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national Exhibition. In 1858 he was appointed
Surveyor of Crown Pictures, and for many years
was engaged on a catalogue of them. In 1866 he
joined his brother Samuel (who died in 1876) in
preparing a history of British art from the time of
Hogarth, under the title of ' A Century of Painters.'
For many years he kept up his connection with
South Kensington, where he took the chief part in
forming an historical collection of water-colours
for the Museum. In 1880 he resigned both his
appointment as Surveyor and Keeper of the Royal
Pictures, and also his post in the Department of
Science and Art at South Kensington, and from
that time he seems to have painted but little.



He died at Kensington, the 14th December, 1888.

Redgrave was a member of the Etching Club.

REDGRAVE, SAMUEL, was born in London,
3rd October, 1802. His father, who at the time
of his son's birth was in the office of Mr. Joseph
Bramah, the inventor, placed him in an office
connected with the Home Department. There he
showed in time that be was possessed of talents of
an unusual kind, and was intrusted with various
responsible tasks under the Home Secretary. But
much of his leisure was given to matters concern-
ing art and artists. He became a probationer at
the Royal Academy, in the architectural class,
having in his leisure moments acquired consider-
able proficiency as a draughtsman. In 1842 he
became secretary to the Etching Club, in suc-
cession to his brother Richard. He was intrusted
with the collection of a historical series of English
pictures, in oil and water-colour, for the 1862
Exhibition, and was employed in much the same
capacity for the Paris Exhibition of 1867 Two
years earlier he had submitted a proposal for a
Loan Exhibition of Miniatures to the Committee of
Council, which had been acted upon, while in 1866
his aid was invoked by Lord Derby for the organ-
ization of the Exhibition of Portraits, which was
open at Kensington for three years. In 1869 he
helped the Royal Academy in starting the series
of Winter Exhibitions at Burlington House. But
of all his claims to remembrance the chief, per-
haps, are his ' Dictionary of Artists of the British
School,' and his share in ' A Century of Painters,'
published jointly by himself and his brother
Richard. Samuel Redgrave married in 1839, but
lost his wife in 1845. He died himself on the 20th
March, 1876.

REDI, GIOVANNA, a pupil of Gubbiani together
with Tommaso Redi, to whom she was, in all
probability, related.

REDI, TOMMASO, born at Florence in 1665, after
receiving some instruction in his native city went
to Rome, where he frequented the Academy estab-
lished in that city by the Grand Duke Cosmo III.,
which was at that time under the direction of '
Carlo Maratti and Giro Ferri. His studies at Rome I
were prosecuted with considerable success, and on
his return to Florence he was employed by the
Grand Duke in several works for the Palazzo Pitti.
He also painted some pictures for the churches, and
other public edifices, and is spoken of as an emi-
nent portrait painter. When the Czar Peter visited
Florence, he was particularly struck with the works
of Redi, and being desirous of establishing an
academy for the promotion of the tine arts at
Moscow, made very liberal proposals to that master
to prevail on him to undertake the superintendence
of it, but his engagements at Florence prevented
his accepting the offer. Redi died at Florence in

REDIG, L., a Belgian painter of genre and
landscape, died 1861. His best known work is a
' Village Fete.'

REDMOND, THOMAS, an English miniature
painter, born at Brecon about 1745. As a boy
he was apprenticed to a house-painter at Bristol.
Coming to London, he studied in the St. Martin's
Lane Academy, and wan in 1763 a member of the
Free Society of Artists. Migrating to Bath, he
obtained a good practice, and exhibited at the
Royal Academy from 1775 to 1779. He died at
Bath in 1785.

REDONDILLO, ISIDORO DE, a Spanish painter


of the 17th century, and pupil of Angelo Nardi.
He practised at Madrid, and was appointed painter
to Charles II. in 1685. He painted portraits and
historical pictures, which are often confounded,
says Bermudez, with those of other painters.

