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eubjects, are marked by a shortness of the leg,
especially of the thigh, that detracts from their
grace and symmetry. In his own day Guido
was one of the most popular artists, as the many
songs and eulogies written in his honour testify,
while his ateliers in both Rome and Bologna were
largely attended. The following are among his
best-known pupils: Giacomo Semenza, Francesco
Gessi, Guido Cagnacci, the Sirani, father and
daughter, Simone Contarini de Pesaro, Flaminio
Torre, Marescotti, Girolamo Rossi, Rugieri, Do-
menico Canuti, Bolognini and Pietro Ricci, all of
whom are well represented in the Gallery at
Bologna. Guide's works are to be found in most
P 2

Brunswick. Ducat Pal.
Brussels. Gallery.

Buda Pesth. Hone/raise

Darmstadt. Gallery,
Dresden. Gallery.

of the well-known Galleries of Europe and in
many of the churches and palaces of Italy. A fair
number have found their way to the private
collections in England, although during the latter
part of the 19th century the works of this artist
have not been in so great demand as they were in
the 17th and 18th centuries, when they fetched
unusually high prices. According to Siret, a ' St.
Joseph ' changed hands for 7900 florins, while so
late as 1861 a 'St. James' was sold at Christie's
for 1312 10s. Space only permits us to enume-
rate below the best-known and most accessible of
Guide's numerous pictures.

Antwerp. Church of St. ) A Mater Do i orosa .

Jacques. )

,, Wruyts Gallery. A Madonna.
Berlin. Museum. The Hermits.

Mater Dolorosa.



Madonna della Pieta.

The Massacre of the Innocents.

Christ on the Cross.

Samson victorious.

A Votive Banner.

Andrea Corsini.

St. Sebastian.

Coronation of the Blessed

Ecce Homo.

Procris and Cephalus.

Flight into Egypt.

A Sibyl.

? Lucretia.

Penitent Magdalen.

The Infant Christ.

Venus and Cupid.

St. Francis d'Assisi.

An Ecce Homo.

A Holy Family.

Ninus and Semiramis.

Madonna, with St. Crespin and

St. Crespinian.
St. Jerome.

Coronation of the Virgin.
Youthful Christ and St. John.
St. Jerome.
The Magdalen.
Ecce Homo.
Lot and his Daughter.
Susannah and the Elders.
Cartoons : Perseus and Andro-
meda; Galatea.

,, Dulwich. St. John preaching.

Death of Lucretia.

,, Europa.

,, Hertford House. Virgin and Child, with St.


., Edinburgh Gall. Venus and the Graces.
Hampton Court. Ecce Homo.
Windsor Castle. Cleopatra and the Asp.
St. Sebastian.

St. Catherine.

A folio of Cartoons.

, Sta/ord House. Portrait of his Mother.
, The Circumcision.

, Eace of Alalanta.

, Head of the Magdalen.

ridqewater~l . ,

^ZT [ Archangel.
House. )

, The Infant Christ asleep on

the Cross.

, Kedleston. Ariadne and Bacchus,

, Andromeda.

Sleeping Cupid.

Temple Newsam. St. John the Baptist.

.. St. Margaret, with the Dragon.

Lowther Castle. St. Francis in Prayer.
Blair Castle, Assumption.


England. Nat. Gallery


England. Blair Castle.

,, Saltram.

fi'orthwich Park.

, Burghley House.

Kingston Lacy.
Charlton Park.


Elmore Court.



Alton Towers.


Lady Wantage's '

Fano. St. Peters. '

Florence. f . //'-'

Pitti Gallery.

JBuonarotti Gall.
Forli. St. Gerolamo.
Genoa. Palazzo Rosso.

Gotha. Friedensteln Pal.



Loreto. Santa Casa.
Lucca. Mansi Gal/eri/.
Madrid. Gallery.

Mayence. Electoral Pal.
Milan. Ambrosiana.


Ecce Homo.

St. Veronica?

Head of an Old Man.

St. Faith.

Angel appearing to St. Jerome.

Head of St. Peter.


St. Philip de Neri.

St. Peter, head and shoulders.

Virgin with the dead Christ.

Virgin and Child.

Angel's Head.

