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dell, for whom, perhaps, he did his best work.
He gave both a fine suggestion of colour and
great brilliancy to his engravings, and finished
them with precision. Eavenet died in London in
1774. Among his plates we may name:

George I.

George II. ; after Mercier.
Lord Camden ; after Reynolds.
Alexander Pope, Poet.
James Thomson, Poet.
David Hume, Historian.
Mr. Garrick and Miss Bellamy in ' Romeo and Juliet '

after B. Wilson.
Himself ; after Zoffamj (lettered Grave par lui meme

d'apres un tableau peint par son ami Zojfany).

The Emblem of Human Life; after Titian; Crozat


Venus and Adonis ; a ter P. Veronese ; the same.
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after I). Feti ; the


Painting and Design ; after Gttido.
The Virgin, with the Infant Jesus sleeping ; after the


Charity ; after Carlo Cignani.
The Arcadian Shepherds ; after N. Poussin.
Sophonisba taking Poison ; after L. Giordano.
The Death of Seneca ; after the same.
Tobit Anointing his Father's Eyes ; after Ay. Caracci.
The Lord of the Vineyard ; after Rembrandt.
The Prodigal Son ; after Sal. Rosa.
Phryne tempting Xenocrates ; after the same.
The Return of the Prodigal Son ; after Guercino.
Lucretia deploring her Fate ; after Cazali.
Gunhilda, Empress of Germany, acquitted of a charge

of adultery ; after the same.

RAVENET, SIMON, the son of Simon Francois
Havenet, was born in London about the year 1755
(according to others in 1749), and was instructed
by his father in the art of engraving. He after-
wards visited Paris, where he studied painting
for a short time under Francois Boucher. On
leaving that master he went to Italy, and settled
at Parma, where he undertook to engrave and
publish plates from all the works of Correggio in
that city. This arduous undertaking occupied
him from 1779 till 1785, in which time he
engraved the following prints after the Parmese
master :

A set of twelve plates from the Cupola of the Cathedral.

A set of twelve plates from the Cupola of S. Giovanni.

The Madonna della Scodella.

The Madonna della Scala.

La Santissima Nunziata.

The Madonna Incoronata.

Christ bearing his Cross.

The Descent from the Cross.

The ' St. Jerome.'

The Martyrdom of St. Placidus.

For these labours he was made ' Cavaliere.' We
have also by him the two following prints :

Jupiter and Antiope ; after Rubens.
Theseus lifting the Stone ; after N. Poussin.

Ravenet is believed to have been still alive in


RAVENZWAAY, JAN VAN, the elder, a Dutch
landscape and animal painter, born at Hilversum
the 29th November, 1789. He studied under P.
G. van Os, and died the 2nd March 1869. Among
his works are :


Amsterdam. Museum. A Cow-Stable.
Haarlem. Pavilion. Landscape with Animals.

,, Interior of a Stable.

RAVENZWAAY, JAN VAN, the younger, the
nephew of Jan Ravenzwaay the elder, and his pupil,
born at Hilversum, in Holland, 1810. He painted
landscape in the manner of his uncle, who was his
master. He died December 3, 1849.

RAVESTEYN, ANTHONIE VAN, the elder, glass-
painter, ancestor of the family of Ravesteyn of
the Hague. Lived in 1593 at Culemborch, in
1602 at the Hague. Father of Jan van Ravesteyn
and Anthonie van Ravesteyn the younger.

Literature : ' Oud Holland,' X. (1892), p. 41.

born in 1581 ; admitted as apprentice to the Guild
of St. Luke at the Hague, February 17, 1598; free
master, October 14, 1614; Dean, 1629 to 1632;
left the Guild in 1656 and joined the Pictura
Brotherhood; died January 31, 1669.

Copenhagen. Museum. Portrait of Stalpaert Van dtr

"\Viele. 1627 (signed).
Gotha. Museum. Portrait of Lamoraal van

LymminghenVan den Berge.

1623 (signed).

Literature: Brediusen Moes, 'Deschildersfamilie
Ravesteyn,' in 'Oud Holland,' X., 1892.

