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recorded that he was one of the signatories of the
Treaty of Peace made between Lucca and Pisa in
1228.

RANVIER, VICTOR JOSEPH, French painter ; born
July 9, 1832, at Lyons; was a pupil of Janniot and
of Richard. His first contribution to the Salon
was the ' Idylle du Soir' in 1859. The Luxem-
bourg possesses his ' Chasse au Filet ' and ' Enfance
de Bacchus.' He obtained a medal in 1865, a
second-class medal in 1873, and the Legion of
Honour in 1878. He died at Chatillon-sous-
Bagneux, May 24, 1896.

RAODL, JEAN, miniature painter. In 1477 he
executed a genealogy of the kings of France,
adorned with paintings in miniature, and remark-
able for the delicacy and finish of its workmanship.

RAOUX, JEAN, a French painter, born at Mont-
pellier in 1677, was a scholar of Bon Boulogne,
and having obtained a prize at the Academy, was
sent to Italy with the king's pension. Although
his studies were directed to historical painting, and
he was on his return from Italy received into the
Academy on that basis, he afterwards worked prin-
cipally at fancy subjects and portraits, of which we
have Mile. Prevost as a Bacchante, Mile. Quinant
as Amphitrite, and Mile. Carton as a Naiad. He
is said to have been in England, where he was
patronized by Sir Andrew Fontaine. His historical
works are his picture of ' Telemachus in the Island
of Calypso,' which has been engraved by Beauvarlet,
and ' Venus reposing,' of which there is a print by
J. Daulle. He died in Paris in 1734. Among his
better works we may also name :

The Four Ages.

Scene in the Temple of Priapus.

The young Bather.

Young Women at the Spinet.

Telemachus. (Louvre.)

Gill reading a Letter. (Louvre ; La Caze Collection.)

RAPHAEL, the painter whose art embodies the
highest aspirations and finest culture of the
Renaissance, was born at Urbino on the 6th of
April, 1483. His father, Giovanni Santi, was a
painter and poet who rose to distinction at the
Court of the Montefeltro princes, and stood high
in the favour of Duke Guidobaldo and his accom-
plished wife Elisabetta Gonzaga. But he died
when Raphael was only eleven years of age,
leaving his orphan child in the charge of his
maternal uncle, Simone Ciarla. The boy, as
Morelli first pointed out, owed his artistic training
to Timoteo Viti, that favourite scholar of Francia,
who left Bologna in 1495 to settle in his old home
of Urbino. The Ferrarese types and traditions that
we see in Timoteo's paintings, the same gentle
feeling and naive grace, are apparent in Raphael's
early works, 'The Vision of a Knight,' in the
National Gallery, the little 'St. Michael' and
' St. George ' of the Louvre, and ' The Three Graces,'
at Chantilly. These four little pictures already
reveal the young artist's romantic imagination and
instinctive love of beauty, while they breathe the
refined atmosphere of the Court where he grew up
under the kindly protection of the good Duke and
Duchess. Early in 1500, when he was seventeen
years of age, Raphael went to Perugia as the
assistant of Perugino, at that time the most
popular painter in Italy. The Umbrian master
had been a personal friend of Giovanni Santi, and



RAPHAEL




Dixon photo]



[Collection of Dr. L. A fond, London
THE CRUCIFIXION



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



had lately painted some frescoes at Sinigaglia for
the Duke's sister, Giovanuu della Rovere. Now
he was captivated, Vasari tells us, by the boy's
talent for drawing and personal charm, and
prophesied that he would become a great artist.
With that singular receptiveness which was a
distinctive feature of his genius, Raphael quickly
absorbed all the best qualities of Perugino's art,
and, according to Vasari, imitated his style so
closely that it became difficult to distinguish his
work from that of his master. This is certainly
true of the first independent works that he executed
at Perugia: the 'Crucifixion' of the Mond Col-
lection, the 'Coronation of the Virgin" in the
Vatican, the 'St. Sebastian' at Bergamo, and
the lovely little 'Conestabile Madonna' which
he painted for his friend Domenico Alfani. The
influence of another Umbrian artist, Pinturicchio, is
apparent in two Madonnas which are now at
Berlin, but, as Morelli has conclusively shown,
Raphael had no share in this painter's frescoes in
the Library at Siena, and the designs in the so-
called ' Venice Sketch-book ' are not by his hand.
The ' Sposalizio,' which he painted in 1504 for the
Franciscans of Citta di Castello, was the crowning
work of this first period. Here, with the mar-
vellous facility that distinguished him, he selects
certain types and motives, altering some, trans-
posing others, and blending all these separate
elements into one perfect and harmonious whole.
The form and grouping- of the picture are Ferrarese,
but the architecture and distance are Umbrian in
character ; some figures recall Perugino, others are
modelled on Timoteo's pattern, but Raphael's finer
taste, we feel, has lifted the whole to a higher
level, and the work is infinitely superior to that of
either of his teachers. He had nothing more to
learn in Umbria, and by the end of the year we
find him at Florence, with a letter from Giovanna
della Rovere, recommending him to the Gonfalo-
niere of that city as a gentle and modest youth,
dear to her for his father's sake, and anxious to
perfect himself in the study of art.