Head of the Virgin.

Herodias with John the Bap-
tist's head in a charger.

Head of a Youth.

Woman's head and shoulders.

Boy and Pigeon.

St. Jerome.

St. Matthew.

Virgin and Child.

Sibyl (and four others).

Night, Dawn and Day.

A Nativity or Adoration of the

Ecce Homo.

Four pictures : St. Matthew,
St. Mark, St. Luke, St.


St. Francis in the Desert.

Europa and the Bull.

Modesty and Liberality.

St. Francis.

Venus stealing Cupids.

St. Catherine.


A Bishop.

Boy's Head and St. John the

Holy Family.

Madonna and Child.

Massacre of the Innocents.


The Annunciation.

St. Sebastian.

Madonna in Contemplation.

Madonna and Holy Child.

Cumjean Sibyl.

Susanna and the Elders.



St. Peter weeping.


Portrait of an Old Man.

Rebecca at the Well.

St. Paul.

Madonna and Angels.

The Virgin Praying.

A Magdalen.

The Saviour holding the Globe.

A Penitent Magdalen.

An Assumption.

St. Sebastian.

A Sleeping Child.

An Ecce Homo.

A Boy with a Dove's Nest.

St. Laurence.

The Discreet Cupid.

A Madonna.

St. John.

David with the head of


Martyrdom of St. Andrew.
St. James.

Portrait of a Young Girl.
Madonna a la chaise Magdalen.
Martyrdom of St. Sebastian.

The Kape of Europa.
St. Paul and St. Peter.

Milan. Ambrosiana.

Modena. Ducal Pa/ace.



Naples. St. Philip Neri.

S. Martina.

Paris. Louvre.



Petersburg. Hemitage.

An Old Man's head and
shoulders (unfinished).

An Ecce Homo.

St. Roch in Prison.

Christ on the Cross.

Purification of the Holy Virgin.

The Holy Trinity.

The Assumption of the Virgin.

Apollo flaying Marsyas.

St. Francis d'Assisi.

The Nativity (unfinished).

David and Goliath.

Virgin and Child.

Ecce Homo.

The Magdalen.

Life of Hercules (four scenes

Rape of Helen.

Holy Family.

St. Sebastian.

St. John the Baptist.

A Circumcision.
The Seamstresses (originally
called ' The Virgin at School').

Adoration of the Shepherds.
St. Jerome.
St. Peter.

The Repose in Egypt.
Adoration of St. Francis.
Heavenly and Earthly Love.

Falling of the Manna.
Elijah in the Desert.
Crucifixion of St. Peter.
Madonna in Glory.
Frescoes from the Life of


A Redeemed Spirit.
A Cupid playing with a


Ariadne and Bacchus.
An Old Man.
Head of an Angel.
The Adoring Virgin.
Three Ecce Homos.
The Magdalen.
St. Agnes.
The Cenci, or Head of


So-called Stepmother.
St. Sebastian.

Details of Head.
Head of St. Joseph.
The Annunciation.
St. Andrew adoring the

The Almighty, with a cluster

of Angels (fresco).

I The Crucifixion.

) St. Michael and the Dragon.

Pisa. Gallery.

Potsdam. New Palace.

Ravenna. Cathedral.


Rome. Vatican.

,, Capitol Gallery.
,, S. Lucca Gallery.

,, ,,

Corsini Gallery.

Sciarra Gallery.

Colonna Palace.

Earberini Palace.

Pal. Conservator!.

Pal. Rospigliosi.



St. Gregory.

S -


St Mafaiore } The Immaculate Conception.

Schleissheim. Chateau. Fortuna.

Toilet of Venus.

Siena. Ch. of Martino. A Circumcision.

Collection, full-length Figures.

Stuttgart. Gallery. St. Sebastian.

Turin. Gallery. Group of Cupids.


Turin. Gallery. St. John the Baptist.

B ' Lucretia.


Venice. Palazzo San- ) Descent f rom the Cross.

nario. j

Vienna. Liechtenstein ) j hn the Baptist .
Gallery. $

The Magdalen.

St. Jerome.

Weimar. Museum. Cartoons. D.RiM.

