which the loggia was transformed into a bower of
leaves and flowers, hung with rich tapestries spread
out under the blue sky.
This association of artists and craftsmen under
one master-mind was the most remarkable achieve-
ment of Raphael's last years. A whole school of
architects, sculptors, painters, engravers, mosaic-
workers, and wood-carvers had sprung up under
the influence of his genius, and were engaged in
building and decorating churches, palaces, and
villas. Never before, even at Rome, had so great a
burst of artistic activity been known, and no
painter before had reached so exalted a position in
the eyes of his fellow-countrymen. He lived,
Vasari tells us, as a prince rather than a painter,
and fifty assistants accompanied him daily from
his house to the Vatican. "You walk," remarked
Michelangelo, when he met his rival, " as a general
at the head of an army." " And you," replied
Raphael, "as an executioner on the way to the
scaffold." But in spite of the splendour which
surrounded him, and of the cardinals and princes
who caressed him, Raphael retained the old charm
and simplicity of his nature. " Far from being
puffed up with pride,"' writes Calcagnini, " he
meets every one with the utmost friendliness, and
rejects no criticism or advice. On the contrary,
he is never better pleased than when his opinion
is doubted or disputed, and is always eager to
learn, counting this to be the greatest joy in life."
Unfortunately this very gentilezza, proved Raphael's
bane. He allowed his time and strength to be
frittered away in a multitude of petty commissions,
and was pressed on all sides by impatient patrons
whose claims he could not satisfy. At length his
health gave way under the strain. During the
first months of 1520 the new buildings at St. Peter's
required much anxious attention, and his friends
noticed the unwonted melancholy that oppressed
him. But still he worked with unceasing ardour
and devoted all his powers to the great 'Trans-
figuration ' which Cardinal Giulio dei Medici had
ordered for the Cathedral of Narbonne. Sebastiano
del Piombo's ' Raising of Lazarus,' which was
destined for the same French city, had already
been exhibited at Christmas in the Cardinal's
palace, and Raphael was determined that this time
at least his picture should be worthy of his name.
He painted the upper part of the picture with his
own hand, but before he could sketch out the
lower portion the brush dropped from his hand.
On the 27th of March, 1520, he fell ill of fever,
probably caught on some archaeological excursion
in the old parts of the city, and sank rapidly, worn
out in body and mind. At nine on the evening of
Good Friday, the 6th of April, his thirty-eighth
birthday, he died, to the grief and consternation of
all Rome. The Pope wept bitterly, and the crowds
who thronged the hall where his body lay in state,
broke into sobs and tears when they saw the dead
Raphael lyiug at the foot of his unfinished ' Trans-
figuration.' On the next day all the artists at Rome
and a great concourse of people followed his
remains to the grave which he had chosen under
the dome of the Pantheon. A Latin epitaph com-
posed by his friend Pietro Bembo was inscribed
above his tomb, ending with the famous words :
" Ille est hie Raphael, timuit quo sospite vinci
Rerum mugna parens et moriente mori."
The following list gives the chief works of
Raphael and as far as possible indicates the paint-
ings which were executed by the hand of his.
assistants from his designs.
Bergamo. Lochis Gall. St. Sebastian.
Berlin. Gallery. Madonna and Child from the
,, Madonna with St. Jerome and
Madonna Colonna (partly).
Bologna. Gallery. St. Cecilia with St. Paul, St.
Mary Magdalen, St. John,
and St. Augustine.
Boston, U.S.A. Mrs. J. \ Portrait of Tommaso Inglii-
Gardner. j rami.
Pieta (part of the predell(t
of the Madonna, di San?
Bowood. Jlfarquis of) The Preaching of St. John the-
Lansdowne. ) Baptist (part of the predeUa
of the Ansidei Jfadonna).
Brescia. Tosio Gallery. Salvator Mundi.
Buda Pesth. Gallery. Madonna from the Esterhazy
Chantilly. Gallery. The Three Graces.
,, Madonna d'Orleans.
Dresden. Gallery. Madonna di San Sisto.
1'Uorence. Uffizi Gallery. Madonna del Cardellino. 1506.
,, Portrait of the Painter.
Portrait of Pope Julius II.
Pitti Gallery. Portraits of Angelo and
,, ,, La Donna Gravida.
