the study of nature, Reiner became a painter of
some repute. His talents were not confined to
any particular branch, and he painted with con-
siderable success historical subjects, landscapes,
and battles. His best productions, however, were
landscapes with cattle, and battle-pieces, in which
he resembles Peter van Bloemen. His figures and
animals are correctly drawn, and handled with
freedom and spirit. His works are chiefly con-
fined to his own country, where they are found
in the best collections. He died in 1743. Works :
Dresden. Gallery. The Campo Vaccino, Rome.
Golden House of Nero, and
Barberini Fountain, Rome.
REINERMANN, ANNA MARGARETHE, wife of
Friedrich Christian Reinermann, lived from 1781
to 1855, and painted flowers and fruit in oil and
water-colour. Her maiden name was Hollenbach.
REINERMANN, FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN, born at
Wetzlar in 1764, received his first instruction in
Frankfort from Nothnagel, and then went to study
in 1789 in the Gallery of Cassel, after Potter,
Berchem, and Claude Lorraine. He also visited
Rome, and lived in Switzerland for ten years,
where he painted several landscapes. From 180o
to 1811 he worked in Frankfort, from 1811 to
1818 in Wetzlar, and then again in Frankfort.
He died at Frankfort in 1835. Works :
The Cascades at Tivoli.
An Animal piece ; after H. Roos.
Goats on the Apennines ; after Serchem.
Study of a Horse ; after Wouwerman.
Several Views in the Neighbourhood of the Moselle ;
in aquatint, after his own drawings.
REINHARD, ANNA MARIA. See KDSTER, Jo-
RE1NHARDT, EMILIE, born at Amsterdam,
1809, was a flower painter, and a pupil of Pierre
REINHARDT, KARL AUGUST, painter, born at
Leipzig in 1818, was originally destined for the
Church, but turned his talents to art. He travelled
through Norway, the Tyrol, and Italy, but after-
wards abandoned landscape for caricature, and
produced humorous pen and ink sketches for the
comic papers. He died at Kotzschenbroda, near
Dresden, in 1877.
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
REINHARDT, LUDWIG, an obscure painter of
genre pictures, who committed suicide at Munich
REINHARDT, SOPHIA, born at Kirchberg in
1775, studied under Becker, and travelled through
Italy, Austria, and Hungary. In the Kunsthalle
at Carlsruhe, are a ' St. Elizabeth and the infant St.
John. 1 'The Death of St. Katharine of Siena,'
and ' Death of Torquato Tasso ' by her. She died
REINHART, HANS, called GRIENINGER, a printer
and engraver of the 15th and 16th centuries, who
flourished at Strasburg, was a native of Griinin-
gen in Wurtemberg. He engraved the plates for
several works, among which were : Brandt's ' The
Ship of Fools,' 1497; Jerome of Brunswick's
' Book of Surgery ' ; Terence, 1496 ; Boccaccio's
' Cento Novelle,' 1519 ; Adelphus's ' Barbarossa,'
1520; Virgil, with two hundred plates, 1502;
Ptolemy's Geography, with forty-seven wood-cuts,
1522. His works show him to have been a pupil
of Martin Schongauer.
REINHART, JOHANN CHRISTIAN, a German
landscape painter, born at Hof (Upper Franconia)
in 1761. When young, he studied theology at
Leipsic, but preferring to devote himself to art,
became a scholar of Oeser. About 1785 he made
the acquaintance of the Duke of Meiningen, who
invited him to his court, where he painted both
portraits and landscapes. In 1789 lie settled at
Rome, where he became one of the pioneers and
most influential spirits in the so-called regeneration
of German art. In 1825 he painted a room in the
Villa Massimi, with eight historical landscapes
in tempera, and four years later four large tempera
landscapes for King Ludwig of Bavaria. Rein-
hart fell into reduced circumstances in his latter
years, and died at Rome in 1847. The following
are some of his pictures :
Frankfort. Stddel Gall. Landscape, Cain and Abel.
Gotha. Gallery. Landscape. 1816.