RAVESTEYN, ARNOLD VAN, son of Anthonie the
younger, master painter in 1646 at Delft; removed
to the Hague, and a member of the Guild of St.
Luke from 1649 to 1656, when he left it and
joined the Pictura Brotherhood, of which he was
Dean from 1661 to 1663. He died October 7,
1690. William II. of Orange paid him 500 florins
for apicture'of Diana and Calisto. .Stephen Richard*,
dealer, London, had in 1891 a portrait by him of
Cornelius Bosch, advocate at the Hague, signed
and dated 1660.

painter, perhaps the great-uncle of Hendrick van
Ravesteyn. He was painter to the Emperor
Rudolph II. of Germany, at Vienna. Before 1612
he seems to have come back from Vienna to
Holland. In the cloister of Strahow at Prague is
his only known picture, representing an allegorical
subject, signed and dated 1003. It is very rminner-
istic, and resembles the manner of Spranger or
Hans van Aken.

Literature: 'Oud Holland' IX. (1891), pp. 208-

RAVESTEYN, HARMEN VAN, is mentioned in
October 1649 at the Hague.

See 'Oud Holland, 1 IX. (1891), p. 217.

Bommel, July 19, 1659, and died there young,
about 1670. No pictures by his hand are known.

Literature : Van Gool, ' Nieuwe Schouburg,' II.,
p. 445; 'Oud Holland,' IX. (1891), p. 215.

RAVESTEYN, HUBERT VAN, painter of interiors
and cattle, born at Dordrecht about 1640, died
there between 1683 and 1691. Married in 1669.
His pictures, signed with the monogram H. R.,
are painted in a brownish tone in the manner of
Cornells Saftleven, M. Sorgh, and others. In his
early pictures (as for example the still-life of 1664
in the Museum at Amsterdam) the painting is
more carefully coloured.

Amsterdam. Museum. Still-life. 1664.
Rotterdam. Museum. Interior, with peasants.

Literature: 'Oud Holland,' IX. (1891), pp. 37,
38 ; ib. p. 217 ; ib. XIX. (1901), pp. 121-124.


RAVESTEYN, JAN VAN, son of Antlionie the
elder, born about 1572, pupil of Michael Mierevelt,
was at Delft in October 1597 ; settled at the
Hague and joined the Guild of St. Luke. On
February 17, 1598, married Anne van Berendrecht,
who died in March 1640. In 1656 he and many
others left the Guild and became the first members
of the Pictura Brotherhood. His daughter married
in 1640 the portrait painter HANNEMAN.
The Hague. Mauritslmis, \ Officers (not Colonels). 1611-
23 (not 24). ( 1624.
Town. House , ) g h tt 161g ( .

Museum. )

Regeuten. 1618.

Reception by the Magistrates

of the Officers of the
Schutters. 161S(/iis master-

Magistrates deliberating on

the reconstruction of Sebas-
tians Doeleu. 1636.

There is a portrait of Jan van Ravesteyn in the
possession of the Duke of Buccleuch. (None of
the other pictures attributed to John in the previous
edition of Bryan can be attributed with certainty
to any one of the Ravesteyns.)

RAVESTEYN, NICOLAES VAN, the elder, born at
Amsterdam 1613, where he died 1693. His
pictures are very rare. A battle-piece of 1641, in
the collection of Werner Dahl at Diisseldorf, and
a portrait of Prince Frederik Hendrik on horse-
back, in the Museum Ariana at Geneva, are painted
in the manner of Palamedes Palamedesz.

Literature: ' Oud Holland,' IX. (1891 ), pp. 213-
214; ib. XIX. (1901), p. 126.

RAVESTEYN, NICOLAES VAN, the younger, son
of Hendrick, born 1661 at Zalt-Bommel in Holland,
died there in 1750, 89 years old. Perhaps pupil of
Gerard Hoet, afterwards of Willem Doudijns and
Jan de Baen at the Hague. He was a well-known
portrait painter during his life, but painted also
historical and allegorical subjects. One of those
allegories is still to be seen in the town-hall of his
native town. His portraits are under a strong
influence of de Baen, and are only found in some
Dutch private collections.