Raphael now entered on a new and important
stage in his development. The first sight of
Florence and all its wonders of art made a deep
impression upon him. "Both the city," says
Vasari, "and the works of art he saw there seemed
to him divine, and from having been a master, he
once more became a scholar." He studied the
frescoes of Masaccio and the reliefs of Donatello,
and copied the statues of Michelangelo and the
drawings of Pollaiuolo, the prints of Mantegna and
the paintings of Signorelli. A vast number of
sketches in the Uffizi and Albertina, in the British
Museum and Oxford Galleries, show how close wa^
the attention, how indefatigable the ardour w\n
which he applied himself to the study of anatomy
and perspective. But Leonardo and Fra Barto-
lommeo were the two masters who had the greatest
influence on his impressionable nature. He
became the intimate friend of the Dominican
friar, and stood dumb with awe and wonder before
Leonardo's figures, "counting him greater," writes
Vasari, "than all others." From these teachers he
learnt new secrets of colour and modelling, of
design and composition which soon bore fruits in
his work. His portrait of the rich merchant's
wife, Maddalena Doni, was clearly inspired by
Leonardo's 'Mona Lisa,' and the fresco of the
' Trinity,' which he began in 1505 for the Carmelites
of San Severo in Perugia, owed its origin to Fra

VOL. iv. o



Bartolommeo's ' Last Judgment ' in Santa Maria
Nuova. In a similar manner, the 'St. George'
which he painted in 1506 for the Duke of Urbino,
and which Castiglione took with him to England
as a present for Henry VII., is an evident reminis-
cence of Donatello's relief on the walls of Or San
Michele. At the same time his own personality
began to find fuller and freer expression, and he
painted the first of that long line of Madonnas
which in their union of ideal beauty and human
tenderness were to appeal to men and women of
all ranks and ages, and made his name supreme
among painters. " Raphael," as M. Gruyer has
truly said, " is the foremost of Renaissance masters
because he speaks a universal language." In the
' Madonna del Gran Duca ' and the exquisite little
'Virgin and Child' at Panshanger we see the
charm and serenity of the old Umbrian art com-
bined with the new knowledge of structural design
and modelling which the young master of Urbino
had gained at Florence. The ' Ansidei Virgin' and
the ' Madonna di Sant' Antonio ' might be framed
on the traditional pattern to please the priests and
nuns at Perugia, but their grouping and colour
reveal strong traces of Fra Bartolommeo's influence.
This is still more evident in the third group
of Raphael's Florentine Virgins, the 'Madonna
del Cardellino ' which he painted for his friend
Taddeo, the ' Virgin of the Meadow ' at Vienna,
and ' La Belle Jardiniere' in the Louvre, where he
goes a step further and adopts the Frate's favourite
pyramidal design with rare skill and grace. But
the most ambitious work of his last years in Florence
was the ' Entombment' which he painted in 1507
for the chapel in the Duomo of Perugia, which
Atalanta Baglioni endowed in memory of her
murdered son. A whole series of studies in
different public and private galleries bear witness
to the immense amount of time and labour which
Raphael devoted to the preparation of this altar-
piece. We can follow him step by step through
the various phases of his thought, and see the
motives which he borrowed in turn from Mantegna,
Perugino, and Michelangelo. But the final result
of all this toil was disappointing, and in spite of
the burst of acclamation which hailed this triumph
of academic skill, the ' Entombment' of the Borghese
lacks the spontaneous charm and simple pathos of
Raphael's finest art. Yet in one sense the con-
temporaries who praised the work were right. It
was a living proof of the mastery to which the
young painter of Urbino had attained. In scientific
knowledge and technical completeness, in the
vivid representation of human action and feeling,
he stood on a level with the foremost artists of his
age. Already at Perugia and Urbino he was
recognized as " the best master of the day," and
withal " gentle and modest, jealous of none, kindly
to all, ever ready to leave his own work to help
another," with the sunny nature which made him
a favourite wherever he went, as welcome a guest
in Baccio d'Agnolo's shop, or at the wealthy
merchant Taddeo's board, as he was among the
noble cavaliers and high-born ladies and the
accomplished humanists of the Court of Urbino.
All he needed now was a wider sphere where his
powers of hand and brain might be displayed on a
grander scale. This was what he felt when in a
letter to his uncle, of April 1508, after condoling
with him on the good Duke's death, he begged him to
ask Guidobaldo's nephew and successor, Francesco
della Rovere, to recommend him to the Gonfaloniere