Madonna del Gran Duca.
Madonna del Baldacchino
Madonna del Sedia.
,, The Vision of Ezekiel (painted
chiefly by Giulio Romano).
., Portrait of Pope Julius II.
Portrait of Leo X. with
Cardinal dei Medici and.
Cardinal dei Rossi.
Portrait of Cardinal Bihbiena.
London. National Gall. The Vision of a Knight.
Madonna Ansidei. 1506.
,, St. Katharine.
,, Madonna Aldobrandini or
Garvagh (painted by Giulio
Mr. Pierpoint > Madonna di Sa nt' Antonio.
Lord Windsor. Predella: The Procession to
Baroness Burdett- 1 Predella : The Agony in the
Cowtts. j Garden (partly).
Dultcich Gallery . Predella: St. Francis and St.
Anthony (executed by assist-
Sir Frederick ) Predella of the Coronation of
Cook. J St. Nicholas of Toleutiuo at
Citta di Castello (lost). A
Legend of St. Nicholas.
Jlliss Mackintosh. Madonna della Torre (formerly
in the Orleans and Rogers
Mr. Ludm'g Jlfond. The Crucifixion.
Victoria and ] Seven Cartoons for the Tapes-
Albert Museum. $ tries of the Sistine Chapel
(chief y painted by fenni).
Madrid. Prado Gallery. Madonna dell' Aguello.
M ,, Madonna known as ' La Perla *
(painted by Giulio Romano).
,, Madonna del Pesce (chiefly
painted by Giulio Romano).
as ' Lo Spasimo ' (painted by
Giulio Romano and fenni).
,. ,. Portrait of Cardinal Bibbieua.
Milan. Brera Gallery. Lo Sposalizio. 1504.
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
Munich. Pinacothel:. Madonna Casa Tempi.
Madonna Canigiaui (partly').
Panshanger ) Cowper Madonna.
Paris'. Louvre. St. Michael.
,, Madonna known as ' La Belle
Portrait of Count Baldassare
Madonna de Francois I.
(painted by Giulio Romano).
Archangel Michael. 1518.
f , La Vierge au Diademe (painted
by Giulio Romano).
Perugia. San Severo. Fresco of the Trinity (upper
part, 1505, finished by Peru-
Rome. Villa Soryhese. Portrait of Perugino.
The Entombment. 1507.
Pala::o Doria. Portraits of Andrea Navagero
and Agostiuo Beazzano.
Vatican Gallery. The Coronation of the Virgin,
with predelle of The An-
nunciation, The Adoration
of the Magi, and The Pre-
sentation in the Temple.
., Faith, Hope, and Charity
(predelle of The Entombment
Madonna di Foligno. 1507.
The Transfiguration (upper
part only ; lower by Giulio
Vatican Stanze. Frescoes in the Camera della
Law and Philosophy, The
Fall of Man, Apollo and
Marsyas, The Judgment of
Solomon and the Creation
of the World, La Disputa,
The School of Athens,
Parnassus, Fortitude, Prud-
ence, and Temperance, Justi-
nian issuing the Pandects,
Gregory IX. delivering the
Frescoes in the Camera dell'
Eliodoro: The Expulsion of
Heliodorus from the Temple,
The Mass of Bolsena (1511-
1512), The Eetreat of Attila,
The Deliverance of St. Peter
Frescoes in the Camera dell'
Incendio del Boryo: Incendio
del Borgo (chiefly painted
by Giulio Romano), Battle of
Ostia (chiejly painted tit/
Giulio Romano). 1514-1517.
Vatican Lonaie. Forty-eight frescoes of sub-
jects from the Old Testa-
,. Six frescoes of subjects from
the New Testament (painted
by Perino del Vaga and
Furnesina. Fresco of Galatea and the
Frescoes of ten scenes from
the Myth of Cupid and
Psyche (painted by Giulio
Romano, Penui, and others).
S. Aaostino. Fresco of the Prophet Isaiah.
Santa Maria ) Frescoes of the Sibyls and
della Pace, j Angels (partly).
St.Petersbaig.Hermitage. St. George and the Dragon.
,, Madonna Conestabile.
Vienna. Imperial Gall. Madonna del Prato. 1506.