Literature: Van Gool, 'Nieuwe Schouburg,' II.,
446 ; ' Oud Holland,' IX. (1891), pp. 215-217 ;
ib. XIX. (1901), p. 216.

RAVESTEYN, REGNEK, a landscape painter of
little note, who practised at Amsterdam in the
first fifty years of the 18th century. (Only
mentioned by Nagler.)

N.B. The Ravesteyn articles are the work of
Dr. Martin of the Hague and Mr. W. H. J. Weale.


RAWLE, SAMUEL, an English engraver and
draughtsman, who practised in London about the
beginning of the 19th century. There is an en-

f raving from a drawing by him of the Middle
'emple Hall, in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' for
1719. Landscapes by him appeared at the Academy
in 1801 and 1806. Specimens of his engraving
are to be found in Murphy's ' Arabian Antiquities
of Spain' (1806), and two of his water-colour
drawings are in the Kensington Museum.

RAWLINS, , an English engraver of portraits
and frontispieces for books, who flourished about
the year 1760.

RAWLINSON, JAMES, an English portrait
painter, born in 1769. He was a native of Derby-
shire, and studied under Romney. He only once,
in 1799, exhibited at the Academy, a picture of

an old woman knitting. His portrait of Erasmus
Darwin has been well engraved by Heath. Raw-
linson died in 1848.

RAXIS, PEDRO, painter, was living and working
in Grenada with much credit about the end of the
16th century. It is supposed from his style that
he studied in Italy. He was a good draughtsman,
and displayed great delicacy in grotteschi, on
which he was much employed. According to a
tradition noted by Bermudez, Raxis had two
brothers who were also painters, but were inferior
to him in ability. Chief works :

Grenada. 5. Geronimo. Saints above the High Altar.
,* Sacromonte. Immaculate Conception.

,, Carmen Descalzo. Saints (in the Cloister).

of the most famous of the Limoges enamellers of
the 16th century. His activity extended from
1534 to 1582. In 1567 he was mayor of Limoges.
He and his contemporaries, JEAN and MARTIAL
RAYMOND, were the chief rivals of the Penicauds.
Good specimens of his work are to be found in the
Basilewsky collection, now at St. Petersburg, in
the Louvre, at Berlin, and in the most famous
private collections, such as those of the Rothschild
family and Mr. Spitzer.

RAYXER, SAMUEL. It is not known where or
when this artist was born, nor is anything of his
early history known. His name first appears in
the Royal Academy catalogues of 1821, and from
that time down to 1872 is of frequent occurrence
both in the Exhibitions of the Academy and in those
of various water-colour societies. Most of his
works were in water-colours, and as a rule they
represented church abbeys, ruins, and old houses,
generally interior views, but in some cases the
exteriors also were represented. Some of his
drawings were engraved, and five, if not six, ap-
peared in 'Britton's Cathedral Antiquities.' For
a few years he was a member of the Society
of Painters in Water-Colours, but having been
charged with fraud, was expelled from the Society
in 1851. He had five daughters, all of whom
were artists. He died at Brighton, it is believed,
in 1874.

RAZALI, SEDASTIANO, a Bolognese painter and
scholar of the Carracci. There is a ' St. Benedict
among Thorns ' by him in San Michele Bosco,

READ, CATHERINE, a painter of portraits, both
in oil and in crayons, practised in London in
the early part of George III.'s reign. About the
year 1770 she went to the East Indies, where she
resided a few years. On her return to England she
continued to exercise her talent with respectable
success until her death, which happened about the
year 1786. There are several mezzotints after her
portraits. Shepainted a portrait of Queen Charlotte,
and a group of Princes George and Frederick.