Charles Joseph Redoute, born at St. Hubert, 1756.
The pupil of his father. He was a decorative artist
of much repute in his day, and decorated the
Palais de 1'Elysee, the Palais Bourbon, the Chateau
de Compiegne, and other large houses. In 1776 he
settled in Paris, where he died in 1809.

REDOUTE, CHARLES JOSEPH, painter, the son
of Jean Jacques Redoute, and father of the three
artists, Pierre Joseph, Henri Joseph, and Antoine
Ferdinand Redoute, was born at Jamagne, near
Philippeville, in 1715. He was bis father's pupil
until 1735, when he came to Paris and studied
at the Academy. Later he settled at Saint Hubert,
where he worked much on commission for the
Abbey, and for the great houses of the neighbour-
hood, and where he died in 1776.

REDOUTE, HENRI JOSEPH, a painter of flowers,
fruit, and insects, born at St. Hubert, 1766. He
was the son of Charles Joseph Redoute, and studied
under his brother Pierre Joseph at Paris. He was
appointed draughtsman to the ' Jardin des Plantes,'
and was chosen as one of the members of the Art
and Science Commission which Bonaparte sent
into Egypt.

REDOUTE, JEAN JACQUES, an obscure artist,
born at Dinant in 1687, and remarkable only as
having been the father of Charles Joseph, and
grandfather of Pierre Joseph Redoute. He died in

REDOUTE, PIERRE JOSEPH, flower painter, born
at St. Hubert in Belgium in 1759, learned the prin-
ciples of art from his father, and then went to his
brother, Antoine Ferdinand, in Paris. In 1792 he
was appointed draughtsman to the Academy of
Sciences and to the Institute, and in 1805 flower
painter to the Empress Josephine. Among bis
pupils were Marie Antoinette, Josephine, and
Hortense. His chief works are lilies and roses,
' The Flower of Malmaison.' He died in Paris
in 1840.

REED, JOSEPH CHARLES, an English landscape
painter in water-colours, born in 1822. He was
elected an associate of the Water-Colour Institute
in 1860, and a member in 1866. His subjects were
confined to the scenery of the United Kingdom.
He died in London in 1877.

REEDER, MARTIN, a painter of still-life, born at
the Hague in 1802. He was a pupil of Van Cuy-
lenburgh and of J. Pienemnn.

REEKERS, HENDRIK, a painter of flowers and
fruit, born at Haarlem, 1815. He was a pupil of
bis father, whom he greatly excelled in his art,
and of G. J. J. Van Os. He lived for a time at
Brussels, but returned in 1848 to Haarlem, where
he died in 1854.

Rotterdam. Museum. Fruits, Vegetables, and Game.

REEKERS, JAN, born at Haarlem, 1790, was
a pupil of Horstok, and a painter of portraits and
landscape. He died 1858


REGAMEY, GUILLAUME, a French military
painter, born in Paris in 1837. He studied under
Lecoq de Boisbaudran and Bonvin, and afterwards
under Barye at the Academy, where he gained two
medals. His pictures were not at first successful ;


they were rejected for years at the Salon, and it
was not till 1863 that he first appeared there, as
a painter, with a 'Turco.' His first important
contribution, however, was a ' Batterie de tam-
bours des Grenadiers de la Garde,' which was
exhibited in 1865, and is now in the Muse's at Pau.
This was followed two years later by ' Sapeurs : tete
de colonne de 2 me Cuirassiers de la Garde,' which
made a great sensation, and is now in the Chalons
Museum. Regamey was troubled all his life with
ill health, and his work went on in very inter-
mittent fashion about this time. He contrived,
however, to finish a third important picture fgr
the Salon of 1870 (' Tirailleurs Alge'riens '), and then
the Franco-German War interrupted his studies.
Partly on account of his weakly constitution, partly
because he could be of use to his family by earn-
ing money for their support through the exercise
here of his talent, he left Paris for London, where
he lived and worked to the end of the war. Many
of his designs appeared in English periodicals,
especially the 'Illustrated London News.' In 1872
he returned to Paris, where he arrived in the midst
of the 'Commune.' During the last three years of
his life his work was again much interrupted by ill-
health, but at his death, on January 3, 1875, he left
finished the two last of the pictures named below :

Pau. Museum. The Drummers. 1866.