Leipsic. Museum. Landscape, Cupid and Psyche
,. Landscape, Hypsipyle.
Munich. PinaJcothek. Landscape. 1846.
He devoted considerable attention to aquatint
engraving, and published several volumes of
plates. The chief of these are :
Thierstudien, in Eom gezeichnet uud raclirt.
REINHEIMER, URSULA MAGDALENA, painter,
born at Nuremberg. She was the daughter of
Maria Prestel (q. v.), and practised for some time
in London, painting landscape, portrait, and
flower pieces. She afterwards settled at Brussels,
where she died in 1845. She also engraved a few
plates in aquatint.
REINHOLD, BERNHARD, German historical and
genre painter ; born at Ratzeburg, April 23, 1824 ;
at the age of twenty began to study as a sculptor
with Thorvaldsen and Bissen at Copenhagen; in
1846 went to Munich, and, a year later, to Rome,
where he devoted himself entirely to painting,
his work at the outset being influenced by that of
Biermann, Begas, Feuerbach and Kraus. He
settled at Dresden in the year 1858, painting genre
scenes and portraits with success. Of the former
we may mention, ' Die Schule ist aus,' ' Senza
Moccolo,' ' Erntezeit,' and ' In der Campagna.'
He died at Plauen, near Dresden, Nov. 22, 1892.
REINHOLD, FBIEDEICH PHILIPP, landscape
painter, born at Gera in 1799, worked at the
Academy in Vienna, in which city he took up his
residence. His principal works are, 'A land-
scape with thunder-clouds ; ' 'A landscape with
the Wandering Jew,' a very original work ; two
pictures, ' Death and Life,' ' The Reapers at their
Meal.' He died between 1840 and 1843.
REINHOLD, HEINRIOH, brother of Friedrich
Reinhold, painter and engraver, born at Gera in
1789, went from Dresden, where he first studied,
to his brother in Vienna, where he visited the
Academy, and then in 1809 to Paris, to Denon, for
whom he engraved several plates for his work on
Napoleon's campaigns. In 1819 he returned to
Vienna, and in 1820 travelled with an English
family to Italy, and settled in Rome, where he
painted heroic landscapes. Reinhold died at
Albano in 1825. Works:
Berlin. National Gall. A Sicilian Coast Scene.
Copenhagen. Thor- ) -n- . ,, ~
tSobM Museum, j Ha & ar m the Desert -
The Good Samaritan.
Munich. XeioPinakothek. The Garden of the Capuchins
REINICK, ROBERT, painter, born at Dantzig in
1805, studied first at Berlin under Begas ; worked
at Diisseldorf from 1831 to 1838, then went to
Italy, and finally settled in Dresden. He was
also a poet, and issued several songs with illus-
trations, besides a few books for children. He
died at Dresden in 1852.
REINIGER, ERNST, a landscape painter, was
a native of Stuttgart. He was very ready with his
brush, and his pictures were fresh and natural.
He died at Munich in 1873. Works :
Muhlthal, on the Starnberger See.
REINSPERGER, JOHANN CHRISTOPH, a Ger-
man painter and engraver, born at Nuremberg in
1711, was a scholar of Liotard, and practised for
some time at Vienna. He painted portraits, some
of which he has engraved in a coarse, heavy style,
nearly as large as life, among which are :
The Empress Dowager, Elizabeth Christiana.
Joseph II. , Emperor of Germany ; after Palko.
Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria ; after Liotard.
The Archduke Leopold of Tuscany ; after Palko.