The most important collections of Raphael's
drawings are in the Uffizi at Florence ; in the
Albertina at Vienna ; in the Louvre and the
British Museum; at Windsor; Oxford; Lille;
Milan; Venice; Cologne; Frankfort; Chantilly,and
hatsworth, and in the Habich and Bonnat Collec-
tions. A full but by no means exhaustive list of
these, with an able critical commentary, has been
published by Dr. Oskar Fischel.
' Le Vite de' piu Eccellenti Pittori.' Scritte da Giorgio
Vasari con Nuove auuotazioni e cominenti di Gaetano
Milanesi. Torno IV. (Firenze, 1880.)
Quatremere de Quincy, ' Histoire de la vie et des
ouvrages de Raphael.' (Paris, 1824.)
J. D. Passavant, ' Raphael d'Urbin et son pere, Giovanni
Santi.' (Paris, 1860.)
R. Duppa, ' Life of Raphael.' (London, 1860.)
H. Grimm, ' Das Leben Raphaels von Urbino.' (Berlin,
Ditto, 'Raphael et 1'Antiquite.' (Berlin.)
A. Springer, 'Raffael und Michelangelo.' (Leipzig,
Ditto, ' Raffaels Schule von Athen.' (Vienna, 1883.)
J. A. Crowe and G. B. Cavalcaselle, 'Raphael, his Life
and Works.' (London, 1885.)
Eugene Miintz, ' Raphael, sa vie, son ceuvre, et son
temps.' (Paris, 1886; English Edition, 1887 and
Ditto, 'Les historiens et les critiques de Eaphael,
1483-1883.' (Paris, 1883.)
L Pungileoni, ' Elogio Storico di Raffaello Sanzio da
Urbino.' (Urbino, 1829.)
G. Campori, 'Notizie e documenti per la vita di
Giovanni Santi e Raffaello Santi, da Urbino.'
G. MorelH, 'Die Werke Italienischer Meister in den
Gallerien von Miinchen, Dresden und Berlin.'
Ditto, ' Kunst-kritische Studien iiber Italienische
Malerei.' (Leipzig, 1893.)
Ditto, ' Italian Painters.' Trans, by C. J. Ffoulkes.
M. Minghetti, ' Kaffaello.' (Bologna, 1885.)
G. Frizzoni, ' L'Arte Italiananel Rinascimeuto.' (Milan,
C Clement, ' Michel-Ange, Leonard de Vinci, Raphael.'
B. Berenson, ' The Central Italian Painters of the
Renaissance.' (London and New York, 1897.)
Julia Cartwright. ' Raphael, a Study of his Life and
Work.' (London, 1896.)
H. Strachey, 'Raphael' (Bell's Great Masters).
Lady Eastlake, ' Five Great Painters.' (London, 1883).
A. Woltmanu and K. Woermann, 'Die Geschichte der
Malerei, Renaissance.' (Leipzig, 18SS; English
Edition by S. Colvin.)
H Knackfuss, 'Raphael.' (Leipzig, 1885; English
Trans., London, 1899.)
A. F. Rio, ' Michel-Ange et Raphael.' (Paris, 1867.)
R. Furster, ' Farnesina Studien.' (Rostock, 1880.)
C. Bigot, ' Raphael et la Farnesine.' (Paris, 1884.)
A Schmarsow, ' Raphael und Piuturicchio in Siena.'
O Lippmaun. 'Dei Zeichnungen alter Meister zu
Berlin.' (Berlin, 1882.)
G. Gronau, ' Aus Raphael's Floreutiner Tagen. (Berlin,
O. Fischel, 'Raphaels Zeichnungen.' (Strassburg,
R. Koopmann, ' Raffael Studien.' (1894.)
F. Wickhoff, ' Die Italienischen Handzeichnungen in
der Albertina' (Jahrbuch der K. Sammlungen XIII.).
H Dollmayr, ' Raffaels Werkst;itte ' (Jahrbuch der K.
Sammlungen des Kaiserhauses XVI.). (Vienna,
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
Heinrich Wulfflin, ' The Art of the Italian Renaissance.
Baron GeymiiUer, 'Eaffaello Sanzio Studiato come
Architetto.' (Milan, 1884.)
J. C. .Robinson, 'A critical Account of the Drawings
by Michelangelo and Raffaello in the University
Galleries.' (Oxford, 1870.)