Chalons-sur-Manie. Museum. Sappers. 1868.
Marseilles. Museum. Tirailleurs Algerieus. 1866.

Cuirassiers in a Cabaret.

Drummers of a Grenadier Regiment.

Regamey's life is the subject of a sympathetic
notice by M. Ernest Chesneau (' Librairie de 1'Art,'

Flemish historical, landscape, and genre painter
and engraver, born at Antwerp in 1785. He
studied under his father, Petrus Johannes, also
in Paris, Antwerp, Brussels, and Ghent. He died
at Antwerp in 1873. Amongst his works are:
Amsterdam. E. Museum. The old Fish-Market at Aut-


The Menage of Jan Steen.

Fodor Mus. Jan Steen and F. Van


Brussels. Museum An Autumn Morning.

Munich. Pinakothek. Interior of a Garret.

The Ruined Cottage.

Flemish landscape and genre painter, born in 1755
at Antwerp. He was a pupil of the Academy of
that city, but he owed much to his study of the
pictures in some private collections. He became
a professor in the Academy, and Dean in the
Painters' Guild in 1786. Many artists of note
studied under him, and he had a large practice
as a picture-restorer. In 1814 he was engaged in
bringing back the pictures taken by the French to
Paris. He died in 1830. In the Antwerp Museum
is a 'Shepherd and Flock' by him. He excelled
in painting moonlights.



KEGNAKD, VAL^RIEN, a French engraver, who
was a scholar of Ph. Thomassin, flourished at Rome
about the years 1630-50. Among other things he
engraved several of the plates for the collection of
prints from the antique statues, &c., in the Gius-
tiniani Gallery. He also engraved some plates
after the works of Giovanni Antonio Lelli, Pome-
rancio, Agostino Ciampelli, &c.


in Paris in 1843, was the son of the director
of the Gobelins. He studied under Montfort,
Lamothe, and Cabanel, competed unsuccessfully
in 1863 for the Prix de Rome, but won it in
1866 with his 'Thetis presenting Arms to Achilles.'
In 1864 he sent two portraits to the Salon.
From 1866 to 1868 he was in Borne, where he
illustrated A. Wey's 'Journey to Rome,' with
twenty-seven drawings of the modern city, and
painted several good portraits and pictures of
horses. In 1868 he went to Spain, where he
painted his famous portrait of Marshal Prim, and
copied the ' Lanzas ' of Velasquez. From Spain
Regnault went to Tangiers, to which he took a
strong liking, but in 1869 returned to Rome. In
1870 he was again in Africa, but was recalled to
his own country by the Franco-German War, in
which he was killed at the attack on Buzenval
towards the evening of January 19th, 1871. No
one saw him fall, but next day the driver of an
ambulance found his body, which had the last
honours paid to it eight days later in the church
of St. Augustin. Works :

Portrait of the Comtesse B . 1869.

Portrait of Marshal Prim. 1369. Paris, Louvre.

Execution in the Alhambra. do. do.

Salome. 1870.

La Madrilene, water-colour. Paris, Luxembourg Museum.

Paysan de la Manche. do.

The Alhambra ; entrance to the Hall of the Two Sisters.

The Alhambra ; interior of the Hall of the Two Sisters.

do.; and a series of fifteen sketches presented by V.

Regnault, Member of the Institute.

REGNAULT, ETIENNE, born in Paris, 1649, a
painter of little note, who became a member of the
Academy in 1703. He died in 1720.