He also engraved a plate of 'The Lute-player,'
after Bernardo Strozzi. He died at Vienna in
REISEN, CHARLES CHRISTIAN, the well-known
medallist and seal engraver, was born in London
about 1680. He merits a place here through his
abilities as a draughtsman, and the work he did as
Director of Kneller's school. He was much em-
ployed for foreign patrons, in seal engraving, and
greatly helped by the Earl of Oxford. He lived in
the neighbourhood of Covent Garden, but also had
a house at Putney. He was a large collector of
medals, books, and drawings. He died December
15, 1725, and was buried in St. Paul's, Covent
REITER, BARTOLOJIE, a painter and engraver
of Munich, flourished during the first quarter of
the 17th century. He was a scholar of Hans
Ostendorfer the younger, and of one Hennenberger,
and, traditionally, one of the best painters of
Munich in his time ; it is also said that he had
many pupils. In the chapel in Unter Ammergau is
a picture of St. Vitas, signed B. R. F. 1618. He
died at Munich in 1622. The following is a list
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
of Reiter's prints, on which his reputation must
now rest :
1. Christ holding the Globe in His right hand.
2. Christ seated, crowned with thorns ; Bartlme Reitter
Pictor. Inv. Monachij 1615.
3. Christ carrying His Cross, group of half-length figures;
Geory Eeham inv. Nonachii. Bart. Reiterfec. 1610.
4. Christ exposed to the People ; inscribed Ecce Homo.
Bart. Beiter pictor figur. Monachij 1612 fee.
5. The Holy Family with St. Francis or St. Jerome,
half-figures, a copy after Palma, with both mono-
6. St. Jerome sitting in a Cavern, half-figure, the lion
on the left : signed Bart. Reytter pictor inv. et excud.
There is an impression signed Bartholome Renter.
7. A Nymph sitting in the lap of a Satyr, Cupid at their
feet ; Bart. Reiter fee. Monachij 1610.
8. Venus holding a Mirror, and seated with Cupid under
a Tree, half figures; Georg. Eecliam inv. B. Reyter
9. Neptune on a Sea-Horse holding his Trident ; Georg
Beham inv. Monachij , with Reiter's mark, and the date
10. A Child seated on a Skull and blowing Bubbles ; B.
R. F. Monachi Zimmermann Excud.
11 18. Eight prints, a series of naked Children in
different positions ; marked B. R.
REITZ, E., a native of Sweden, flourished about
the year 1700. He engraved several plates of
coins and architectural views for a work entitled
' Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna. '
REJHAN, JOZEF, a Polish portrait painter of
German origin, was born in Poland about 1762, and
in structed in the rudiments of art at Warsaw. In
1794 he served in the Polish army, but in 1798 he
settled at Lemberg in Galicia, where he died in
1822, aged sixty. Rejhan was chiefly engaged as
a portrait painter, and in that branch of art
occupies a high position among Polish artists, but
his pictures of the ' Crucifixion ' and the ' Nativity '
in the Lutheran Church and the Church of St.
Anne at Lemberg also show a high conception of
REKTORZIK, FRANZ LORENZ JOSEPH, painter,
born at Briinn in 1793, was at first in the Foreign
Office, and in 1815 was Interpreter at Valence to
the Austrian Governor, and then Director in the
Chancery. He painted without having received
any set instruction, and produced several etchings
of landscapes, animals, and genre pictures.
RELINDE, Abbess of the convent of Alten-
Eyck, near Maeseyck, and her sister HEBLINDE
were skilful illuminators upon parchment and vel-
lum, and flourished in Flanders in the 7th century.
Some specimens of their work are still in exist-
ence in the treasury of the ancient church of
REM, GASPAB, a Flemish painter of little note,
who was born in 1542, and died in 1614. In 1554
one Jasper Rem was inscribed as pupil to Willem
van Cleeve, at Antwerp, and he seems to have be-
longed to a large family of artists. In 1578 Rem
was in Venice, where his portrait was painted by
H. van Aken. Three other painters of this name,
HANS, JOKIS, and LODEWYCK, are mentioned in a
document of 1603, discovered by Mr. Bredius. At
Vienna there are two pictures by Gaspar Rem : a
' St. Jerome in the Desert ' (engraved by Sadeler,
not in 1605 as Nagler says, but in 1603), and a
portrait of himself which is thus signed : A(NN)O
D(OMI)NI MDCXIIII EFFIGIE(S) CASPAR REM ATAT
REMAUT, PIERRE, portrait painter, born at
Bruges in 1771. He studied at the Academy at
Bruges, but without achieving much excellence in
VOL. iv. P
(his art. He died in 1826. At the ' Hppital St.