READ, DAVID CHARLES, was born at Salisbury
in 1790, and became a teacher of drawing in his
native town. He had some repute as a painter
in oils, and exhibited an oil-painting, ' Boys and
Sheep,' at the Royal Academy in 1823, and be-
tween this date and 1840 showed seven pictures
at the British Institution and six at Suffolk Street.
As an etcher he was considerably in advance of
his time, and his work, though in the main a
close imitation of Rembrandt, often shows much
originality. In 1828 he published at Salisbury a
series of his etchings, followed by another series



of fourteen plates in 1832. In the latter year he
published from The Close, Salisbury, a 'Catalogue
of Etchings, after his own designs, by D. C. Read,'
containing descriptions and prices of the hundred
and nine plates he had then issued. The book
also contains complimentary letters from his friend
Goethe, and other persons of distinction. In 1845
he again published at Salisbury a series of twenty-
three etchings with the title, ' A Series of Etchings
from Nature, designed to illustrate a few of the
leading features of English Scenery.' He died at
Kensington on May 25, 1851. j[ jj

READ, KICHAP.D, an English engraver in 'mez-
zotint and in stipple, who flourished about the year
1780. He was born about 1745, became a p'upil
of Caldwall, and was premiated by the Society of
Arts in 1771. Among other prints by him we have
the following:

Moses saved from the Nile ; after Le Sueur.
A Portrait of a Dutch Lady ; after Rembrandt.
Mary, Queen of Scots, resigning her crown in favour of
her Son ; after G. Hamilton.

READ, SAMUEL, was born at Needham Market,
near Ipswich, about 1816. As a boy he was placed
in the office of a lawyer, but showed so decided an
inclination for art, that he was transferred to the
office of an architect. In 1841 he came to London,
and drew on the wood with Mr. Whymper, which
brought him into connection with the ' Illustrated
London News,' for which he worked for more than
forty years. He was the first special artist ever
sent abroad by a newspaper, going in 1853 to Con-
stantinople, just before the outbreak of the Crimean
War. In 1857 he was elected an associate, and in
1880 a full member of the Old Water-Colour Society.
He made many effective drawings of interiors and
exteriors of churches and cathedrals. He died at
Sidmouth on May 6, 1883. Works :

The Moated Grange. (South Kensington.)

The Corridor, Brewer's Hall, Antwerp. (The same.)

READ, THOMAS BUCHANAN, painter, born in
Chester county, Pennsylvania, in 1822, went in
1839 to Cincinnati, and was first an architect and
then a painter. In 1841 he worked in New York,
and then in Boston and Philadelphia, and went in
1850 to England and Italy, making a prolonged
stay in Florence, where he painted fancy pictures,
such as 'The Lost Pleiad,' 'The Water Sprite,'
'The Star of Bethlehem.' He also painted por-
traits, among which were those of George Pea-
body and of Longfellow's children. In 1848 he
published a volume of ' Songs and Ballads,' and in
1850 ' Idylls,' ' Silvia the last Shepherdess,' and
' Sheridan's Ride,' illustrated by himself. He died
at New York in 1872.

READER, WILLIAM, portrait painter, born at
Maidstone, was the son of a clergyman, and prac-
tised in the 17th century. There is a portrait by
him of Dr. Blow the musician ; it is engraved.
Reader died in London, a pensioner of the Charter

READING, BURNET, an English engraver, born
at Colchester about the middle of the 18th century.
He held the somewhat incongruous positions of
riding and drawing-master to Lord Pomfret. Ho
worked in the dot manner, and appears to have
practised in London about 1770-90. Amongst his
plates are :

Lavinia and her mother ; after W. R. Bigg.
Charlotte at the tomb of Werther.
Portrait of himself ; after a drawing by himself.

READING, SARAH, probably a relative of the
last named, was at work at the same time and in
the same fashion. An oval of ' Olivia and Sophia '
by her has been preserved.

marine painter, born in London in 1823. The
son of a Custom House clerk, he was entirely
self-taught, and worked directly from nature. Of
a retiring and timid disposition, he only exhibited
once at the Royal Academy ; and though his works
showed marked ability, he never obtained an ex-
tended reputation. He paid a visit of some years'
duration to America, and on his return resumed his
former retired mode of life. Nearly all his pictures
were sold to one dealer. They were both in oil
and water-colour, and in either case were nearly
always finished on the spot. David Roberts was
his intimate friend. He died at Brighton in 1873.