REGNAULT, JEAN BAPTISTE, historical painter,
was born in Paris in 1754. When he was ten
years old his father took him a voyage to America
and Africa on board a merchant vessel. He was
away four years. When he was fifteen, he went to
Rome, where he studied under Bardin, and then
to Paris, where in 1776, with his 'Alexander at the
House of Diogenes,' he won the Prix de Rome. Re-
turning to Paris from Rome he was elected Fellow
of the Academy in 1783, with his ' Deliverance of
Andromeda.' His pictures are numerous, and consist
of historical, poetical, and allegorical subjects. Of
these Gabet has given a tolerably long list in his
' Dictionnaire des Artistes de 1'Ecole Francaise, au
XIX" siecle,' but says that it is confined to his
principal productions. At his death, in addition
to his pictures, he left numerous academical studies,
designs, and finished sketches ; many of the latter
illustrative of Ovid's Metamorphoses, and other
poets. As a teacher Regnault was the great rival
of David. Among his scholars were Guerin,
Crespin, Robert le Febvre, Menjaud, Lafitte, Bois-
selier, Blondel, and many others. Regnault died
in Paris in 1829. Works :

The Baptism of Christ ; Louvre.

The Education of Achilles ; the same.

The Descent from the Cross ; the same.

Pygmalion begging Venus to animate his statue ; the

The Origin of Painting ; the same.

The Three Graces.

The Judgment of Paris.

Venus ou the Clouds.

Portrait of a Young Woman ; Orleans Museum.

painter and engraver, was born in Paris in 1749.
His wife GENEVIEVE (nee NANGIS) engraved a few



plates after her own and her husband s designs.
Among Regnault's plates may be named :

Le VCEU de la Nature ; from his own design.

The Fountain of Love ; after Frayonard.

Truth and Tenderness ; after Lagrenee.

and line-engraver, was born at Bayeux in 1823.
He was a pupil of De Juine and of Henriquel-
Dupont, and is best known by his engraved por-
traits, among which are those of Voltaire, Made-
moiselle Mars, and the painter Meissonier, the last
after a miniature painted by Regnault himself.
He died in Paris in 1871.

REGNE, , a native of France, who flourished
about the year 1760. Among other prints he
engraved a set of plates of animals, which are
neatly executed.

REGNESSON, NICOLAS, a French draughtsman
and engraver, was born at Rheims about 1625.
There are by this artist a considerable number of his-
torical portraits engraved from his own drawings,
and after Philippe de Champaigne, Beaubrun, Fran-
cois Chauveau, &c., besides compositions after other
painters. He was the master of Robert Nanteuil,
who married one of his sisters. His daughter
Madeleine became the wife of Gerard Edelinck.
He died in Paris in 1670.

REGNIER, FRANS, an obscure Dutch portrait
painter, who was at work in the Hague in 1776.

REGNIER, JACQUES AUGUSTE, landscape painter,
born in Paris, 1787. He was a pupil of Bertin.
For more than forty years he exhibited landscapes
at the Salon, and was often premiated. Two
paintings by him decorate the chapel of St. Denis,
in the church of Saint Roch, at Paris, and another
is in the Palace at Fontainebleau. Regnier's last
years were passed in poverty and neglect, and he
committed suicide by drowning, in the Canal
de 1'Ourcq, in Paris, in 1860. Among his better
works we may also name : The Tomb of King
Arthur,' a ' Joan of Arc,' and a ' Chartreuse en
Auvergne' (1837), in the Museum of Toulouse.

REGNIER, JEAN, a Belgian painter of interiors
and of genre pictures, practising in 1853. He was
professor at the Industrial School at Verviers.

REGOLIRON, BERNARDO, an Italian portrait
painter, practising in the second half of the 18th
century, was a pupil of P. P. Cristofani. At
Vienna there are portraits by him of the Emperor
Joseph II. aud of his brother Leopold.

REGTERS, TIBOUT, portrait painter, born at
Dordrecht, 1710. He was the pupil successively
of Ten Hage at Arnheim, of Meyer at Rotterdam,
and of Quinkhard at Amsterdam. He died at
Amsterdam in 1768. In the Ryks Museum there
is a portrait by him of the historian Jan Wagenaar,
and one of the painter Jan Ten Compe.