Guido has left a considerable number of etchings.
They are free and bold in execution, and show the
same qualities of grace that we find in his pictures.
Simone Contarini, one of Guide's pupils, imitated
his work with the point with skill. The following
are perhaps his best plates :

The Bast of Pope Paul V., inscribed Paulus V. Pont.

opt. max.
The Holy Family, in which the Virgin is seated, with

her face towards the Infant Christ.
The Virgin, with the Infant Jesus sleeping on her breast.

(He has engraved this subject in three different

The Virgin embracing the Infant Christ, and holding a

book in her hand.
The Virgin, and Infant Jesus giving His hand to St.

The Holy Family, with two Angels scattering flowers.

(He engraved this subject four times, with variations.)
St. Christopher carrying the Infant Jesus on his

St. Jerome praying in a Cave, with a book and a

The Virgin seated in the Clouds, with St. George, St.

Francis, St. Lawrence, and others.


A Glory of Angels ; after Luca CamUaso.
The Entombment of Christ ; after Parmigiano.
The Holy Family, with St. Clara ; after A. Carracn.
The Virgin suckling the Infant Jesus ; after the same
The Charity of St. Koch ; after the same. 1610.


RENNOLDSON, , was an engraver, who prac-
tised in mezzotint in London in the middle of th
18th century. His best known plate is 'The
Dancing-Mistress,' after John Collet.

RENODI, ABRAHAM, an obscure portrait painter
born at the Hague, practising in Holland at thi
close of the 18th century.

RENOU, ANTOINE, a French painter, poet, am
aotor, born in Paris in 1731, was a scholar o
Pierre and Vien, and passed some time at the
court of Stanislaus, King of Poland, as painter t<
that prince ; and at the same time exercised hi
talents as an actor and writer of verses. On hi
return to Paris he was admitted a member of the
Academy of Painting, and was employed on par
of the ceiling of the Apollo Gallery in the Louvre
He was the author of a tragedy on the subject o
Tereus and Philomela, and translated Dufresnoy'
poem on Painting from Latin into French. H
also painted a picture of 'Christ among th'
Doctors;' 'Agrippina with the Ashes of Ger
manicus ; ' an ' Annunciation ' for the church o
St. Germain-en-Laye, and the ceiling of the Hote
de la Monnaie at Paris. Renou died in Paris i

wife of Antoine Renou, was born in Paris in 175-
There are by her a few plates engraved after th
modern French painters ; among which is :

Alexander and his Physician ; after Colin de I'ermont

RENOUF, EMILE, French painter ; born in Paris,
une 23, 1845 ; a pupil of Boulanger, Lefebvre, and
arolus Duran ; made his debut at the Salon in
870 with ' Environs de Honfleur,' a subject which
e repeatedly painted. His ' Dernier radoub '
vas engraved and subsequently bought by the
tate. Other famous pictures of his are: 'La
^euve' (in the Quimper Museum), 'Coup de
Iain' (1889), ' Un Orage en Her' (1894), and | Le
D ilote' (in the Rouen Museum). He visited
America, where he painted an important picture,
Brooklyn Bridge,' now in the Havre Museum.
le was a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour,
btained a second-class medal in 1880, and a gold
nedal in 1889, besides a first-class medal at the
lunich Academy. He died at Havre in May 1894.
RENOUX, CHARLES CAIUS, a French landscape
ainter, was born in Paris in 1795, and died there
n 1846. He painted landscape and interiors.
?here are by him the following :

Monks bearing a Coffin.
Subterranean Church at Basle.
View on the Durance.

RENTINCK, ARENT, or AART, a Dutch painter
of portraits and genre, was born at Amsterdam in
;712. He was a pupil of Arnold van Boonen and
of Nicolaas Verkolje. Later on he studied under
xarel de Moor. He spent many years at Berlin,
and there he died in 1775. He painted many good
copies from the old masters, and also practised as
an engraver.

RENTINCK, JAN, a Dutch painter, born at
Nieuwerbrug, near Bodegraven, in 1789. He was
a pupil of P. C. Wonder, and of Jan van Ravensz-
waay, and painted chiefly interiors and still-life.
He died in 1846.