Sir W. M. Conway, ' Catalogue of Raphael's known
Drawings, Pictures, and Frescoes.' (Liverpool, 18ST.)
' Drawings by Old Masters in the University Galleries,
Oxford.' (Edited by Prof. Sidney Colvin.1904.) J.c.
RAPHON, (RAPHUN,) JOHANN, a German reli-
gious painter, a native of Eimbeck, who flourished
in the 15th and 16th centuries. There are two
pictures known by him, both signed with his name,
and bearing the dates 1499 and 1508. The latter
picture is in the cathedral of Halberstadt ; it con-
sists of a centre and wings, or shutters. In the
middle is represented the Crucifixion ; on the
interiors of the wings the Annunciation, the
Adoration of the Shepherds and Magi, and the
Presentation in the Temple ; on the exteriors,
figures of Saints. The composition of the central
picture is somewhat overcharged ; and the heads
are distinguished rather by energy and individu-
ality than by feeling. Another altar-piece, also
a ' Crucifixion,' with saints on the wings, said to
be by him, is in the library of the university at
Gottingen. M. Hausmann of Hanover possesses
two wings of a fourth altar-piece. A picture
executed in 1499 for an altar-piece in the Cister-
cian Monastery of Wulkenried, was removed thence
to Prague in 1631.
RAPIANUS. See ODDENDIJK.
RAPIN, ALEXANDRE, French painter ; born 1845
at Noroy-le-Bourg (Haute Saone) ; was a pupil of
G^rome, Francais, Gleyre, and Lancrenon ; his
landscapes much admired, such as ' Ruisseau &
Nans Lison ; Etang a Mortefontaine,' &c. In 1875
he obtained a third-class medal, and a second-
class medal in 1877. He died in Paris, November
RASCALON, JEROME, painter, born 1786. A
pupil of Cice'ri and of Bouton. He practised in
Paris towards the middle of the 19th century,
painting landscape and genre-pictures, and was
also employed as scene-painter at the Vaudeville
RASPAY, PIERRE, painter, born at Avignon in
1748, went to Paris and studied under Vernet, but
returned to his native place and was made director
of the School of Art. His works are to be found
in the Museum of Avignon, and include a ' View of
the Pope's Palace at Avignon,' ' View of the Bridge
of S. Benezet,' and a portrait of the Abbe Juenet,
first keeper of the Museum at Avignon. Raspay
died at Avignon in 1825.
RASPE, C. G., engraver, flourished at Leipzig
and Dresden in the 18th century. His chief plates
Charles Bonnet ; after Jens Juel.
Charles, Count of Saxony ; after Schmidt.
H. P. Sturz ; after Gan:.
RASSET, JEAN. See VALENTIN.
RASTELL, JOHN, an English wood-engraver of
the 16th century, the brother-in-law of Sir Thomas
More. He is remembered by 'The Pastyme of
the People, or The Chronicles of Divers Realmes,'
and more especially of ' The Realme of England,'
which he published iu 1529, with his own illus-
trations. These have been wrongly ascribed to
Holbein. The book was republished by Dibdin in
1811. Rastell died in 1536.
RAT, PAUL EDM LE, French etcher and
engraver; born in Paris, September 10, 1849;
became a pupil of Gaucherel and of Lecocq de
Boisbatidran, a master of drawing who ranked
with the very first of his fellow-artists ; his
etchings and engravings after Meissonier and
others brought him fame ; his decorations include
a medal of the third class in 1875, a second-class
medal in 1879, and a gold medal in 1889. He died
in Paris, December 1892.
RATH, HENRIETTE, painter, born at Geneva,
1772, a pupil of Isabey, painted portraits, and also
worked on enamel. She, with her sister, founded
the Musee Rath at Geneva, and was made an
honorary member of the Socieie des Arts in 1801.
She died in 1856.
RATHBONE, JOHN, a native of Cheshire, was
bom about the year 1750. He has been sometimes
called "The Manchester Wilson." Without the
help of an instructor he acquired a respectable
talent as a landscape painter, and his pictures were
frequently embellished with figures by Morland,
Ibbetson, and other contemporary artists. His
life, like those of the two friends just named, was
irregular, and most of his pictures pass under
other names. He exhibited at the Academy from
1785 till his death, which took place in 1807. The
following are fair examples of his art :
Liverpool. Walker Gall. A Landscape.