REALFONSO, TOMMASO, an Italian painter of
the 18th century, one of the pupils of A. Belvedere.
He occasionally painted landscapes, but his principal
productions were flower and fruit pieces, and studies
of still-life.

REATTU, JACQUES, a French historical painter,
born at Aries in 1760. He studied under Regnault,
and obtained the grand prix in 1791, which enabled
him to complete his studies at Rome. The theatre
at Marseilles was decorated by him, and at Beau-
vais is his ' History of St. Paul.' He attained some
reputation in his own country, and was elected a
corresponding member of the Institute. He died
in 1833 at Aries.

REBECCA, BIAGIO, an ornamentist and his-
torical painter of Italian descent, who lived in
England. He was born in 1735, and was admitted
into the schools of the Academy in 1769, being
elected an Associate in 1771. He was chiefly
employed as a decorative artist, working as such
on the rooms of the Academy at Somerset House,
at Windsor Castle (by which he was brought to
the notice of the Royal Family), at Audley End, and
at Harewood House. He died in London in 1808.

REBELL, JOSEPH, German painter; born January
11, 1787, at Vienna. He was a pupil of Wutkyat
the Vienna Academy. In 1809 he travelled through
Switzerland and proceeded thence to Milan, where
for two years he resided at the Court of Eugene
Beauharnais. Later on he went to Rome, and
from 1811 to 1815 he was at the Court of Murat at
Naples. Was appointed Director of the Belvedere
Gallery at Vienna. He painted Italian landscapes,
three examples of his work being in the Vienna
Museum. Others are in the Munich Pinakothek,
the Berlin Gallery, and the Parma Gallery. He
died at Dresden, December 18, 1828.

REBELLO, JOSE D'AVELLAR, an historical
painter of little note, who flourished in Spain
about the middle of the 17th century.

painter ; born in Paris, November 30, 1841 ; was
a pupil of Gleyre and of Gerome ; painted genre,
such as ' La jeune Fille au Papillon,' and ' A 1'atelier
du Cousin ' ; also portraits. He died in April


of Mazzuchelli, and brother of Giov. Paolo Recchi.
He became well known at Turin, where he was
working about 1660. He painted historical sub-
jects, and was assisted in his studio by his nephew
Giovanni Antonio.

RECCHI, GIOVANNI PAOLO, brother of Giovanni


Battiata Recchi, an Italian painter of the 17th
century, who, in conjunction with his nephew
Giovanni Andrea, worked in Piedmont about 1660.
He was a pupil of Mazzuchelli.

RECCO, GIUSEPPE, born at Naples in 1634, was
a scholar of Aniello Falcone and of Porpora. He
particularly excelled in painting hunts, dead
game, fish, and similar subjects. His pictures
are found in the best collections at Naples. He
was invited to the Court of Madrid, where lie
was knighted at the time when Luca Giordano
flourished there. His pictures were held in the
highest estimation by the Spanish king. There
are three pictures by him in the Madrid Gallery,
representing fish and game. He died at Madrid
in 1695.

RECCO, PIETER, portrait painter, born at Amster-
dam, 1766. He was a pupil of A. de Lelie, and
settled at Basle, where he spent the greater part
of his life. Hence he is often called a Swiss by

RECHAMBAULT, PIERRE, a painter upon glass
and enamel, who flourished at Limoges about
1555. He was associated with the Penicauds in
some of their works, especially those for the con-
fraternity of the Blessed Sacrament, at Limoges.