RENTON, JOHN, an English portrait and land-
scape painter, who exhibited at the Royal Academy
from 1799 to 1840. He contributed altogether
some forty pictures, one of which was a ' Charles
I. raising his Standard at Nottingham.' In the
year 1840 he sent some intaglios to the exhibition,
after which all trace of him is lost.

and engraver, was born at Nuremberg in 1701,
where he studied under Preisler and Montalegre.
He executed several plates for books, some, by
himself, others in conjunction with Montalegre.
He settled in after life at Kukus in Bohemia,
where he had been invited by a Count Spork,
whose portrait he had painted, and where he died
in 1758.

RICH JAKOB, painter, born at Dresden in 1792,
studied under J. Schubert, and became professor
of drawing at the industrial school at Dresden.
His works are well drawn and warm in colour.
The best known are an altar-piece for a votive
chapel, ' Hagar in the Wilderness,' and ' Gretchen
at the Distaff,' the latter engraved by Kiichler.

RENZI, CESARIO, an historical painter of little
note, born at San Ginesio in Italy. He was a
pupil of Guido, aud practised late in the 17th

REQUENA, VINCENTE, a Spanish painter oi the
16th century, born at Concentayna. In 1590 he
was practising at Valencia. He painted the ' Con-
ception,' and the ' SS. Jerome and Anne,' in the
church of the monastery of San Miguel de los
Reyes. A ' St. Michael ' in the convent of San
Domingo has also been attributed to him.


RESANI, ARCANGELO, was born at Rome in
1670, and was a scholar of Gio. Battista Boncuore.
He chiefly excelled in painting animals and hunt-
ing-scenes. His works were highly esteemed at
Siena, Bologna, and Venice. His portrait, with
dead game in the background, is in the Florentine
Gallery. He died about 1740.

RESCH, ERNST, painter, born at Dresden in
1808, painted portraits and landscapes, and trained
excellent pupils. He died at Breslau in 1864.

RESCH, JOSEF, German painter; born at Munich
in 1819 ; chiefly painted landscapes and archi-
tectural exteriors, such as ' Kostthor mit dem
Schuldthurm, 1 ' Munchen,' ' Marktplatz von Pes-
chiera ' ; also portraits of Dahn, the actor, and
King Maximilian II. Died at Munich, April 19,

RESCH, WOLFGANG, was a German engraver on
wood, who flourished at Nuremberg about 1530.
He executed the woodcuts for ' Ein schoner Dia-
logue, oder Gesprach von zweyen Schwestern,'
1533, a half-length portrait of Jacob Fugger, and
heads in profile of the Emperors Maximilian I. and
Charles V. His works are described in Bartsch's
' Peintre-Graveur,' vii. 473, and Passavant's
' Peintre-Graveur,' iii. 252.

RESCHI, PANDOLFO, born at Dantzic in 1643,
went to Italy when he was young, and became one
of the ablest scholars of Giacomo Borgognone.
He painted battle-pieces with considerable success,
and imitated cleverly the landscapes of Salvator
Rosa. He also excelled in painting perspective
and architectural views, of which there are several
in the collections at Florence. He died in 1699.

RESTALLINO, CARLO, miniature painter, born
at Zornasco (Domo d'Ossola) in 1776, in early life
went to Munich, and there studied engraving
under J. Dorner and M. Klotz. After that he
visited Dresden, Berlin, and Italy. In 1808 he
was appointed court painter at Munich, and in
1 820 teacher to the household of Maximilian Joseph.
There are portraits by him of King Maximilian
and Queen Caroline. He died at Munich in 1864.

KESTLEIN, GEOBG, painter and engraver, an
obscure German artist, who practised in the 17th
century, and was born at Zwabach, near Nurem-

RESTOUT, JEAN, 'the elder,' painter, born at
Caen, 1663, the son and pupil of Marc Restout,
and father of the more famous Jean Restout the
younger. He had a fair reputation in his day as
an historical painter, and his wife CATHERINE, the
sister of Jean Jouvenet, also practised painting.
He died in 1702.