Salford. Peel Park )
RATTI, CARLO GIUSEPPE, the son of Giovanni
Ratti, born at Genoa in 1735, studied at first under
his father, and then was taken under the patronage
of Rafael Mengs, with whom he lived as a friend.
He did not devote himself so much to painting as
to writing ; and among his works are, ' The Lives
of the Painters of Genoa,' 'A Life of Rafael
Mengs,' and 'Notices of Correggio.' He was
kuighted by Pope Pius VI. He died in 1795.
RATTI, GIOVANNI AGOSTINO, painter, born at
Savona in 1699, went early in life to Rome, where
he frequented the school of Benedetto Luti. He
occasionally painted historical subjects, of which
the most deserving of notice are his pictures of
the life of St. John the Baptist, in the church of San
Giovanni, at Savona, of which the ' Decollation ' is
perhaps the best. But his principal merit was in
painting scenes for the theatre, and caricatures, in
which he discovered great ingenuity and invention.
He died at Genoa in 1775. He engraved a few plates.
RATTRAY, ALEXANDER WELLWOOD, the son of
a Glasgow minister, was born at St. Andrews in
1849. Educated in Glasgow at the High School
and the University, he got his first professional
training at the Glasgow School of Art under
Robert Greenlees. Afterwards he went to Paris,
where he studied under the landscapists Damoye
and D'Aubigny. He settled at Glasgow about
1880 as a landscape painter, and thereafter has been
a pretty constant exhibitor at Glasgow, and at the
Royal Scottish Academy and Royal Academy
exhibitions. In ' The Gate of the Highlands,' his
first _ important picture, exhibited in the Glasgow
Institute, he struck the note in which the rest of
his landscape work (fresh, simple and pleasing
studies of nature) was conceived. In the Paris
Exhibition of 1889 his 'Salmon Stream 1 and
' Ferry, Loch Ranza,' were exhibited, and received
an honourable mention. He was elected an As-
sociate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1896,
and died in 1902. J H W L
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
RAUCH, ERNST, engraver, born at Darmstad
in 1797, studied under Portmann, and then after
working for some time in Switzerland, went in
1822 to Paris, where he worked under Hersent. In
time he returned to Darmstadt, and became courl
engraver. He worked for a time with his brother
Karl (q. v.~), and with him completed most of the
steel engravings in a collection of original views
of German court cities and of their cathedrals
(the latter after Ludwig Lange), and some of the
plates for Salzenberg's ' Altchristliche Baudenk-
male von Konstantinopel.'
did ulone are :
The chief works he
A Portrait of Dr. Liebig.
A Peasant Family at Prayers ; after K. Schorn.
KAUCH, FERDINAND, painter, practising in
Vienna in the first half of the 19th century. He
was a brother of the artists Johann Joseph and
Johann Nepomuk Rauch, and painted animals.
RAUCH, JOHANN JOSEPH, painter and etcher,
practised in Vienna, with his brothers Ferdinand
and Johann Nepomuk, in the first half of the
present century. He was educated at the Vienna
Academy, and afterwards travelled much in Ger-
many and Russia. He painted landscapes and
animals, both in oil and water-colours, and also
etched similar subjects.
RAUCH, JOHANN NEPOMUC, a German landscape
and animal painter, born in 1804 at Vienna. In
the Vienna Gallery there is by him 'A Bull
pursuing a Cow ' (1832). He died in 1847.
RAUCH, KARL, brother of Ernst Karl, born at
Darmstadt in 1804, a pupil of his brother's and
of Moller, went to London, and became a Fellow
of the Society of British Architects. The two
brothers worked together and engraved landscapes
in Germany from their own drawings ; the prin-
cipal cathedrals, after Ludwig Lange ; and a num-
ber of works after Salzenberg. Karl engraved alone
the principal door of the Cathedral of Freiburg.
RAUFFER, KARL, a miniature painter, born at
Ratisbon in 1727, was secretary to the Elector
Maximilian III. of Bavaria. He died at Munich
RAUFFLT, , a Swiss painter, who studied
in France towards the end of the 17th century,
and who in 1684 gained a prize from the Royal
Academy of Painting with an ' Enoch first invoking
the name of the Lord.'
