Home. 1870.

The Pharisee and the Publican.

The Benediction. 1871.

RANSON, THOMAS FBAZEB, an English engraver,
was born at Sunderland in 1784. He was appren-
ticed to an engraver at Newcastle, and gained prizes
from the Society of Arts for his plates in 1814,
1821, and 1822. He was engaged in the bank-
note controversy of 1818, and by a strange acci-
dent was tried for having a forged note in his
possession. He was, however, acquitted. In 1821
he received the gold medal from the Society of
Arts for a line engraving, and again in 1822 for
his engraving after David VVilkie's 'Duncan Gray.'
He died in 1828. Among other good plates by
him we may name :

A Portrait of George IV. ; after a drawing by Edmund

A Portrait of the Duke of Northumberland ; after T.

Phillips, R. A.

RANSONXETTE, NICOLAS, a French engraver,
born in Paris in 1753. He engraved several my-
thological subjects, after Gabriel de St. Aubin,
and other masters. We have also the following
prints by him :

The new Palais-Royal at Paris.

A View of the new Palace of Justice.

The Eival Seducers ; from his own dt'siyn.

The Lover Revenged ; from the same.

Cupid and Psyche ; after Raphael.

Italian Amusements ; after Watteam.

Diana of Poitiers ; after L. Penni.

Agnes Sorel ; after the same.

The Dream of Voltaire ; after St. Aitbin.

Nostradamus showing Marie de Medicis the throne of
the Bourbons.

RANSPACH, CARL, painter, working at Berlin
in the first part of the 19th century. At the Berlin
Exhibition, 1838, he exhibited several hunting and

battle scenes, and was afterwards a frequent ex-
hibitor of such subjects, and of other genre pictures.

RANUCCIUS, an Italian painter, of whom it is

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