REHBERG, FRIEDEICH, historical painter, born
in Hanover in 1758, studied first with Oeser in
Leipzig, then with Casanova and Schenau in
Dresden, and went in 1777 to Rome, where he
studied the old masters under Mengs, and measured
himself with David. In 1783 he returned to Han-
over, painted several portraits, became teacher of
drawing in Dessau in 1784, in 1786 Fellow, and in
1787 Professor of the Berlin Academy, and then
returned to Rome. There he painted a ' Belisarius.'
an ' CEdipus and Antigone,' ' The Death of Abel,'
' Bacchus,' ' Orpheus and Eurydice,' ' Jupiter acd
Venus.' In 1791 he went to Naples and made a
series of drawings from Lady Hamilton, which
were published. In 1813 he went to London, and


in 1814 painted an allegory of Napoleon's fall. In
the same year he returned for a time to Rome, but
eventually settled at Munich, where he published,
in 1824, ' Raffael Sanzio von Urbino ' ; the Ele-
ments of Lithographic Drawing (' Anfangsgriinde
des Steinzeichners '), with thirteen of his own litho-
graphs. Rehberg died at Munich the 20th August,

REHER, BERNHARD, German painter; born
near Munich in 1806 ; became a pupil of Dannecker ;
also studied with Cornelius ; after success as a
painter he was appointed Director of the Art
School at Stuttgart ; he is best known by the
large fresco over the Isar Thor at Munich. He
died at Munich in January 1886.

REICH, WENDEI,, was an engraver on wood, who,
about the year 1515, flourished at Lyons, where he
published several cuts marked with a W. and an
R. joined together. We cannot, however, specify
any of them. He was also a bookseller, and lived
at Strasburg in 1540. Bartsch (' Peintre-Graveur,'
ix. 170) has described a print bearing his cipher,
supposed to be by him.

REICHEL, JAKOB, in the first part of this cen-
tury was working as a miniature painter at St.
Petersburg, and painted portraits of the Emperor
Alexander I., the Empress Marie, and most of the
principal personages of the empire. He died at
Brussels in 1856.

REICHENTHAL, ULRICH VON, a writer of the
15th century, who illustrated a ' History of the
Council of Constance,' which he himself wrote,
with a number of well-executed paintings in

at Munden in 1798, went through the campaign of
1813-1815, and then went to the Academy at
Cassel. In 1821 he went to Munich, where he
made himself a name with his ' CEdipus and Anti-
gone/ He afterwards devoted himself to portrait-
painting, and produced among others a portrait
of the Duchess of Cambridge. He died at Han-
over in 1853.

REID, ALEXANDER, a miniature painter, born
in 1747 in Kirkcudbrightshire. He is known from
having painted a miniature of Burns at Dumfries,
where Reid was then living in 1796 which is
mentioned in Cunningham's 'Life of Raeburn,'
and in Douglas' ' Works of Burns.' This minia-
ture is believed to be the one in the Scottish
National Portrait Gallery. Reid became a man of
substance in his later years, having succeeded to
a family estate. He died unmarried in 1823.

REIFF, FRANZ, German painter ; born February
12, 1835, at Aachen ; became a pupil of E. Correns
and Piloty ; subsequently filled the post of Pro-
fessor at the Aachen Polytechnic. His pictures
include ' Kirchenstrafe einer Gef allenen,' ' Nymphe
im Walde, 1 &c. The recipient of several decora-
tions. He died in 1901.

REIGLER, PAUL, landscape painter, practising
in Belgium about 1845. He was a pupil of the
Spa School of Painting-.

REIGNIER, JEAN, flower painter, was born at
Lyons, August 3, 1815. He was a pupil of the
Lyons School of Art, and until 1845 employed his
talents in designing for the silk manufacturers.
Afterwards he turned his attention to fine art, and
in 1854 became a professor in the school in which
he had been a pupil. He formed many scholars.
His flower-pieces and fan-paintings are very clever,


though a little stiff and academical. Reignier bad
much official recognition. He died in 1885.

REIMER, GEORG, painter, produced small cabinet
pictures and died in Berlin in 1866. His best
known work is ' Before the Sermon.'