193



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



<if Florence for the task of painting a hall in the
Palazzo Vecchio. His opportunity soon came.
Whether the young Duke recommended his " old
friend and servant" to his uncle Pope Julius II., or
whether Bramante remembered his young kinsman,
the summons reached him, and before the end of
the year Raphael went to Rome.

The decoration of the Vatican Stanze was
the first work allotted to him there. Here, on
the ceiling of the Camera della Segnatura, the
hall where the Pope put his seal to official docu-
ments, Raphael painted allegorical figures of
Theology, Poetry, Philosophy and Law, the four
branches of learning that were represented in the
ducal library of Urbino. The old Pope was so
well pleased with these works that, with character-
istic impetuosity, he dismissed the other artists
whom he had summoned to help in the task of
decoration, and ordered their works to be destroyed.
All that Raphael, the most courteous of men, conld
obtain, was leave to keep the paintings of Perugino,
Sodoma and Peruzzi, on the ceilings of the halls
which they had adorned. He now applied himself
with the greatest ardour to his new task, and after
taking counsel with the humanists of Rome and
Urbino, and preparing endless studies with their
help, the great scheme of decoration was finally
evolved. The medallions of the ceiling supplied
the key-notes of the design. On the right wall he
painted his grand vision of the Church militant
and triumphant, popularly known as the ' Disputa.'
On the left he represented the Greek philosophers
of the School of Athens, with Plato and Aristotle,
as leaders of the rival schools, on the temple steps,
surrounded by the other heroes of antiquity. On
the two remaining walls he painted Apollo and the
Muses and poets of Greece and Rome resting on
the slopes of Parnassus, and Justinian and Gregory
XI., wearing the features of Julius II., as law-
givers. This noble conception, embodying the
dreams of both the humanist and saint, was set
forth with a unity and grandeur, a perfection
of detail and fulness of meaning, which surpassed
the highest expectations that had been formed of
Raphael's genius. The Pope, filled with delight
at the success of his experiment, lavished honours
and rewards upon the artist and bade him decorate
the next hall with frescoes illustrating the divine
protection of the Church in past ages, and glorifying
the reigning pontiff.

In the interest of the theme, and in pure decorative
effect, Raphael never surpassed the frescoes of this
first Camera. Now he went on to show his powers
in a new direction, and gave the world a model of
historical narrative in the monumental paintings
of the Stanza di Eliodoro. On the right wall he
represented the ' Expulsion of Heliodorus from the
Temple of Jerusalem,' in evident allusion to the
deliverance of Italy from the French invaders, and
Pope Julius himself, borne on the sedia gestatoria,
suddenly appearing in the midst of this scene of
confusion and violence. On the vaulted space above
the windows he introduced the Pope and Cardinals
again, kneeling at the altar, where the miracle of
Bolsena takes place. Here we are not only im-
pressed by the solemn grandeur of the composition
but by the masterly portraiture of the heads and
the richness and depth of the colour, which Raphael
may have acquired from his Venetian friend,
Sebastiano del Piombo, who was working at
Agostino Chigi's villa, and who was afterwards
to become his bitterest rival. Sebastiano has left

194



us a memorial of these days in the fine Buda-Pesth
portrait which he painted about this time, and which
Morelli first recognized as the likeness of Raphael.
The charming head of himself, with the refined
features and chestnut locks, which the young
master of Urbino painted early in his Florentine
period, is familiar to us all, but this later portrait
is scarcely less interesting as showing us how
Raphael looked in the flower of his age and at
the height of his splendid career.