RAUFT, FRANQOIS Louis, born at Lucerne in
1730, was first a pupil of his father, and then
studied in Paris and Rome. After a visit to Hol-
land and Germany, he settled in Hamburg. His
chief work was the decoration of some ceilings in
the Palace of Hesse Cassel. He died at the Hague
RAUSCHER, GEORG FRIEDRICH, landscape
painter, was first a pupil of his father, August
Friedrich, and in 1813 studied at Munich under G.
Dillis and W. Kobell. Was appointed Court
painter to the Duke of Coburg, and Professor at
the School of Art. He made many drawings
in sepia and water-colour, besides his landscapes
RAUWAERT, JAKOB, painter, a pupil of Martin
Heemskerk. He appears to have been a man of
property, and to have practised art for pleasure
rather than as a profession. He flourished at
Amsterdam about the middle of the 16th century.
He had a fine collection of pictures, and commis-
sioned Heemskerk to oaint him one representing
the ' Four Ends of Man,' for which he paid a
large sum. When in 1572 Haarlem was besieged
by the Spaniards, Rauwaert protected his old
master, and received him into his house at Am-
RAVANALS, JUAN BAUTISTA, engraver, born at
Valencia in 1678, studied under Evaristo Munoz.
His principal engravings, which displayed more
skill in handling of the graver than in drawing,
were : an equestrian portrait of Philip V., and a
genealogical tree of the Royal family ; a portrait
of Father Gregorio Ridaura, a print of San Rod-
rigo, a second portrait of Philip V., some plates for
the first edition of a mathematical work by Tosca,
the frontispiece for a book called ' Centre de la F6
OrtodoxS,' which represents the apparition of Our
Lady 'del Pilar' to St. Francis and some of his
disciples, and illustrations for another book of
Devotion, in which St. Thomas Aquinas and other
RAVEAU, (Madame,) EMILIE, painter, born in
France 1785. A pupil of her father, Michael
Honore Bonnieu. She painted historical and
mythological subjects. Died after 1830.
RAVELLI, PIETER ANTONIJ, painter, born in
1788. Practised at Amsterdam, and was first a
pupil of B. Barbiers Pietersz, and afterwards of
3. H. Hodges. He finally devoted himself chiefly
:o portrait-painting in miniature and in oils, but
also painted genre-pictures.
RAVEN, JOHN S., an English landscape painter,
in Suffolk in 1829. He was the son of
the Rev. THOMAS EAVEN, a clergyman of the
hurch of England, who had considerable talent
as an amateur artist, as may be seen from six
water-colour drawings by him in the South Ken-
sington Museum. John Raven was, however,
almost entirely self-taught. He exhibited at the
Academy as early as 1845, and his works also
appeared at the British Institution. He at first
'ell under the influence of the Norwich school,
and of Constable, but his maturer works, which
how much poetic feeling, bear traces of pre-
Saphaelitism. It was his custom to prepare elabo-
rate cartoons for his pictures. He was drowned
while bathing at Harlech in 1877. A collection
of his works was exhibited at the Burlington Club
in 1878. Amongst his chief pictures were :
Salmsey Church (his first picture, painted when he was
sixteen years old).
The Forest of Fontainebleau. 1853.
A Voice of Joy and Gladness. 1860.
The Skirts of a Mountain Farm. 1862.
Midsummer Moonlight. 1866.
The Crops Green. 1867.
The Shadow of Snowden. 1867.
A Hampshire Homestead. 1872.
The Heavens declare the Glory of God. 1876.
Barff and Lord's Seat from the Slopes of Skidilaw.
RAVENART, HENNEQUIN DE, painter, worked at
Bruges about the middle of the 15th century.
RAVENET, SIMON FRANQOIS, a French en-
graver, born in Paris in 1706, was a pupil of
Lebas. After practising the art with considerable
reputation in his native country, he came to Eng-
land, and settled in London about the year 1750.
He was employed for a time at the Battersea
Enamel Works, and gained a premium from the
Society of Arts in 1761. In 1766 he was a mem-
ber of the Incorporated Society of Artists. He
is said to have been imported by Hogarth, who
employed him upon the 'Marriage a la Mode.
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
The fourth and fifth plates in that series are by
him. He was also employed by Alderman Boy-