REINAGLE, GEORGE PHILIP, marine painter,
son of Richard Ramsay Reinagle, and grandson of
Philip Reinagle, was born in 1802, and instructed by
his father. He gave early proofs of great talent as
a painter of marine subjects. After successfully
copying pictures by Everdingen, Backhuysen, and
William van de Velde, he accompanied the expedi-
tion to Navarino. for the express purpose of giving
a representation of the expected action, and was
also with Admiral Napier's Fleet in the action with
the Portuguese. His works cause regret at the
shortness of his career. He died in London in

REINAGLE, PHILIP, a landscape, animal, and
panoramic painter, born in 1749, was a scholar of
Allan Ramsay, the court painter, whom he assisted
in his official portraits of George III. and Queen
Charlotte. It is recorded that on one occasion
Ramsay left England for some months, and deputed
Reinagle to paint fifty pairs of ' Kings and Queens '
at ten guineas a-piece. This task was duly per-
formed, but it disgusted Reinagle with portrait
painting, and he turned his attention to the study
of animals, with which he succeeded to admiration.
His pictures of hunting subjects, sporting dogs
(particularly the spaniel), shaggy ponies, and dead
game, were among the best of the day. He studied
rather the manner of the old Dutch painters than
that of his contemporaries, and was an excellent
copyist of their works, and many pictures now
called Paul Potter, A. van de Velde, Berchem,
Karel du Jardin, &c., were really painted by him.
He assisted Barker, too, in his panoramic Views
of Rome, the Bay of Naples, Florence, Gibraltar,
Algesiras Bay, and Paris. The work by which
lie is best known, however, is ' The Sportsman's
Cabinet,' or correct delineations of the various dogs
used in the sports of the field, taken from life, and
engraved by John Scott. Reinagle was elected
A.R.A. in 1787, and R.A. in 1812. He died at
Chelsea in 1833.

animal and landscape painter, born in 1775. He
was the son of P. Reinagle, by whom he was
instructed, completing his art training in Italy
and Holland. He exhibited at the Water-Colour
Society, of which he was a member from 1806 to
1813. In the following year he was elected an
Associate of the Academy, becoming a full member
in 1823. His later years were clouded by his
enforced retirement from the Academy, which was
brought about by his exhibiting, as his own, a
picture which he had only purchased. This took
place in 1848. He afterwards sank into poverty,
and was generously treated by the Academy, on
the funds of which he became a pensioner. He
died at Chelsea in 1862. Amongst his works are :

London. Srid.gewa.ter House. Landscape.
Grosvenor House. Landscape.

South Kensington. Museum. Rydal Mountains.

Three landscapes in


Edinburgh. National Gallery. A very fine copy of the

' Coup de Lance,' by

graver, was born at Nuremberg in 1784. He was

apprenticed to Heinrich Guttenberg in 1798, and
worked from 1803 to 1809 under his direction in
Paris. In 1821 he was entrusted with the restora-
tion of the baths at Nuremberg, in which he
acquitted himself very well. In 1811 he was ap-
pointed director of the school of art in Nurem-
berg, keeper of the picture gallery, and a member
of the Munich Academy. He died at Nuremberg
in 1853. His chief plates are :

The Virgin and Child ; after Leonardo da Vinci.

Charlemagne ; after Diirer.

The Four Apostles ; after the same.

The Shrine of St. Sebald ; after P. Fischer.

Louis I., King of Bavaria ; after Stieler.

Silence ; after Annibale Carracci.

St. Paul preaching ; after Le Sueur.

Direr ; after Baucli.

Madonna ; after a Nuremberg woodcut.

Christ blessing Little Children ; after Heinric'i Hess.

REINER, WENZEL LORENZ, born at Prague in
1686, and son of Joseph Reiner, a sculptor of little
note, by whom he was instructed in the rudi-
ments of design: he also took lessons of Peter
Brandel, a painter of some reputation, and of
Schweiger. By the assistance of this master, and

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