The 'Mass of Bolsena' was finished in 1512, but
before Raphael's next fresco was painted the old
Pope died, and it was his successor, Leo X., who
figures under the guise of Leo I. arresting the march
of Attila. The terror and confusion of the bar-
barian invaders and the swift rush of the avenging
saints through the air are rendered in a dramatic
manner, and the Pope's massive features are admir-
ably reproduced. The same pontiff's escape from
his French captors after the battle of Ravenna is
celebrated in the fresco of the ' Deliverance of St.
Peter from Prison ' on the fourth wall. The striking
effect produced by the sudden flood of light which
radiates from the Angel who stands behind the
dark prison-bars, filled Raphael's contemporaries
with wonder and made Vasari declare this fresco
to be the finest of the whole series. But in both
these subjects the trace of an inferior hand is
plainly seen. By this time the fame of Raphael
brought him commissions on all sides, and it was
only the help of a large army of assistants that
could enable him to execute the orders which he
received. Among the pictures which he painted
during the lifetime of Julius II. were the 'Madonna
di Casa d'Alba,' now at St. Petersburg, the popular
' Madonna della Sedia,' which was probably exe-
cuted for Leo X. while he was still Cardinal
Giovanni del Medici, and the ' Madonna di Foligno,'
which he painted for the papal Chamberlain Sigis-
mondo dei Conti, shortly before that prelate's death
in 1512. In 1514, the year in which the ' Stanza
di Eliodoro' was completed, Raphael finished his
fresco of ' Galatea' in the hall of Chigi's villa on the
Tiber. This work, to which he alludes in a well-
known letter to his friend Castiglione, was hailed
with enthusiasm by the humanists of Rome, who
recognized in this beautiful creation not only the
faithful reproduction of classical motives but a
breath of the true Greek spirit.

Early in his career Raphael had been noted for
his skill as a painter of portraits. His bust of
Perugino in the Borghese is a life-like presentment
of this master who painted heavenly-faced saints
to order and had so keen an eye to his worldly
interests, and in his portrait of Julius II. we have
a wonderful record of the fiery old Pope in his last
days. No less striking in their vivid realization of
character is the portrait of the distinguished scholar,
Tommaso Inghirami, with his squinting eye and
curiously intellectual expression, or the famous
group of Leo X. and his two Cardinals. Unfortun-
ately, most of the portraits which Raphael painted
in his Roman days have perished or disappeared.
The portraits of Federico Gonzaga and Pietro
Bembo, of Giuliano and Lorenzo dei Medici, are
all lost. So too is the picture of the poet Antonio
Tebaldeo, which Bembo describes as " so perfect a
likeness, so true to life, that he is not so entirely
himself in actual reality as is this portrait ! " For
our consolation, let us remember, we have the
portraits of Raphael's two most intimate friends,
Castighone and Cardinal Bibbiena. Both are



RAPHAEL




[National Gallery, London
THE ANSIDEI MADONNA



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



masterpieces of the finest type, incomparable alike
in conception and in execution. The portrait of
the perfect courtier, after many wanderings, has
found a home in the Louvre, that of "il hel
Bernardo," the courtly poet and gay companion of
Urbino days, the wily diplomate and shrewd
politician of the papal court, is in the Prado at
Madrid. To these we must add one more which
is of especial interest as the only portrait of a
woman which Raphael painted in his Roman days,
and in all probability that of the mistress whom
he loved to the end of his life the ' Donna Velata'
in the Pitti. The modern fable of the great master's
love for the Fornarina has long been blown to the
winds, and the coarse and vulgar portrait of the
painter's model in theBarberini Palace is recognized
to be the work of Giulio Romano ; but Vasari tells
us that Raphael loved one woman to his dying day,
and made a beautiful and living portrait of her,
which, after his death, Matteo Botti kept at Florence
as a sacred relic. This, there can be little doubt,
was the picture which afterwards passed into the
Medici Collection and is now in the Pitti Gallery.
We do not know if the lady here represented was
the unknown mistress to whom the painter ad-
dressed the sonnets which he wrote on the back of
his studies for the ' Disputa,' or the fair Roman
maiden whom he mentions in his letter to his
uncle, but we know that this serene and beautiful
face meets us again, idealized and glorified, in the
Magdalen of the Bologna altar-piece and in the
Virgin of the San Sisto. Both of these pictures
were painted about the same time. The altar-
piece of St. Cecilia was ordered in 1513 by Cardinal
Pucci for his kinswoman Elena Duglioli, a noble
Bolognese lady, but only finished in 1515. Un-
fortunately it was entirely repainted after being
taken to Paris in 1798, so that nothing but the
design of the original work remains. The 'Sistine
Madonna,' which was painted about 1515 for the
friars of Piacenza, has also suffered severely, but
those portions of the picture which have escaped
restoration show the same transparent colour and
silvery tones as the portraits of this period
the ' Castiglione ' and 'Donna Velata' -while the
sublime beauty of the conception renders it unique
among Raphael's works. The mystery of the
Incarnation has never been expressed in a grander
form than in this divine Madonna floating on the
clouds of heaven, bearing in her arms the wondrous
Child who is adored by Saints and Angels.