RESTOUT, JEAN, 'the younger,' was born at
Rouen in 1692, and studied in Paris under his uncle,
Jouvenet, whose style he followed with considerable
success. He was a member of the Academy of
Paris, and painted for his reception, ' Venus getting
arms from Vulcan for j^neas,' and for his admission
as Fellow, ' Arethusa flying into the arms of Diana
to escape from the pursuit of Alpheus.' In 1733
he was made professor, and in 1760 a director
of the Academy. As a technical artist he was
characterized by a soft, woolly touch, by design in
which there was little nobility, and by drawing in
which there was much mannerism. His colour,
too, was poor. He died in Paris in 1768. His
principal works are :



Husee. St. John the Baptist adoring

Music. Christ on the way to Emmaus.

Musee. Portrait of the architect, Bof-

rand (?).

Louvre. Christ healing the paralytic.
St. Paul before the High Priest,



RESTOUT, JEAN BERNARD, painter, the son of
Jean Restout the younger, born in Paris, 1732.
He was the pupil of his father, to whom he was
greatly inferior in talent. He attained, however,
to a respectable proficiency in his art, gained the
' Prix de Rome ' in 1758, and was made an Acade-
mician in 1769. He resigned his membership in
1771, in consequence of certain regulations which
were distasteful to him, and after this time almost
abandoned the practice of his profession. Some
suspicion having fallen upon him in connection
with the affair of the ' Garde-Meuble,' he was
thrown into prison, but the events of the 9th
Thermidor led to his release. He died in Paris
in 1797. There is in Paris a ' St. Bruno ' by him,
and in the Museum at Toulouse a ' Diogenes,' and
a sketch for his reception picture at the Academy,
the ' Philemon and Baucis.'

RESTOUT, MARC, painter, was born at Caen in
1616, and was a pupil of Noel Jouvenet. His
father was one Marguerin Restout. He visited
Rome in company with Poussin, and acquired a
certain reputation in that city and in Holland. He
was the first of the Restout family of artists ; several
of his ten children became painters. He died at
Caen in 1684. Amongst his sons were : EUSTACHE,
born at Caen, 1655. He became Premonstrant of
the abbey of Mondaye, practised decorative paint-
ing, executed some fine ceilings, and died in 1743.
JACQUES, born before 1655. He was a pupil of Letel-
Her de Vernon, and became prior of the abbey of
Moncel, near Vitry. He was a painter and a writer.
JEAN (the elder), q. v. CHARLES, the fifth son,
born at Caen in 1668, became a Benedictine monk.
He was a good preacher, and painted ceilings and
pictures for churches. THOMAS, born at Caen, 1671,
visited Rome and Holland to study his art, and
practised portrait painting. He died at Caen in

RETHEL, ALFRED, born at Aix-la-Chapelle,
May 15, 1816. His precocious talent displayed
itself in drawings made in his childhood, and at
the age of thirteen he went to study at Diissel-
dorf. There he astonished his masters and fellow-
pupils by the vigour of his invention, especially on
the occasion of the gala reception given to Schadow
on his return to Diisseldorf. Afterwards, in 1837,
being dissatisfied with the poverty of the technical
system there taught, he migrated to Frankfort,
where he came under the influence of Schwind,
Passavant, and, above all, of Philip Veit. At
Frankfort he painted his ' Daniel,' his ' Justitia,'
and three emperor pictures for the Romersaal
(Philip of Swabia, Maximilian I. and II., and
Charles V.), besides making the cartoon for his
' Resurrection.' In 1841 his projet gained the
prize in the competition for the decoration of the
' Kaisersaal ' at Aix-la-Chapelle. It was a series of
ambitious designs of much merit, representing in-
cidents in the career of Charlemagne. After pre-
paring himself by a two years' sojourn in Italy for
their execution, he completed four pictures of the
series, when his health failed, and he was obliged
to relinquish the work. It was finally completed
by Kehren. Whilst engaged on his frescoes at Aix-
la-Chapelle, Rethel also made some bizarre drawings


for a 'Dance of Death,' to which Reinick wrote
verses. Another fantastic composition was a set
of water-colour drawings illustrative of Hannibal's
passage of the Alps. In 1848 Rethel went to
Dresden, where he remained a few years. In 1852
he made a second pilgrimage to Italy, where he
began to show symptoms of mental disorder.
After his return to Dresden his malady made rapid
progress, and he ended his days in an asylum at
Diisseldorf, where he died, December 1, 1859.
Among his works we may name :

Procession of the Longobards.