Jean ' at Bruges there is a portrait by him of one
of the Superiors of the Hospital.
REMAUX, DES, an obscure painter, a native of
Ypres, who practised in Flanders at the end of
the 17th century. In the church of St. Bertin, at
Poperinghe, there is a ' Holy Family ' by him.
REMBOLD, MATTHAUS, was a German engraver,
who flourished about the year 1635 in Dim, and
about 1654 in Stuttgart. His plates are generally
signed with a monogram, but sometimes thus :
Math. Remb. He engraved portraits, amongst
others that of the Duke of Wurtemberg, and he
also executed the architectural plates for Furten-
bach's ' Architecture.'
REMBRANDT. See RUN.
REMEEUS, DAVID, painter, was Dean of the
Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1601.
REMES, CHAP.LES, a Belgian painter, born at
Wetteren, practised in the first part of the 19th
century. There are by him a ' Blind Beggar ' and
a ' M,adonna of the Rosary.'
REMOND, JEAN CHARLES JOSEPH, landscape
painter, born in Paris, 1795, a pupil of Bertin and
of Regnault. He began by painting conventional
heroic landscape, but after travelling much in
France, Italy, and Sicily, he adopted a simpler
and more natural style. He painted many views
of the scenery of Auvergne, Dauphiny, Calabria,
and Sicily. He won the usual honours from the
French Government, and died in Paris in 1875.
REMONDE, (RoiiDNDE, RORMUNDE, ROARMUNDE,)
EVERARD DE, a Flemish portrait painter, the details
of whose life and works are unknown, but who, in
1616, received a commission from the Chambre des
Comptes of Brabant to paint the portraits of Albert
and Isabella. Paul van Somer received a similar
commission at the same time.
REMSDYKE, ANDREW, a portrait painter and
draughtsman of Dutch descent, who practised in
England in the latter part of the 18th century. He
gained a medal at the Society of Arts in 1767,
and assisted his father, John Remsclyke, in a series
of natural history illustrations. He died at Bath
REMSDYKE, JOHN, a natural history draughts-
man, born in Holland in the first half of the 18th
century. He settled at Bristol and worked much
for Dr. Hunter. Assisted by his son, he published,
in 1778, a collection of natural history illustrations
taken from the British Museum.
REMSHARDT, KARL, a German engraver, born
at Augsburg in 1678, published a dictionary of
monograms. His initials, C. ., appear on some
etchings of architecture after Paul Decker. Nagler
mentions several others by him, some of which
are copies from earlier engravings. He died at
Augsburg in 1755.
REMY, AUGUST, painter, was a professor of the
Academy of Berlin, born in 1800 or 1801. He
painted portraits and historical subjects. His best
known work is ' The Fisherman's Wife." He died
at Berlin in 1872. His daughter MARIA REMY,
horn at Berlin, 1829, practised fruit and flower-
REN AN, ARY, French painter ; born in Paris,
1855 ; a pupil of Delaunay, Moreau, and of Puvis
de Chavannes ; son of the famous Ernest Renan ;
exhibited at the Salon in 1880 his 'Portrait de
Mile. N. R.,' and, in 1882, ' Le Plongeur ' ; travelled
in the East, and a Chevalier of the Legion d'Hon-
neur. He died in Paris, August 4, 1900.
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
RENANTO, J., is mentioned as the engraver '
of a wood-cut representing 'The Wise Men's
Offering,' which is very indifferently executed.
RENARD, JEAN, was a French engraver, who
resided in Paris about the year 1710. He executed
some plates for a collection of views of the palace
and park at Versailles.
RENATUS. See BOIVIN, REN.
RENAUD, MARIE HONORS, miniaturist and
painter upon porcelain, was born in Paris, 1797.
Amongst his miniatures we may mention a ' Holy
Family,' after Raphael, and ' Van Dyck painting his
first picture,' after Ducis.