The same grand and impressive character marks
the cartoons of the 'Acts of the Apostles' which
Raphael designed for the tapestries of the Sistine
Chapel, between the spring of 1515 and the close
of the following year. Three of the set have been
lost, but the remaining seven were bought by
Charles I. in 1630, and are now in South Kensington
Museum. The execution of these sadly-faded and
mutilated works seems to have been chiefly carried
out by Francesco Penni, but Raphael evidently
superintended the whole work from beginning to
end. As in the frescoes of the Stanze he had set
forth the creed of the mediasval Church and ideals
of the Renaissance, so in the cartoons he fore-
shadows the teaching of Luther and the theology of
the Reformation with the same consummate art.
The exactness with which every detail of the
sacred story is followed reflects the new spirit
of Bible reading that was abroad, and is no doubt
one reason of the strong hold which Raphael's
conceptions of the Gospel scenes has retained on

2



the popular mind. The composition of these
famous cartoons marks the final stage in the great
master's development. His career had been one
of unbroken progress. From the dawn of his
marvellous youth he had gone on from strength to
strength, gaining new knowledge and mastering
new problems, but through all retaining his own
individuality in a singular way. Now he entered
on the last phase of his life. His creative powers
were as splendid as ever, but except in a few rare
cases the execution of his designs was of necessity
left to others. The Sibyls with which he decorated
Chigi's chapel in Santa Maria della Pace, and the
myths of Venus and Cupid which he designed for
Cardinal Bibbiena's stufetta in the Vatican, were
chiefly executed by his scholars. The pictures
that issued wholesale from his workshop were the
work of able assistants, Giulio Romano, Francesco
Penni, or Perino del Vaga. The 'Madonna del
Pesce,' which was ordered by one of his oldest
patrons, Cardinal Riario, the 'Spasimo' at Madrid,
the ' Vision of Ezekiel ' an Olympian Jove borne
on the wings of cherubim through the heavens
and the ' St. Michael ' and ' Madonna ' which Pope
Leo sent to Francis I. in 1518, were all designed by
Raphael, but bore no trace of his hand. His rivals
might well scoff at these works that were unworthy
of the great painter's name. But he could not
help himself, and his last years were literally-
crowded with colossal enterprises.

In 1514 Leo X. had appointed him chief archi-
tect of St. Peter's, in succession to Bramante, and,
a year later, inspector of ancient monuments at
Rome. The building of St. Peter's, " the grandest
church in the world," as he proudly told his uncle,
made large demands upon his time, " and with
Vitruvius for his guide " he devoted himself to the
study of architecture and prepared plans for the
fagade of S. Lorenzo of Florence and for many
palaces and villas, most of which have now
perished. At the same time he began to prepare
a systematic survey of ancient Rome, illustrated
with drawings of the chief monuments, and with
the help of Castiglione, drew up a report in the
shape of an elegant Latin epistle to the Pope,
which is still preserved in the Munich Library.
This plan excited the keenest interest among the
humanists of Leo X.'s Court, and the papal
secretary Calcagnini, who returned to Rome in
1519, after a long sojourn in Hungary, wrote
glowing accounts to his German friends of this
wonderful young man, the " first of living painters
and most excellent of architects, whom Pope Leo
and all Rome look upon as a god sent down from
heaven to restore the Eternal City to her former
majesty." All the while Raphael was busily
engaged in superintending the works at the
Vatican. He prepared cartoons for the frescoes of
the ' Incendio del Borgo ' and ' Battle of Ostia '
which Giulio Romano executed in the third hall, and
designed a completely new and original scheme of
decoration for the Loggia on the upper storey of
the palace. These thirteen arcades were enriched
with stucco mouldings in imitation of the antique
grotteschi lately discovered in the Baths of Titus,
and the vaulting was adorned with the series of
exquisite little paintings known as ' Raphael's
Bible.' These were chiefly executed by Perino
del Vaga, and in spite of itg ruined condition, the
whole effect is still singularly rich and brilliant.
At the same moment Giulio Romano and Penni
were painting the roof of the pavilion in Chigi's

195



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



villa with the story of Cupid and Psyche, and
carrying out another of Raphael's designs, by



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