RECHBERGER, FRANZ, an eminent designer,
etcher, and landscape painter, was born at Vienna
in 1771, and was a scholar of F. Brandt at the
same time as Martin von Molitor, with whom he
afterwards continued to practise. His landscapes
are natural, his etchings spirited. In general
his plates represent wild, romantic scenery, richly
ornamented with trees, or frowning with rocks, in
the style of Jacob Ruisdael, or Albert van Ever-
dingen. He also etched a number of landscapes
after Dietrich. The care of the fine collection of
prints formerly belonging to Count Fries was con-
fided to him, and he was also keeper of the prints
and drawings of the Archduke Charles at Vienna.
His etchings are marked F. R., which has occasioned
them to be sometimes erroneously attributed to
Frederic Rehberg, a contemporary artist, whose
works are historical, and belong rather to the
Roman school. He died in 1842. By him :

Landscape with the Temple of Vesta. ( Vienna.)

RECHLIN, KARL, German painter; born at
Berlin in 1804 ; studied at the Academy there ;
notable as a painter of military subjects, such as
'Battle of Kulm, 1813,' 'Episode in the Battle of
Leipzig ' obtained several decorations. He died at
Tempelhof, near Berlin, in 1882.

RECHTERS, T., a native of Amsterdam, where
he lived from 1700 to 1768. Among his pictures
is a portrait of Jan Wagenaar. He has also left
a history of his native city.

RECK, DAVID VAN, a portrait painter of the 17th
century, born in Flanders, and a pupil of Van
Dyck. Queen Christina invited him to the Swedish
Court, and he settled in Stockholm, where he ob-
tained a large practice among the aristocracy.
He painted portraits of the Queen, and of many
Swedish generals and persons of distinction.

RECLAM, FRIEDRICH, born at Magdeburg in
1734, after learning the rudiments of design in
his native country, went to Paris, where he became
a pupil of J. B. Pierre. In 1755 he visited Rome,
and after a residence of seven years in that capital,
he established himself at Berlin. He painted land-
scapes and portraits witli considerable success, and
died in 1774. We have the following etchings by
him :

A set of eight Views in Italy. 1755.

A Landscape, Morning ; after Moucheron.

The Companion, Evening ; after Duliois.

Two Views in the Environs of Paris ; from his own

A View near Kome, with a Waterfall ; the same.

RECOUVRANCE, ANTOINE DE, a French painter,
born at Avignon. The works of this artist are
little known, though he was appointed painter to
the king in 1588, and held his post till 1641. In
the collection of Duplessis-Mornay, who died in
1611, there were portraits by him. There are
still in existence by him some interiors of churches,
with groups of persons assembled for worship,
which are apparently portraits.

REDEL, JOSEF, a German historical painter,
born in 1774. He worked in the style of Fiiger,
and was considered a good colourist. He was
appointed a professor in the Academy at Vienna,
where he died in 1836.

REDENTI, FRANCESCO, painter, born at Cor-
reggio in 1820, was employed in drawing cari-
catures for the Fischietto. He died at Turin in

Saxony in 1656, visited Rome in 1686. In that
year Buda was taken, and Reder gained consider-
able reputation for his battle-pieces, representing
the fights that took place between the Ottomans
and the Christians. He afterwards visited Venice,
Hamburg, England, and Holland, and died in

REDGRAVE, RICHARD, painter, was born on the
30th April, 1804, in Pimlico, and in his early youth
worked as assistant to his father, who was associated
in the engineering works of Bramah, the inventor
of the hydraulic press. At the age of twenty-one
he entered the Academy schools, and competed un-
successfully for the gold medal. He first attracted
public attention in 1836 by his 'Gulliver on the
Farmer's Table,' exhibited at the British Institu-
tion, which is now at South Kensington. In 1840
he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy,
and in 1851 a full member. Meantime he had been
actively engaged in the organization of the Govern-
ment School of Design, of which he was appointed
Botanical Teacher and Lecturer, and later Head
Master and Art Superintendent. It was about
this time that, with the help of Mr. H. Cole
(afterwards Sir Henry Cole, K.C.B.), he formed the
museum of ornamental art at Maryborough House,
the nucleus of the present Museum of Art at South
Kensington. They were again associated in the
arrangement of the Great Exhibition in 1851, and
in the British Section of the Paris Universal
Exhibition of 1855. In 1862 Redgrave worked in
conjunction with Creswick in carrying out arrange-
ments for the English Art Section of the Inter-

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