RENAUDIN, ROSALIE, a pupil of Qirodet, prac-
tising in France in the early part of the 19th
century. She painted portraits, flowers, and fruit,
both in oil and water-colour, and occasionally
miniatures. There are by her a ' Sleeping Endy-
mion,' after Girodet, and a 'Zephyrus on the
Waters,' after Prud'hon.
RENDEUX, ENGLEBERT, marine painter, born
at Liege, 1719. He worked for a time under
Joseph Vernet, and eventually became a priest,
and settled in Rome, where he held the office of
almoner to Prince Berzonico. He died in 1777.
RENE of Anjou, King of Naples, Duke of
Lorraine, and Count of Provence (father to Mar-
garet, wife of Henry VI. of England), born in 1409,
was a good painter. He painted his own portrait,
which was extant some years ago in the chapel
of the Carmelites at Aix ; and there is a print from
it in Montfaucon ; he is supposed to have painted
that of Charles VII. of France, also. He painted
a large number of miniatures in missals and on
glass, and was lauded as one of the best artists ol
his age. He also employed himself in writing
poetry, and works on agriculture, and in the im-
provement of the condition of his people, by whom
he was called 'le bon roi Rene 1 .' The events of his
life belong to history. Examples of his works exist
at Aix, Villeneuve near Avignon, and the Hotel de
Cluny. At Aix is an altar-piece consisting of a centre
representing Moses on the ground taking off his
shoes, and the burning bush ; and two shutters, the
left one, his own portrait, with Saints, and the
right one, his second wife, Jeanne de Laval, with
Saints. The work in Cluny ascribed to him is a
curious old picture on panel of ' Mary Magdalene
at Marseilles.' In the foreground appear the figures
of King Ren<5 and his wife Jeanne. Around them
are grouped the Marseillais, in a circle of which the
Magdalen is the centre. She stands upon a tribune
and addresses the assembly. In the background
are the city of Marseilles and the sea. To quote
the words of Cesar Nostradamus (' Hist, et Chron.
de Provence,' edit. 1614), Rene, "besides his
sublime and royal qualities, was a good musician,
a very good poet both in French and Italian, and
above all things loved, with a passionate love, the
art of painting, and had so excellent a taste for
that noble profession, that he was famous among
the most excellent painters and illuminators of his
time, as we may judge from the number of
masterpieces achieved by his royal and divine hand."
He died at Aix in 1480.
RENEDO, JDAH DE, an engraver of Zaragoza,
executed in 1666 a bold title-page adorned with
heraldic and allegorical devices for Diego de Sayas
Rabanera's ' Anales de Aragon.'
RENESSE, CONSTANTIN ADRIAN, was a clever
designer and etcher, of whose history nothing is
known, except what may be gathered from hie
prints. These bear a considerable resemblance to
the etchings of Rembrandt, and may be mistaken
by the unwary for the works of that master.
Bartsch has admitted one in his Catalogue (torn,
ii. p. 104, No. 18). Renesse flourished, as we know
from his prints, between the years 1649 and 1661 ;
the probability is t'^at he lived in Holland, though
Ins name may belong to France, or Flanders.
Nagler describes six etchings by him, of which
the titles are given below ; but Brulliot says there
are eleven, and that one bears his monogram
(C. A. R. in a cipher), and this he supposes is
the artist's portrait ; it represents a half-length
figure of a man, full face, wearing a ' baret,' seated
at a table and holding a basin in his left hand.
The other prints have, most of them, the mono-
gram accompanied by enesse. Dutch writers men-
tion a J. Renesse, who painted landscapes and sea-
pieces, and who is probably identical with this
The following list of Renesse's prints is taken
from Nagler :
A half-length figure of a Man seated at a table ; with
A Clergyman seated at a table, with books, &c. ; signed
A half-length figure of a young Man.
Full-face Portrait of a young Man, with long hair
escaping from under his cap; signed C. A. Renesse,
Christ bearing His Cross.