Charles Martel's Castle.


Rudolf of Hapsburg.

The Swiss in prayer before the Battle of Sempach.

St. Boniface. (National Gallery, Berlin)

Daniel in the Lion's Den. (Frankfort, Stddel Museum.)


Peter and John healing the lame man. (Leipsig Hfuseum.)

Joshua crossing the Jordan.

The Crowning of Sophocles.

The Burial of Frauenlob.

And a set of Illustrations for Luther's Hymn, ' Bin"
feste Burg.'

Five of the cartoons for the Charlemagne series
are in the Berlin National Gallery, also the cartoon
for the altar-piece, ' The Resurrection,' in the
Nicolaikirche at Frankfort. Rethel also etched,
and drew much on the wood. He wished to breathe
new life into the latter art, on the lines followed
by Diirer.

RETZSCH, AUGUST, brother of Moritz Retzsch,
born in 1777, was a pupil of Klengel, and painted
winter landscapes. He died in 1835.

draughtsman and painter, born at Dresden, Decem-
ber 9, 1779. He studied in the Dresden Academy,
which he entered in 1798, and of which he was
elected a member in 1816, and professor in 1824.
It was not till he was about twenty years of age
that he applied himself seriously to the study of
painting ; for though he had previously some skill
as a designer, he disliked all restraint, and would
have preferred following the bent of his genius as
a haunter of the forests, and as a student of nature
in solitude. His fame does not rest on his work
with the brush, but on his illustrations to the
German poets and to Shakespeare, which he inter-
preted with extraordinary vigour and sympathy.
As a portrait painter he was successful, especially
with his likenesses ; one of his best is a portrait of
King Friedrich August of Saxony. The Dresden
Gallery possesses a portrait of a lady by him.
Retzsch died at Hoflossnitz, near Dresden, June 11,
1857. His principal engraved works are :

Twenty-six illustrations to Goethe's ' Faust.' (1828.)

Sixteen Schiller's ' Fight with the


Eight ., 'Fridolin.'

Forty-three ' Song of the Bell.'

Eighteen ' Pegasus in Har-


Eighty Shakespeare. 18271846.

Fifteen ,, Burger's Ballads.

Eight ' Fantasien und Wahrheiten.'

The Chess-player.

The Goblet.

Faust and Margaret. (Two lithographs.')

painter ; born at Chemnitz in 1868 ; pupil of
Pauwels at Dresden ; obtained gold medal at
Dresden Fine Art Exhibition in 1888, and the
large ditto in 1889. Among his best-known can-
vases are ' Strassenleben,' ' Sonntagsmorgen, 1

' Mondschein,' and a portrait of King Albert of
Saxony. He died at Dresden in 1898.


painter and etcher, born at Rosthof in Livonia in
1791. He entered the Alexander regiment of
Hussars, and at Leipsic in 1813 lost his right arm.
He had made his first essay in drawing in 1814,
while in 1817 he studied in Berlin, in 1819 in
Heidelberg, in 1821 in Dorpat. In 1827 he devoted
himself entirely to art, and painted in water-colours
scenes of Hessian peasant life. In 1834 he went
to Diisseldorf, where he studied under Schadow
and Hildebrand. Afterwards he painted historical
scenes, landscapes, and genre pictures, and in 1835
became Russian court painter. He died at Frank-
fort (where he had settled in 1844) in 1865. His
principal works are :

The Sacrifice of Isaac. (In the Hermitage at St. Peters-

St. George.

A Madonna.

Three Singers. (Palace of Tsarskoe-Selo.)

Girl Knitting.

The Infant School.

Family Devotion. (In the collection of the German

He also etched eleven plates, mostly of animals.

JOHANN CONRAD, is mentioned by Strutt as the
engraver of some plates of foliage, and other orna-
mental designs, published at Augsburg ; he was a
goldsmith, and lived in the first half of the 17th

REUVEN, PIETER, born at Leyden in 1650,
studied at Antwerp in the school of Jacob Jordaens.
He painted history and allegorical subjects, and

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