A Village Fair, with Mountebanks and a crowd of
RENI, GDIDO, commonly called " GDIDO," was
horn at Calvenzano, near Bologna, in 1575. His
father, a musician, failing to persuade his son to
follow in his own profession, placed him at the
age of ten with Denis Calvaert, the Antwerp
painter, then living at Bologna, and nine years
later in the rival studio of the Carracci. He also
studied fresco painting with Ferrantini. To this
period belonged some frescoes in Count Zani's
palace, now skilfully removed and in possession
of Mr. R. Bankes at Kingston Lacy ; some
frescoes in San Michele in Bosco, now unhappily
effaced, and two of his earliest collective pictures
(now preserved in the Pinacoteca of his native
town), ' The Massacre of the Innocents ' and ' The
Coronation of the Virgin.' About the end of the
century Guido accompanied Annibale Carracci to
Rome to help in the decoration of the Farnese
Palace, the peculiar field of labour in that city of
the Bolognese painters. How extensive was the
work of Guido there it is impossible to define, as
' Perseus and Andromeda ' and ' Galatea ' can only
be identified, the original cartoon for these two
works being in the National Gallery. Soon after
his arrival at Rome he came under the influence
of Caravaggio, whose jealousy he roused by the
clever imitation of his naturalistic compositions.
He also added the study of Raphael to the know-
ledge he had already acquired, and shortly painted
what is usually considered his finest piece, ' Aurora
preceding the Chariot of Apollo,' on the ceiling of
the garden pavilion of the Palazzo Rospigliosi.
His next work was for his constant friend and
patron, Pope Paul V., in the decoration of his
chapel in the Quirinal Palace and in the Borghese
chapel in Sta. Maria Novella, preceded by a ' St.
Cecilia 3 in one of the old Trastevere churches,
and the 'Crucifixion of St. Peter,' now in the
Vatican. ' St. Michael,' in the Capucini church,
and the 'Ariadne and Fortuna' in the Academy
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
of S. Lucia, are also among his most celebrated
works of this period ; but Rome is not rich in
works by this master, who spent the best years of
his life there, and is reported by Oretti to have
painted eighty-three frescoes and pictures for
that city. He paid several visits to Bologna and
the other northern towns of Italy, and also spent
some time at Naples in 1621, but, like so many
other artists, was driven away by the jealousy of
the Neapolitans, leaving unfinished what many
consider his probable masterpiece, a ' Nativity '
in S. Martino.
Soon after this period Guido finally gave up the
pronounced energetic style of his youth and the
dark heavy shadows acquired later from his study
of Caravaggio's work, and adopted what is
usually described as his third style. The special
characteristics of this was a preference for more
neutral tints, a thinness of impasto, and extreme
facility and rapidity of execution ; while gradually
the tragic representation of voluptuous and pas-
sionate emotion gained upon him, until the latter
years of his life passed at Bologna saw innumer-
able 'Cleopatras,' 'Lucretias' and ' Magdalens '
from his brush, which, though chiefly founded on
his earlier classic studies, unfortunately detract
from instead of enhancing the value of his fame.
His often-repeated ' Ecce Homos,' resembling the
Laocoon, his penitent ' Magdalens,' recalling the
weeping Niobe, also belong to this period of his
art. Rapidity of execution in a measure accounts
for this uncertainty in his work. A manuscript
is in existence by Oretti which contains a list of
four hundred works by Guido, many indeed the
result of his youthful industry, but the later pro-
ductions influenced by the necessity of gaining
money through difficulties arising from his great
love of gambling, when one of his creditors is
reported to have sat over him watch in hand
while he executed work by the hour for him. He
died, beset by fears, troubles, and debts, in 1642.
At his best the paintings of Guido are admirable.
As a painter, the purity of his early colouring, the
dramatic force of his prime, are superb, while
as an engraver he was bold and free in execution,
and showed the same quality of grace as we find
in his pictures. He sometimes marked his plates
with his initials G. B., and sometimes with this
monogram \_J^- His pictures are difficult to
identify, yet a few marked traits may guide
the careful observer. He usually designed his
faces with large eyes, the nostrils somewhat
closed, the mouth very small, especially when
depicting female beauty. The hands are often
rather unfinished, and the feet are characterized
by the toes being rather closely joined, while
some of his figures, especially in his mythological